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THE     PANDEX 


THE  PRESIDENT'S  MESSAGE 


In  accordance  with  its  annual  custom, 
The  Pandex  of  The  Press  publishes  in  this 
number  the  full  text  of  the  President's 
Message  to  Congress,  it  being  the  only  one 
of  the  standard  periodicals  to  afford  its 
readers  this  privilege. 

Much  demand  for  the  issue  containing 
the  Message  having  arisen  heretofore  after 
the  issue  has  been  exhausted  it  has  been 
arranged  to  reprint  the  text  under  a 
separate  cover  for  so  many  as  may  wish 
to  preserve  it  in  that  form. 

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Message,  therefore,  may  be  had  by  sending 
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Francisco.  The  pamphlet  will  also  contain 
the  best  cartoons  on  the  Message. 


170010 


THE  PANDEX  OF  THE  PRESS 


Edited  by  Arthur  I.  Street 


INDEX    TO    CONTENTS 


Series  II. 


JANUARY,  1907 


Vol.  V,  No.  1 


<30VER — Standard    Oil    Inquiry — Adapted    from 
\he  Cleveland   Plain-Dealer. 

FRONTISPIECE  —  The      Handwriting     on      the 
Wall — Chicago    Tribune. 

EDITORIAL — Rising  above  the  State 1 

ALL,  ALONG  THE  LINE 11 

Roosevelt  Wouldn't  Hear 11 

Suits  Against  the  Standard 12 

Old  Check  on  Harriman 14 

Strikes   Three  Big  Systems 14 

Light  on  Coal   Frauds 16 

Caused  the  Fuel  Famine 18 

Light  on  Railway  Dividends IS 

Car  Famine  up  for  Inquiry 19 

Indictments  Hit  Four  Railroads 20 

Grip  of  Lumber  Trust ; 22 

Trust   in  Gunpowder  Next 22 

Move   on   Smelter  Company 23 

After    Turpentine    Trust 23 

Burn  Tobacco   Factories 23 

TRANSFORMATION    IN    NEW    YORK 24 

CORRECTING   A  MISAPPREHENSION — Verse.  26 

IN  A  NEW  SPIRIT 27 

Corporations  Raise  Wages 28 

Pays   Uncalled-for   Taxes 28 

Chicago  Roads  to  Make  Raise 28 

Ryan  Leaves  Companies 29 

Attacks  Money  Practices 30 

Points  to  a  Trust  Curb 32 

Wants  Justice  for  Railways 32 

Defense  of  Standard  Oil 34 

Wings  Sprouting  on  John  D 34 

350,000  Workmen  Needed 35 

Labor   Adopts    Policy 35 

From  Napkins  to  Oatmeal 35 

OWN  THEIR  OWN  COLLIERIES 36 

SONG  OF  THE  PLOW — Verse 38 

BROADER   THAN    NATIONALITY 39 

Foreign  Complexities  Confronted 40 

National  Trade  Hits   Snags 40 

Canada  Balks  at  Mall 40 

Offers  a  Tariff  Sop 42 

German  Meat  Duty  Hurts 42 

To  Send  Poor  to  United  States 42 


In  a  Diplomatic  Duel 44 

Coast  Has  a  Solution 45 

Asiatic  Hordes   Elsewhere 45 

Hindoos    Invade   Canada 45 

Trying  to  Make  111  Feeling 46 

Japan  Not  after  Java 47 

Knows   Japan's    Defenses 4S 

Complications  with   Mexico 4S 

Problem  Is  World  Vexatious 49 

America  Gets  into  the  Congo 50 

May  Lose  Big  Colony 51 

Move  to  Overthrow  Sultan 51 

Bet'ween  Germany  and  Turkey 51 

Russia  in  Shah's  Kingdom 52 

Austrian   Succession  a  Problem 52 

First  School  for  Diplomats 54 

A  New  Idea  in  Warfare 54 

ELEMENTS    OF    GOVERNMENT 55 

Plan  for  the  Currency 55 

Asks  Power  Against  Trusts 56 

Propose    Federal    Licenses 56 

More   Battleships   Needed 57 

Condition  of  the  Finances 57 

Anent  the   Money   Stringency 5S 

Tussles  in  Congress.  The 60 

Fight  Against  Child  Labor 62 

Tariff  Revision   after  1908 62 

Revision  of  the  Laws 63 

THE  HUMOR  OF  IT — Verse 64 

SEEKING    A    SAFEGUARD 65 

Plan  for  Great  Sea  Canal 65 

Fifty  Millions   for  Waterways 66 

President   Promises   Aid 66 

Hill  Favors  Gulf  Canal 66 

To  Deepen  Ohio  River 67 

Dream  of  Maritime  Empire •  •  ■  ■  68 

President  and  Panama  Canal 73 

Shifts  the  Canal  Heads 73 

AWAY  FROM   ALL  REBATES 75 

Airships  in  Eery  Home 75 

Maxim  Confirms  the  Hope 76 

Professor  Bell  Also  Optimistic 70 

Santos-Dumont    Resentful 78 

France    Builds   War    Fleet 79 

British   Are   Alarmed 79 

Woman  Invents  a  Ship 80 

VERSE S** 

Old  Sheep  Wagon,  The 
Heartless  Sheila  Shea. 


ON  THE  BASIS  OP  THE  SOU, 81 

Farmers'  Loan   Bill  Passed 81 

Epic  of  Farming-.  An 82 

They  Make   Railroads   Rich 83 

Weapon  for  War  Time.  A 83 

New  Variety  of  Alfalfa 83 

Artificial  Vegetables 84 

Canning  Industry.   The 84 

Wealth  In  the  Prickly  Pear 84 

New  Land  of  Corn  Found 85 

Cotton  Clogs  Its  Road 86 

Raise  Chickens  or  Go 85 

To  Saw  the  Prairie  Sod 86 

Breeding  a  Setless  Hen 88 

PRESIDENT'S    MESSAGE,    POINTS    FROM 90 

PRESIDENT'S    MESSAGE,   IN   FULL, 92 

DRAMATIZING   THE    TIMES 114 

Love.  Labor,  and  Capital 114 

Drama  of  Love  and  Politics 115 

Gossip  Costs  Four  Lives 116 

Forgets  Castellane  Case 116 

Rabbi  Upholds  a  Play 117 

Mud-rakes  Medical   Profession 118 

Japanese   Dream   Play 118 

Realism  at  Worst  in  Berlin 119 

Courted  by  Mail  Bight  Years 120 

Woman  Lashed  to  Wheel 120 


Chance  Freed  Him  from  Prison 122 

Calls  Love  a  Dream 122 

New    Marriage    Solution 123 

Still  a  Queen — of  Dreams 124 

PARENTS       BECOME       GYPSIES       TO       r-'HD 

STOLEN    DAUGHTER    126 

A  THANKSGIVING  INQUIRY — Verse 129 

NEED  OF  A   DEEPER  TONE 128 

Religion  Needed  for  Reform 129 

Dawn  of  a  New  Religion 131 

Storm  about  Mr.s.  Eddy 131 

Whistling  Girl   In   Church 133 

To  Care  for  the  Babies 134 

Religion  of  the  Occult 134 

Objects    to   Thanksgiving 135 

On  the  Trail  of  the  Missionary 136 

I.OVE  IN  THE  CAR — Verse 140 

FOR    PREVENTING    SUICIDE 140 

I-AST   COWBOY,   THE 144 

VERSE  AND   HUMOR 150 

ERRATUMi — Thru  an  error  In  the  making-up  of 
the  December  Pandex,  the  frontispieces  failed  to 
receive  credit   from   the  New   York  Herald. 


•    PUBUSHED  THE  RRST  OF  EACH  MONTH  BY 

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rilE     I'ANDEX 


BEHNKE-WALKER 

PORTLAND'S    LEADING 

BUSINESS  COLLEGE 


Elks  Building       -  -  -      Portland,  Ore. 


Our  Attendance    at    the   Present    Time    is  Fifty -Seven 

Per    Cent.     Greater    than    that    of   the 

Same  Date  Last   Year 

OUR  $15,000  EQUIPMENT  IS  UNSURPASSED 
FACULTY,  THE  STRONGEST  PROCURABLE 

The  proprietors  are  teachers  and  business  men,  having  worked  in 
various  capacities,  thereby  combining  theory  with  practice.  In  this 
manner  you  receive  the  most  thorough  training  possible. 

GRADUATES    ARE    ALL    EMPLOYED 

Placed  330  pupils  in  lucrative  positions  during  past 
year.      Had   calls   from    business   men    for    707. 


Give  us  an  opportunity  to  train  you  thoroughly,  and  We 
will    place    you    in    a    good    position    when    competent 

H,  W,  BEHNKE  /.  M  WALKER 

PRESIDENT  PRINCIPAL 

PleaMe  mention   Tlie   I*andex    ivhen   ivritlnu;   to   Adi'ertlNcrK. 


Have    You    Entered 


THE  PANDEX  •  SCHOOL  OF   CURRENT 
HISTORY  AND  JOURNALISM? 

Conducted    by   ARTHUR    I.    STREET,    Editor 
"The  Pandex  of  The  Press" 


The  reception  accorded  the  aii- 
A  iiouiicement  of  the  founding  of 

Successful        TlIK    PANDKX    SCHOOL   OP 
Opening.         CURRENT     HISTORY     AND 
JOURNALISM    has    surpassed 
the  most  hopeful  expectations  of  all  persons  as- 
sociated  with  its  organization. 

Apparently  it  has  met  a  popular  need  and 
is  to  become  even  a  broader  and  more  useful  in- 
stitution tiian  its  originatoi's  had  dared  to  hope 
that  it   would  be. 

Applications  for  matriculation  have  been  re- 
ceived from  all  parts  of  the  country  and  from 
all  classes  of  people — a  fact  which  the  directors 
take  to  indicate  the  extent  of  the  public  interest 
in  the  modern  press  and  its  high  social  function 
quite  as  much  as  it  does  the  interest  of  the  ap- 
|)licants  in  their  individual  opportunities  in  con- 
nection with  the  pi'ess. 

THE  PANDEX  SCHOOL  OF 
Need  for  CURRENT  HISTORY  AND 
Such  a  JOURNALISM  is  founded  for 

School.  the   pui-pose   of   developing,    as 

far  as  possible,  the  same  scien- 
lilic  basis  and  inijiarting  the  same  scientific  per- 
sonal training  for  the  profession  which  it  repre- 
sents that  have  long  since  obtained  in  other  pro- 
fessions; and  it  is,  thei'efore,  peculiarly  gratify- 
ing to  its  originators  to  discover  so  widespread 
an  interest  in   the  School's  undertaking. 

Journalism,  undoubtedly,  is  the  most  powerfid 
single  factor  in  modern  public  life,  and  the  sys- 
tematic study  of  its  far-reaching  elements,  be- 
comes, for  this  reason,  one  of  the  most  important 
phases  of  popular  education,  albeit  thus  far  one 
of  the  most  neglected  phases.  As  the  number, 
scope,  and  variety  of  publications  thruout  the 
world  are  more  likely  to  increase  than  diminish 
in  the  future,  the  demand  for  intelligent  work- 
ers  and   leaders   must   increase   proportionately; 


and,  unless  there  is  some  adequate  pi(i\ision 
made  to  furnish  the  material,  the  standard  of 
.journalism  will  not  advance  in  accordance  with 
the  advance  in  the  other  standai'ds  of  current 
life. 

Hitherto  the  e<iuipment  lor  the 
Filling  .journalistic   career   in   America 

an  has    consisted    chiefly    of    ex- 

Empty  Gap.  perience,  taken  how  and  where 
it  could  be  found — an  excellent 
school,  and  indispensable.  But  there  has  been 
comparatively  little,  if  any,  effort  to. formulate 
the  experience,  or  to  establish  pi'inciples  and 
teachings  by  which  the  acquirements  of  the  pres- 
ent (lay  could  be  preserved  and  utilized  for 
pedagogic  purposes. 

Unless  THE  PANDEX  SCHOOL  misunder- 
stands it.self,  its  function  will  be  the  bridging 
of  this  gap.  Its  founders,  thru  many  years  of 
training  and  a  method  of  study  conducted  and 
tested  in  all  parts  of  the  world,  have  elaborated 
a  comprehensive  and  exhaustive  system,  which 
can  be  applied  to  all  stages  of  the  profession, 
from  the  rudiments  to  the  most  advanced  levels. 
And  all  the  benefits  of  this  system  are  offered 
free  to  those  who  enroll  •  them.selves  in  the 
School  in  the  manner  already  announced. 

The  courses  open  January  1st,  simultaneously 
with  the  issuing  of  this  edition  of  THE  PAN- 
DEX. All  that  is  necessary  to  secure  enrollment 
is  that  the  applicant  should  be  a  sub.scriber  to 
THE  PANDEX  OF  THE  PRESS. 

The  applicant  should  sign  his  name  to  the 
following  blank,  and  forward  the  same  to  THE 
PANDEX  SCHOOL  OF  CURRENT  HISTORY 
AND  JOURNALISM,  24  Clay  Street,  San  Fran- 
cisco. 

If  not  already  a  subscriber,  the  applicant 
should  enclose  One  Dollar  and  Fifty  Cents  with 
the  blank,  to  cover  one  year's  subscription. 


THE    PANDEX 


Upon  receipt  of  the  blank,  matriculation  card 
will  be  forwarded  and  the  applicant  duly  en- 
tered for  the  regular  course  of  instruction. 


Copy  of  the  first  announcement  of  the  School, 
as  made  in  the  December  PANDEX,  will  be  sent 
to  all  who  so  request. 


Note: — Thru  a  most  regrettable  circumstance,  it  has  been  found  neces- 
sary to  substitute  another  name  for  that  of  Mr.  W.  C.  Morrow  on  the 
staff  of  the  School.  Negotiations  are  now  pending  whereby  it  is  expected 
to  associate  with  the  School  in  Mr.  Morrow's  stead,  a  man  of  much  dis- 
tinction in  the  Eastern  journalistic  field,  who  has  affiliated  with  Mr.  Street 
in  several  of  the  most  important  phases  of  his  PANDEX  work  and  who 
has  a  national  reputation  for  successful  encouragement  and  culture  of 
journalistic  talent. 


APPLICATION   FOR  ADMISSION 


TO  THE    . 


Pandex  School  of  Current  History  and  Journalism 


Name 


Address, 


Scratch 

OUT 
ONE  LINE 


STATEMENT:     I  am  already  a  subscriber  for  the  PANDEX 
ORDER:       Herewith   find    my  subscription    for  the  PANDEX 


for  the  period  of_ 


^months,   during  which  I  wish  to  become  a  student  of  the 


PANDEX   SCHOOL   OF   CURRENT   HISTORY   AND   JOURNALISM. 


Sig;ned_ 


THE    PANDEX 


The  Moving  Finger  writes:  and  having  writ, 
Moves  on;  nor  all  your  Piety  nor  Wit 
Shall  lure  it  back  to  cancel  half  a  Line, 
Nor  all  your  Tears  wash  out  a  Word  of  it. 

— Omar  Khayyam. 
—Adapted  from  Spokane  Spokesman-Review. 


amspiipss 


THE  HANDWRITING  ON  THE  WALL. 


-Chicago  Tribune. 


THE  PANDEX  OF  THE  PRESS. 


JANUARY,    1907 


Series  II 


Vol.  V        No.  1 


Rising  Above  the  State? 


A  Rebuke 

from  a 

President 


How  important  it  is  that  the 
T^nited  States  should  be  at 
a  point  where  some  fixed 
policy  and  some  fixed  social 
trend  may  be  considered  as  "Accepted" 
(see  editorial  in  December  Pandex)- becomes 
iipparent  when  such  a  crisis  develops  as  has 
been  created  by  President  Roosevelt's  mes- 
sage on  the  Japanese  question.  Not  the 
crisis  in  the  relations  with  Japan,  for  o!^ 
that  there  may  be  none;  but  the  crisis  in 
the  relations  of  the  nation  with  itself. 

When  a  President  so  popular  as  Mr.  Roose- 
velt and  so  completely  in  the  common  con- 
fidence finds  that  local  conditions  in  any  one 
section  of  the  country  Bierit  the  threat  of 
Federal  intervention,  it  is  time,  indeed,  that 
there  should  be  some  unity  not  subject  to 
electoral  change,  ;^ome  overwhelming  na- 
tional sentimeiit  that  will  survive  the  con- 
troversial turmoil  of  State  Rights. 

For,  after  all,  State  Rights  constitute  but 
an  enlarged  phage; of  individual  rights;  and, 
in  these  .days  when  the  American  possessions 
reach  out  into  the  far  seas  and  American 
influence  dominates  in  the  councils  of  most 
of  the  leading  powers  of  the  world,  it  is  vital 
that  the  State,  as  well  as  the  man,  should 


be  of  as  large,  altruistic,   and   unrestricted 
grasp  as  possible. 


Altered 
Individual 
Standards 


Alreadj-,  whether  it  be  in 
contravention  of  the  under- 
lying principles  of  a  demo- 
cratic form  of  government 
or  not,  we  have  grown  to  the  stage  wherein 
the  purely  selfish  administration  of  one's 
personal  life  and  labors  is  no  longer  possible. 


SAN  FRANCISCO: 
'Just  Wait  Till  I  Get  You  Outside!" 

— St.  Louis  Globe-Democrat. 


THE    PANDEX 


AFTER  THE  MESSAGE. 
If  somebody  is  asked  to  be  President  of  the 
world  in  the  next  few  years,  the  Japanese,  after 
failing  to  elect  the  Mikado,  ought  to  vote  for 
Roosevelt.  — Chicago  New.s 


The  very  mass  and  intricacy  of  the  social 
organization  forbids  it.  And,  altho  it  be 
true  that  the  founders  of  the  nation  came  to 
its  soil  to  escape  the  severities  and  exactions 
of  a  too  centralized  state  and  ehareh.  cen- 
tralization has  again  been  attained,  and  the 
shadow  of  government  control  stands  over 
the  w^ork  and  deeds  of  every  citizen.  To  say 
to  men  of  trade  and  finance  that  they  can 
no  longer  hide  their  aims  and  ways  behind 
the  traditional  privileges  of  what  is  an  in- 
dividual's "own  business"  may  grate 
harshly  upon  the  spirit  which  has  thus  far 
been  the  principal  impulse  and  component 
of  American  prosperity;  but  the  possibility 
of  further  national  progress  under  any  other 
rule  is  probably  removed  forever. 

Business  success  under  the  moral  of  sauve 
qui  pent  has  led  too  frequently  to  the  son, 
of  crafty  and  astute  iniquity  which  is  being 
exhibited  to  public  gaze  by  the  Grand  Jury 
inquiries  in  San  Francisco  or  by  the  recent 
gambling  exposures  in  New  York.  It  has 
erected  too  stoutly  the  domineering  com- 
mercialism of  trusts  and  monopolies.  It  has 
written  too  long  a  tale  of  the  subordination 
of  labor,  of  constantly  increasing  costs  of 
living,  of  ruthless  fuel  shortages  at  the  open- 
ing of  winter,  of-  such  inhuman  grinding  and 
ruin  as  followed  in  the  wake  of  the  coal  land 
thefts  in  Utah,  Colorado,  and  Wyoming. 


them. 


And  these  things  public  con- 
science no  longer  approves, 
because  public  convenience 
can  no  longer  survive  under 
Their  restraint  and  regulation  have 


Conscience 

and 
Convenience. 


become  both  imperative  and  unavoidable. 
Were  this  not  true,  the  corporations  would 
never  have  permitted  either  the  nomination 
or  the  election  of  Mr.  Hughes,  who  so  merci- 
lessly exposed  them  in  the  insurance  investi- 
gation ;  the  agricultural  vote  would  not  have 
defeated  Congressman  Wadsworth  who  an- 
tagonized the  meat  inspection  bills;  Stand- 
ard Oil  would  have  succeeded  in  overthrow- 
ing Governor  Hoch  in  Kansas ;  and  Missouri 
would  have  remained  'pat'  in  the  Republican 
column  as  a  rebuke  to  the  courage  and  honor 
of  Governor  Folk. 

With  such  colossal  interests  at  stake  as 
are  now  represented  in  the  Union-Pacific  and 
its  limitless  chain  of  affiliations  (including 
lately  the  Illinois  Central  and,  presumably, 
the  Baltimore  and  Ohio),  nothing  but  the 
most  unescapable  of  conditions  and  circum- 
stances would  lead-  Mr.  Harriman  and  his 
associates  to  accept  or  approve  in  the 
smallest  particle  an  Administration  which 
purposes  to  take  away  from  private  control 
the  remaining  coal  lands,  or  which  threatens 
with  further  relentless  prosecution  the  men 
who  have  gained  possession  of  coal  and  tim- 
ber lands  by  methods  which  once  were  not 
regarded  with  disapprobation. 

With  the  ceaseless  new  interlacing  of  the 


Design  for  new  police  uniform  (suggested  by 
the  recent  anti-vice  crusade  in  St.  Louis  and  else- 
where). 

— St.  Louis  Globe-Democrat. 


THE    PANDEX 


3 


various  lines  of  trade  under  the  control  of  toward  the  three-cent  fare ;  or  in  the  scotch- 

a  limited  few,  so  that  the  trail  of  the  Stand-  ing  of  Mr.  Bailey  in  Texas  because  he  "bor- 

ard  Oil  appears  in  everything  from  petro-  rowed  money"  from  the  Waters-Pierce  Oil 

leum  to  wheat  and  from  the  manufacture  of  Company  in  ostensible  return  for  political 

alcohol  to  the  operation  of  trolley  lines  in  favors. 


POOR   LITTLE    CHAP  I 

Always  Forgotten. 

— Chicago  News. 


so  small  a  town  as  Martinez  in  California, 
il  is  not  likely  that  anything  but  helpless 
submission  to  the  trend  of  the  times  would 
be  driving  the  sponsors  of  this  interlacing  to 
the  acceptance  of  such  Berious  commercial 
consequences  as  are  involved  in  the  persist- 
ent policies  of  Dr.  Wiley  and  his  cleansing 
of  food  and  standardizing  of  labels ;  or  in 
the  steady  progress  of  the  city  of  Cleveland 


Influential  Men 
Change  Their 
Standpoints 


Probably  few  remaining  men 
of  consequence,  either  com- 
mercially or  politically,  fail 
to  realize  that  the  order  of 
things  is  irrevocably  changed;  and  that, 
where  formerly  both  ingenuity  and  defiance 
were  employed  to  evade  or  overpower  the 
wish  of  the  community,  the  stress  of  persua- 
sion and  the  force  of  prestige  can  better  be 


THE     P AND EX 


exerted  for  the  euds  that  favor  the  many 
^s  well  as  the  few,  for  the  achievements 
.^•hich  will  bring  honor  as  well  as  wealth. 

Men  like  Mr!  Hill,  the  father  of  the  North- ' 
em  Securities  Company,  turn  from  the  mak- 
ing of  unlawful  mergers  to  the  advocacy  of 
iiavi*gable  waterways  from  Chicago  to  New 
Orleans.     Men  like  Mr.  Ilarriman  attend  a 
Transmississippi  Congress  and  endeavor  to 
prove  themselves  at  one  in  opinion  and  i)ur- 
ipose  with  Secretary  Root  of  the  President's 
ijeebinet.    Even  Mr.  Rockefeller  alters  tactics 
.'and    receives     the     subpena     of     a     deputy 
-jUnited  States  marshal  with  the  grace  of  a 
'iiost  in  his  drawing  room;  while  Corporation 
;*Counsel  Lewis,  of  Chicago,  implacable  enemy 
j)of  corporations  tho  he  is  supposed  to  be, 
ieiieQunteri*'no  obstacles'- in  proving,  for  the 
purposes   of   taxation,   that   a   single   factor 
lies  behind  the  proposed  consolidation  of  a}l 
the  light,  power,  transit,  and  terminal  facili- 
ties in  the  ^indy  City. 


New  Line  of 

Political 
Controversy 


To  be  sure,  the  mental 
process  involved  in  such  a 
transformation  can  hai'dly 
be  said  to  have  been  worked 
out  in  full,  but  nevertheless  it  is  indubitably 
true  that  the  wealthy  man,  as  well  as  the 
average  man,  has  begun  to  realize -that  all 
forms  of  business  occupation,  trade, 'or  pro- 
fession must  hereafter  be  administered  quite 
a>:  much  in  the  interest  of  the  community 
as  in  the  interest  of  the  individual.  And  the 
public  controversy  henceforth  is  likely  to  be 
much  more  as  to  the  manner  and  degree  of 
adjustment  than  as  to  the  question  of 
whether  there  .should  be  any  adjustment-  at 
all. 

Railroads,  for  instance,  not  only  accept, 
but  find  themselves  unexpectedly  pleased 
with  the  interstate  commerce  laws  passed  at 
the  last  Congress.  Beef-packers  already 
clamor  for  more  of  the  inspection  which  so 
recently  they  spurned,  because  they  have 
found  that,  without  the  Federal  seal  upon 
their  goods,  they  are  again  the  victims  of 
European  exclusion.  A  shortage  of  cars, 
which  but  a  brief  while  ago  the  railroads 
would  have  deemed  it  an  impertinence  upon 
the  part  of  the  Government  to  look   into, 


officials  of  all  lines  seem  now  glad  enough  to 
pass  up  to  the  consideration  of  the  public's 
board  of  railroad  directors,  the  Interstate 
Commerce  Commissioners,  apparently  con- 
■  vinced  that  the  diffiduftres  and  problems 
concerned  are  so  conyilex'and  so  extensive 
that,  without  popular -aids  the  solution  of 
them  nuist  bo  iiidelinitely  despaired  of. 

„   ,,  'Again,  the  big  shipper,  de- 

No  More  .      ,'        ,  n .,       ■   ,  .  4. 

_    ,.„  prived  by  law  or  the  right  to 

Indifference  to    ^      .  ,  ■        „ 

Law  Evasion  special;  transportation  favor 
upon  which,  in  many  in- 
sianees^  he  has  risen  to  a  thrift  altogether 
inordinate  and-unrighteous,  finds,  with  satis- 
faction, that  his  own  j^leas'  may  be  taken  to 
the  same  court  of  popular  appeal  as  are  the 
pleas  of  the  corporation  or  of  the  small 
shipper.  And,  mollifietl  by  the  assurance  of 
a  better  justice  than  he  has  Jjefore  been' able 
to  expect,  he  withdraws. '  in  proportionate 
<'.egree  from  the  mercantile  world  the  com- 
plaisant indift'erence  to  law  evasion,  upon 
which  have  rested  numy  of  the  inequities 
oT  the  past  and  out  ol  which  have  grown, 
ultimately,  the  spirit  of^graft  and  the  count- 
less phases  of  petty  thievery  and  extortion 
which  are  familiar  to  e^ery  community. 

The  idea  of  attaining  special 
Disappearance    „  ...  , 

ravor   in     business,    as    has 

„       •  ,  -n  been     necessary    heretofore. 

Special  Favor  <  .         •'  ' 

thus  begins  to  go  into  re- 
jected history  along  with  the  idea  of  special 
iavor  in  Federal  polities  which  President 
Roosevelt  long  since  drc^e  out  of  Washing- 
ton. Men  begin  to  realize  that  it  is  as  un- 
just to  seek  to  buy  in  trade  by  the  coercion 
of  money  what  in  the  fairness  of  open  bar- 
gain would  be  denied  them  as  it  is  to  gain 
in  legislation  by  the  trickery  of  the  lobby  or 
the  play  of  the  "long  green." 

So,  too,  the  labor  unions,  moved  by  the 
Icnowledge  that  the  Federal  Government  is 
aiding  them  in  their  contention  for  an  eight- 
hour  day,  and  feeling  secure  in  the  con- 
sciousness that  when  an  anthracite  or  a 
bituminous  coal  strike  seems  unavoidable, 
there  is  a  disinterested  chief  executive  or  a 
fair-minded  national  committee  (now  about 
to  be  re-enforced  by  the  President's  applica- 


THE     PANDEX 


WHERE  OVERCROWDING    MIGHT  BE  JUSTIFIED. 

Design  for   Special   Cell  to  Be   Occupied  by  L  ocal   Traction   Magnates   Responsible   for   Fatal 

Accidents. 

— Chicaao  News. 


THE     PA  NDEX 


tion  of  the  funds  of  the  Nobel  peace  prize) 
to  whom  arbitration  may  safely  be  referred, 
come  to  have  little  hesitation  in  clearing 
their  own  consciences  of  the  blunders  and 
crimes  of  a  teamsters'  strike  in  Chicago; 
and  they  look  forward  hopefully  to  the  pos- 
sibilities that  lie  before  them  of  electing 
their  own  men  to  Congress  or  of  constituting 
their  own  factions  within  the  legislatures  of 
the  various  states. 

Thus,  in  all  classes,  the  conception  of  in- 
dividual occupation  is  widely  and  liberally 
expanding.  The  laboring  man  moves  steadily 
forward  to  the  point  where  his  progress  will 
seem  better  even  to  him  if  bereft  of  the 
malice  and  envy  by  which  he  has  justified 
the  regime  of  a  Ruef;  and  to  where  there 
need  be  no  reddened  passions  attempting  to 
elect  a  governor  in  the  Empire  or  any  other 
state.  The  corporations,  released  from  the 
pressure  of  a  perjured  system  of  special 
privilege  and  robbery,  which  extends  from 
the  poor  devil  who  is  used  by  coal  and  tim- 
ber embezzlers  to  file  fraudulent  claims  on 
government  lands  to  the  influential  merchant 
who  asks  reduced  rates  because  of  the  mag- 
nitude of  his  patronage,  begin  to  be  able  to 
heed  the  equities  of  wages,  to  remember  that 
the  yearning  for  better  homes,  better  dress, 
more  travel  and  more  pleasure  is  as  apt  to 
grow  among  the  workmen  and  their  families 
as  it  is  among  the  employers  and  managers, 
and  to  exercise  their  philanthropic  instincts 
to  prevent  the  need  of  philanthropy  as  well 
as  to  rectify  ills  which  once  have  come  into 
being. 


Following 

a  New 

Purpose 


Instead  of  giving  their  ab- 
sorbing heed  to  the  making 
of  money,  the  successful  men 
are  learning  to  shift  to  the 
making  of  society.  They  realize  that  exactly 
in  proportion  to  the  ability  they  or  their 
forbears  have  exhibited  in  amassing  indus- 
trial and  financial  thrift  is  the  responsibility 
for  further  directing,  administering,  and 
improving  social  conditions.  Henceforth, 
probably,  more  and  more  will  men  like  Mr. 
Low,  of  New  York,  discover  the  civic  value 
of  remitting  unpaid  taxes,  even  tho  no  de- 
mand is  made  for  the  same  by  public  ofificials. 


More  and  more  will  men  like  Mr.  Rudolph 
Spreckles,  of  San  Francisco,  even  tho  said 
to  be  piqued  into  it  in  the  first  instance  by 
financial  animosity,  find  the  gratification  and 
perhaps  the  thrill  that  comes  of  standing 
sponsor  for  the  clearing  out  of  a  city's  rot- 
tenness and  the  preparation  of  a  community 
for  adequate  building  up  to  its  naturally 
distinguished  and  noble  destiny. 

And,  if  this  evolution  transpires,  we  shall 
be  gravitating  rapidly  toward  that  desirable 
era  wherein,  as  in  the  older  countries  of 
Europe,  it  is  as  usual  to  see  the  conscientious 
man  of  wealth  in  the  national  parliament  as 
it  is  to  see  the  poorer  patriot  whose  very 
poverty  tempts  both  him  and  his  betrayer  to 
the  treason  of  bad  legislation.  We  shall  in 
reality  be  going  back  to  where  the  Republic 
was  at  its  beginning,  when  Washington,  as 
the  nation's  chief,  was  one  of  its  richest 
landed  proprietors  and  at  the  same  time  its 
most  trusted  patriot;  or  to  the  days  of  the 
Civil  War  when  Jay  Cooke,  as  the  nation's 
financial  agent,  was  at  the  same  time  one  of 
the  nation's  most  unselfish  upholders.  Or, 
we  are  moving  forward  to  where,  as  in  En- 
gland, we  shall  have  a  Burns  for  a  member 
in  the  Federal  Cabinet,  as  we  already  have 
an  E.  E.  Clark  in  the  Interstate  Commerce 
Commission;  or  to  where,  as  in  Germany,  a 
Bebel  will  be  a  leader  on  the  floor  of  the 
Parliament;  or  to  where,  as  in  France,  the 
Socialistic  and  Labor  influence  has  been 
making  and  unmaking  ministries  for  more 
than  a  decade. 


Getting 

Rid  of 

Commercialism 


In  other  words,  we  shall 
reach  the  stage  where  we 
shall  be  divested  of  this 
"commercialism,"  which  has 
been  mocked  at  and  derided  by  the  observers 
in  Europe  ever  since  the  days  of  Charles 
Dickens,  and  which  but  lately  caused  the 
great  Russian  novelist  to  write  of  New  York 
as  a  mere  show  place  of  gold  and  golden 
vanity.  Leader  and  common  people  alike, 
we  shall  be  able  to  lift  our  eyes  above  the 
vision  of  the  counting  table ;  we  shall  be  able 
once  more  to  shape  up  the  larger  ideals  of 
statecraft,  the  forecasts  of  which  are  already 
being  felt  in  the  return  of  the  country  at 


THE    PANDEX 


LONG-RANGE  SNAPSHOT  FROM  LINCOLN,  NEB. 


CREAK   FROM   THE   DREDGE— "Huh!    I 
now,  of  course,  he's  'the  man  behind  the  shovel!' 

large  to  an  era  of  public  speech  and  oratory. 
Our  cities,  our  commonwealths,  our  Federal 
Union  we  shall  be  able  to  imbue  with  prin- 
ciples that  reach  far  out  beyond  local 
bounds,  preparing  each  for  more  intimate 
participation  in  the  other  and  the  Union  for 
wiser  and  stronger  sharing  in  the  union  of 
nations. 


In  the  Event 

of  Public 

Ownership 


If,  therefore,  in  the  shaping 
of  our  destinies,  it  be  muni- 
cipal ownership  that  we  are 
to  go  into,  we  shall  not  find 
before  us  the  crossings  and  obstacles  and 
disheartenments  that  have  stood  in  the  way 
of  Chicago's  efforts    to    acquire    her  street 


've  been  digging  up  this  stuff  for  years,  and 

- — Chicago  News. 

railways,  or  the  corruption  and  selfishness 
that  have  threatened  to  render  abortive  the 
desire  of  San  Francisco  to  provide  herself 
with  her  own  water  supply.  If  it  is  to  be 
state  ownership  that  we  are  to  go  into,  we 
shall  be  qualified  to  escape  the  pitfalls  that 
buried  the  proposal  of  Kansas  to  have  her 
own  oil  refinery,  or  the  barbed  fences  that  have 
rendered  difficult  the  functions  of  many  state 
railroad  commissions.  Or,  if  it  is  to  be  gov- 
ernment ownership,  sheer  and  outright,  with 
all  its  enormous  magnitude  !»nd  all  its  de- 
fiance of  the  impracticable,  we  shall  have 
men  who  will  have  the  same  pride  in  success- 
ful management  that  the  Harrimans  or  the 
Rogerses  or  the  Armours  or  the  Camcies 


8 


THE     P  A  N  D  E  X 


now  have  in  what  has  been  done  under  the 
opposite  law  of  individual  supremacy. 

Or  if,  on  the  far  contrary,  we  are  to  have 
none-  of  these  radical  advances,  but  are  to 
abide  within  the  custom  and  form  by  which 
we  have  lived  thru  one  hundred ,  and  thirty 
years  of  republican  entity,  nevertheless  we 


will  have  been  trained  to  that  edge  where, 
tho  every  shop  might  have  to  be  "open" 
and  every  port  free  to  the  entrance  of  every 
race,  such  a  condition  of  indulgence  and 
laisscz  faire  might  cheerfully  and  welcomely 
be  indulged  for  the  sake  of  the  greater  gain 
io  be  thus  acquired  and  the  greater  contribu- 


DOING  OLD  ATLAS  OUT  OF  HIS  JOB. 


-Detroit    News   Tiibuno. 


shall  have  the  men  who  will  have  been  edu- 
cated up  to  the  same  enlarged  and  highly 
visualized  standards,  the  same  spreading 
and  loftier  conceptions  of  social  life  and 
function  that  lift  the  cities  out  of  their  city- 
hood,  the  states  out  of  their  statehood,  and 
the  nation  into  the  great  plane  of  inter- 
national courtesy  and  federation. 

Where  a  city,  such  as  San  Francisco,  is 
not  only  in  great  strife  but  also  in  the  heart- 
breaking throes  of  a  catastrophe's  after- 
math, both  moneyed  man  and  workingman 


t\on  thus  to  be  rendered  to  the  future  good 
of  all  cities  and  peoples. 


Value  of 
National 
Council 


Where  a  state,  such  as 
Georgia,  in  common  with 
many  of  its  sisters  of  the 
south,  falls  under  the  agony 
of  a  negro  problem,  both  white  men  and 
black  will  have  been  led  to  the  conviction 
that  there  is  probably  a  larger  efficacy,  in 
calling  the  councils  of  the  nation  into  con- 
ference than  in  driying  at  solution  with  the 


T  HE     P  A  N  D  E  X 


H 
Q 

w 


U 
M 


EQ 

M 
Q 
H 
M 

a 

l-l 
Q 

w 


o 


10 


THE     PANDEX 


impetuosity  of  a  Tillman  or  the  bigotry  of 
a  Vardaman. 

Where  an  entire  continental  slope,  such  as 
that  which  trims  the  Pacific  from  Nome  to 
San  Diego,  is  in  urgent  quest  of  the  trade  of 
an  awakening  and  enlivening  Orient,  the 
merchant  and  the  editor  will  have  discovered 
that  there  is  a  commerce  of  race  as  well  as 
of  coin,  and  that  where  goods  eased  in  pine 
and  goods  cased  in  bamboo  mingle  in  one 
invoice,  it  may  be  better  to  give  common 
education  to  the  children  who  dress  in 
trousers  and  those  who  wear  the  sam,  and 
to  lend,  in  this  as  in  other  respects,  the  same 
dignity  of  consideration  from  nation  to 
nation  that  each  by  itself  thinks  it  deserves. 

Where  a  nation  such  as  the  United  States, 
from  shore  to  shore  and  boundary  to  bound- 
ary, finds  the  impact  of  both  social  and  mer- 
cantile exchange  hardened  and  irritated  by 
the  aspersities  of  a  high  and  prohibitive 
tariif,  the  statesmen  and  the  common  voters 
alike  will  be  ready  to  give  ever  greater  en- 
couragement to  the  "intermediate  tariffs" 


offered  by  a  friendly  neighl»or  on  the  north 
or  to  the  meat  concessions  of  an  admiring 
monarchy  across  the  Atlantic,  or  the  petro- 
leum relief  proffered  by  a  land  of  dreams 
and  art  which  already  has  led  the  way  into 
an  international  institute  of  agriculture. 

Thus,  from  the  lowest  rung 

„         ,         to    the    highest,    will    there 
Toward  „ 

Internationalism  <^*^^«1°P     ^"PP°^t     *°^     ^hat 
phase    of    an    able,    daring, 

and  earnest  Chief  Executive's  policy  which 
surmounts  current  conditions  and  looks 
away  into  a  progressive  and  pioneering 
future.  Thus  will  there  be  internally  and 
externally,  within  nation,  state  and  city,  the 
unity  of  leavening  principle  which,  in  the 
final  analysis,  is  the  probable  end  toward 
which  President  Roosevelt's  messages 
"preach,"  and  which  rises  superior  to  all 
Japanese  school  questions,  as  it  does  to  those 
of  railroad  regulation,  of  corporation  pub- 
licity, of  Panama  Canal  construction,  and  of 
labor  adjudication. 


THE   OCTOPUS— "This     Begins  to  Look  Serious." 


— Deti-oit  .Toiirnal. 


THE    PANDEX 


11 


UKCLE    SAM— "It's  your  move,  Mr.  Rockef eUer. ' ' 

— Spokane  Spokesman-Revi«w. 


AH  Along  the  Line 


FEDERAL  AND  STATE  GOVERNMENTS  MOVE  UP  SHARPLY  AGAINST 

ALL  TRUST   VIOLATIONS.— STANDARD    OIL,  HILL  AND  HAR- 

RIMAN    AND   OTHER  BIG   CORPORATIONS  ARE 

STRONGLY  ASSISTED  BY  THE  COURTS 


WHETHER  or  not  the  controversy  over 
the  schools  in  San  Francisco  eventu 
ally  forces  the  United  States  into  unpleasant 
relations  with  Japan,  the  movement  within 
the  American  nation  which  makes  for  the " 
purification  of  its  trade  and  the  re-standardiz- 
ation of  its  morals  continues  with  promising 
persistence.  The  President,  who  was  re- 
sponsible in  the  main  for  its  initiation,  re- 
mains the  guiding  and  impelling  impulse, 
and  one  by  one  the  factors  which  have  been 
most  strenuously  opposed  to  him  acknow- 
ledge the  virtue  of  his  program.  His  war- 
fare at  length  has  touched  the  most  strongly 
intrenched  of  the  corrupt  business  elements, 


and  there  is  scarcely  an  institution  amen- 
able to  prosecution  that  is  not  subject  to 
some  manner  of  official  attack.  If  there  is 
to  be  an  ultimate  recasting  of  commercial 
principles,  it  is  evident  that  the  time  of  its 
final  acknowledgment  is  not  far  removed. 

ROOSEVELT  WOULDN'T  HEAR 


Standard  Oil  Men  Tried  to  Prevent  the  Govern- 
ment's Prosecution. 

That  the  new  movement  has  indeed  pene- 
tiated  into  the  most  powerful  of  modern 
organizations  is  evident  from  the  following 
from  the  Kansas  City  Times: 

Washington. — The  suit  filed  by  the  attorney 
general  against  the  Standard  Oil  Company  in  the 


.12 


THE    PANDEX 


federal  court  at  St.  Louis  is  the  beginning  of  a 
'legal  contest  that  is  to  be  one  of  the  great  eiforts 
of  President  Roosevelt's  administration.  The 
trust  has  exerted  its  utmost  influence  to  forestall 

'the  government's  action.  Those  most  active  and 
prominent  in  its  councils  })ersoually  have  argued 
the  matter  with  President  Roosevelt.  Henry  H. 
Rogers  and  John  1).  Archbold  came  to  Washing- 
ton and  spent  hours  at  the  White  House,  but 
every  move  they  have  made  has  only  served  to 
strengthen  the  determination  of  the  president  to 
take  action. 

The  suit  filed  in  no  way  involves  a  criminal 
prosecution.  Such  action  is  reserved  for  further 
consideration  by  the  Department  of  Justice.     In 

•the  statement  issued  by  Attorney  General  Moody 
regarding  the  suit  he  does  not  refer  to  the  possi- 
bility of  a  criminal  action.  .  It  is  known,  ho\y- 
ever,  that  the  administration  will  stop  at  nothing 
it  can  hope  to  achieve  in  its  plans  to  put  the 
Standard  out  of  business  as  a  monopoly. 


SUITS  AGAINST  THE  STANDARD 


Federal    Government    Fines    Would    Wipe    Out 
Company's  Capital  Stock. 

The  comprehensiveness  and  the  relentless- 
ness  of  the  Federal  prosecution  is  manifest 
in  the  following  from  the  correspondence  of 
"Raymond"  in  the  Chicago  Tribune: 

Washington,  D.  C— If  the  United  States  should 
win  all  of  its  cases  of  alleged  rebating  now  pend- 
ing in  the  court,  and  the  maximum  fine  should  be 
imposed  on  each  count  of  each  indictment  it 
would  wijje  out  the  entire  capital  stock  of  the 
Standard  Oil  Company. 

It  is  too  much  to  expect  that  courts  and  juries 
would  sustain  every  count  of  every  indictment, 
but  it  is  not  too  much  to  expect  that  enough  of 
these  counts  shall  be  established  according  to 
law,  and  that  enough  fines  shall  be  imposed  to 
make  the  Standard  Oil  Company,  great  though  it 
is,  howl  for  mercy. 

These  rebate  suits  are  entirely  independent  of 
the  proceedings  instituted  at  St.  Louis  which 
seek  to  dissolve  the  great  Standard  Oil  system 
itself.  The  rebate  suits  proceed  upon  indict- 
ments, and  the  corporation  is  charged  with  being 
guilty  of  a  misdemeanor  in  accepting  secret  fa- 
vors from  railroads.  If  found  guilty  each  misde- 
meanor is  punishable  by  a  fine  of  from  $1000  to 
$20,000. 

Taking  advantage  of  this  fact,  the  government, 
through  the  Department  of  Justice,  has  endeav- 
ored to  collect  evidence  to  establish  thousands  of 
different  cases,  eaeh  a  separate  misdemeanor  and 
each  punishable  on  its  own  account. 

The  plan  of  campaign  has  been  carefully 
studied  out,  evidence  has  been  piled  up  in  the 
offices  of  the  different  district  attorneys,  and 
there  is  ground  for  the  belief  that  enough  heavy 
fines  can  be  imposed  to  cripple  the  financial  end 
of  the  Standard  Oil  Company  for  a  little  while,  at  ■ 
least. 


Everybody  can  see  that  a  great  system  like  the 
Standard,  which  is  not  only  capitalized  for  $110,- 
000,000  but  which  has  properties  of  its  own 
amounting  to  many  times  that  sum,  would  not 
care  much  for  an  odd  fine  of  $20,000  now  and 
then.  It  would  be  a  mere  pin  prick.  It  could  be 
made,  up  by  a  fraction  of  a  cent  added  to  the 
price  of  oil  in  some  territory,  and  in  many  cases 
the  maximum  fine  for  an  individual  offense  would 
not  begin  to  equal  the  actual  profit  to  the  Stand- 
ard from  that  particular  secret  rate  of  which 
that  misdemeanor  was  but  a  type.- 

No  Danger  of  Prison. 

When  Senator  Elkins  secured  the  passage  of 
his  rebate  act  he  slipped  through  a  provision 
which  eliminated  the  imnishnient  of  imprison- 
ment, so  that  neither  tlie  heads  of  the  Standard 
Oil  Company  nor  their  agents  nor  clerks  stood  in 
the  slightest  danger,  of  getting  behind  the  bai's 
in  spite  of  repeated  violations  of  the  law. 

The  heavy  fine  was  substituted  for  imprison- 
ment and  the  Standard  Oil  Company,  the  steel, 
coal,  and  other  trusts  went  on  receiving  and  de- 
manding rebates  in  the  belief  that  they  could  not 
be  reached  except  for  individual  instances  where 
the  fine  would  not  be  more  than  a  mere  fraction 
of  the  total  financial  benefit  to  be  gained  by  the 
violation  of  the  law. 

A  slight  experience  convinced  everybody  that 
the  elimination  of  imprisonment  was  a  great  mis- 
take in  the  enactment  of  the  Elkins  law,  and  that 
it  was  probably  done  at  the  instance  of  the 
Standard  Oil  and  other  great  combinations.  Im- 
piisomnent  as  a  punisliment  for  rebate  was  re- 
enacted  by  the  new  railroad  rate  law,  but  of 
course  it  does  not  cover  any  offenses  before  that 
law  went  into  effect. 

Rogers  Laughs  No  More. 

For  a  time  H.  H.  Rogers  and  his  associates  in 
the  great  system  had  the  laugh  on  the  govern- 
ment. They  knew  they  could  be  convicted  of 
some  rebates  here  and  there,  but  fines  had  no  ter- 
rors for  them.  They  did  not  realize,  however, 
that  every  time  a  separate  shipment  of  oil  left 
Whiting  for  Evansville  or  East  St.  Louis  under 
a  secret  rate  in  defiance  of  law  a  separate  offense 
against  the  people  of  the  United  States  was  com- 
mitted. 

Shrewd  as  these  men  were  they  had  forgotten 
this,  or  else  they  did  not  think  the  government 
would  be  honest  enough  to  take  advantage  of  the 
situation.  But  President  Roosevelt,  Attorney 
General  Moody,  and  their  subordinates  have  in- 
stituted a  series  of  prosecutions  under  the  crimi- 
nal section  of  the  Elkins  law,- the  like  of  which 
probably  has  never  been  seen  in  this  or  any  other 
country.  Indictment  has  been  piled  on  indict- 
ment, and  each  has  been  fortified  by  instance 
after  instance  of  the  illegal  practice,  each  form- 
ing a  separate  count  of  the  indictment,  and  each 
creating  a  separate  liability  to  the  maximum  fine. 

This  has  been  a  distinct  plan  of  campaign  on 
the  part  of  the  government,  and  so  it  comes,  as  I 
stated  in  the  beginning,  that  if  the  suits  insti- 
tuted this  fall  are  successfully  carried  to  the  end, 
and  the  maximum  penalty  on  each  count  is  in- 


THE    PANDEX 


13 


14 


THE    PANDEX 


flicted,  the  capital  stock  of  the  Standard  Oil 
Company  and  its  reserve  will  be  wiped  out  of 
existence,  and  there  will  be  an  additional  liability 
of  $50,000,000  or  so,  for  the  stockholders — Rocke- 
feller, Rogers,  and  the  rest  of  them— to  make 
good. 

These  suits  have  been  filed  in  the  northern  dis- 
trict of  Illinois  at  Chicago,  in  the  western  dis- 
trict of  Tennessee,  and  in  the  western  district  of 
New  York,  in  which  places  it  has  been  found  a 
simple  matter  to  secure  the  strongest  kind  of  evi- 
dence. Taking  the  total  number  of  counts  al- 
leged in  each  indictment,  it  is  possible  to  make 
up  a  striking  table  of  the  maximum  and  minimum 
fines,  as  follows: 

Minimum     Maximum 
fine.  fine. 

Illinois $6,428,000  $128,560,000 

Tennessee 1,524,000       30,480,000 

New  York 146,000        2,920,000 

$8,098,000  $181,960,000 


OLD  CHECK  ON  HARBIMAN 


U.  S.  Finds  a  Provision  for  Attacking  His  Bail- 
way  Mergers. 

Intimately  affiliated  with  the  Standard  Oil 
is  the  extensive  railroad  system  controlled, 
or  said  to  be  controlled,  by  Edward  H.  Har- 
riman.  That  something  is  vulnerable  here, 
too,  from  the  national  point  of  view,  is  shown 
in  the  following  from  the  Chicago  Inter- 
Oeean : 

Washington  D.  C. — In  the  sweeping  investiga- 
tion that  the  Interstate  Commerce  Commission  is 
making  into  the  affairs  of  the  Union  Pacific 
merger  with  the  Illinois  Central,  B.  &  0.,  and 
other  Harriman  properties,  the  original  federal 
charter  of  the  Union  Pacific  has  been  carefully 
studied  and  it  has  been  discovered  that  the  gov- 
ernment has  a  grip  on  the  situation  entirely  dis- 
tinct from  the  powers  conferred  on  the  Commis- 
sion by  the  new  rate  law. 

The  act  of  Congress  chartering  the  Union  Pa- 
cific provides:  "That  whenever  it  appears  that 
the  net  earnings  of  the  entire  railroad  and  tele- 
graph, including  the  amount  allowed  for  services 
rendered  for  the  United  States  after  deducting 
all  expenses,  including  repairs  and  the  furnish- 
ing, running,  and  managing  of  said  road,  shall 
exceed  ten  per  centum  upon  its  cost,  exclusive  of 
the  five  per  centum  to  be  paid  to  the  United 
States,  Congress  may  reduce  the  fare  thereon  if 
unreasonable  in  amount,  and  may  fix  and  estab- 
lish the  same  rate  by  law. ' ' 

Provisions  Still  in  Effect. 

When  a  reorganization  of  the  system  was  ef- 
fected some  years  ago  the  government  waived 
its  five  per  centum  share  in  the  earnings  of  the 
road,  but,  it  is  claimed  by  the  experts  who  have 
studied  the  charter,  that  the  remaining  provisions 


of  the  law  still  stand  and  are  in  full  effect.  As  the 
cost  of  the  property  and  not  the  capitalization 
made  the  basis  of  the  computation  of  the  earning 
capacity,  it  is  claimed  that  the  road  has  long 
passed  the  point  where  the  government's  regu- 
lating powers  become  effective. 

Under  the  new  rate  law  a  complaint  is  needed 
before  an  action  for  the  change  of  rates  becomes 
a  matter  for  the  Commission  to  investigate.  In 
the  light  of  the  charter  provision  this  will  not  be 
necessary  in  the  case  of  the  Union  Pacific,  though 
as  a  matter  of  fact  the  Interstate  Commission  can 
conduct  any  investigation  it  sees  fit,  involving 
the  operation  and  manipulation  of  railroad  prop- 
erties. As  generally  understood,  the  investigation 
now  going  on  in  regard  to  the  Harriman  lines  is 
for  the  use  of  the  attorney  general  in  basing  a 
suit  on  the  same  lines  as  the  Northern  Securities 


STRIKES  THREE  BIG  SYSTEMS 


Hill  Beads  Fall  Under  the  Ban  of  the  Anti-Trust 
Proceedings. 

An  interest  to  which  Mr.  Harriman  and 
his  associates  were  at  one  time  attached,  but 
which  is  said  to  have  reverted  to  its  original 
sponsors,  is  assailed  in  the  same  manner  that 
Mr.  Harriman 's  mergers  are  assailed.  Said 
John  Callan  O'Laughlin  in  the  Chicago 
Tribune : 

Washington,  D.  C. — An  investigation  of  the 
three  great  railroad  systems  of  the  country — the 
Union  Pacific,  the  Great  Northern,  and  the 
Northern  Pacific — has  been  begun  by  the  Inter- 
state Commerce  Commission. 

The  Union  Pacific  inquiry,  or  to  give  it  the 
title  used  by  the  Commission,  the  "Harriman 
situation,"  arises  through  an  alleged  combina- 
tion in  restraint  of  trade  and  commerce  of  the 
Union  Pacific,  the  Oregon  Short  Line,  the  Oregon 
Railway  and  Navigation  Company,  the  Southern 
Pacific  and  affiliated  lines,  and  the  Illinois  Cen- 
tral. 

The  Great  Northern  and  Northern  Pacific  in- 
quiry is  for  the  purpose  of  ascertaining  if  these 
roads  are  observing  the  decree  of  the  Supreme 
Court,  which  dissolved  the  Northern  Securities 
Company,  a  holding  corporation  which  had  com- 
bined them,  and  if,  as  alleged,  they  are  suppress- 
ing competition  by  an  agreed-on  rate,  and  are 
under  common  operation. 

Although  the  Commission  has  been  considering 
the  advisability  of  instituting  these  investigations 
for  some  time,  and  the  Great  Northern  and 
Northern  Pacific  investigation  actually  has  been 
in  progress  for  nearly  two  weeks,  it  was  Presi- 
dent Roosevelt  who  directed  that  they  be  begun 
with  as  little  delay  as  the  other  business  before 
the  Commission  permitted.  Indeed,  the  presi- 
dent has  stated  he  had  more  complaints  against 
the  Union  Pacific  than  against  any  railroad  sys- 
tem in  the  country,  not  only  in  the  form  of  writ- 


THE    P  A  N  D  E  X 


15 


UNASSAILABLE. 


— St.   Louis   Republic. 


16 


THE     P AND EX 


ten  communieatioii,  but  by  way  of  personal  rep- 
resentatives. 

These  complaints  have  extended  over  months 
and  have  charged  that  the  Union  Pacific  and  the 
Oregon  Short  liine  had  absolutely  killed  compe- 
tition so  far  as  the  Southern  Pacific  was  con- 
cerned, and  that  the  Oregon  Short  Line  controls 
the  Oregon  Eailway  and  Navigation  Company 
and  has  a  majority  of  the  stock  of  the  Southern 
Pacific,  electing  the  governing  board  of  the  latter 
line.  It  has  been  claimed  that  the  two  roads  have 
a  common  operating  agent  and  a  common  traffic 
manager.  The  effect  has  been  to  keep  up  rates 
and  to  enforce  harmful  measures,  from  which 
shippers  on  and  between  the  two  lines  have  no 
redress. 

A  statement  issued  by  the  Interstate  Commei-ce 
Commission  this  afternoon  ainiounces  that  an  in- 
vestigation is  to  be  made  "into  the  relations  be- 
tween the  Union  Pacific  and  Southern  Pacific 
railroad  systems  growing  out  of  their  common 
management  and  control." 

The  Commission  has  selected  Frank  B.  Kel- 
logg, who  was  one  of  the  government's  counsel 
in  the  Standard  Oil  prosecution,  and  his  partner, 
C.  A.  Severance.  Their  investigation,  according 
to  a  decision  just  reached,  will  extend  from 
New  York  to  San  Francisco. 


LIGHT  ON  COAL  FRAUDS 


Existence  of  Ring  to  Steal  Fuel  Tracts  in  Utah, 
Colorado,  and  Wyoming  is  Proved. 

One  of  the  most  potential  factors  in  the 
building  up  of  the  great  railroad  systems 
out  of  which  Harriman  and  Hill  have  been 
evolved  has  been,  of  course,  the  western  coal 
supply.  How  this  has  been  handled,  and 
how  the  handling  of  it  is  being  haled  into 
court,  are  told  in  part  in  the  following  by 
"Raymond"  in  the  Chicago  Tribune: 

Washington,  D.  C. — There  will  be  plenty  of 
time  between  now  and  March  4,  when  he  retires 
from  the  Interior  Department,  for  Secretary 
Hitchcock  to  throw  a  flood  of  light  upon  the 
operation.s  of  the  corrupt  ring  which  has  been 
stealing  coal  lands  in  Wyoming  and  other  western 
states  from  the  government  in  the  interest  of  the 
various  railroad  corporations. 

The  facts  developed  by  the  Interstate  Com- 
merce Commission  and  by  the  investigation 
which  has  been  going  on  here  under  the  personal 
supervision  of  Secretary  Hitchcock  have  estab- 
lished the  existence  of  the  frauds  beyond  the 
shadow  of  a  doubt.  The  railroads  employed 
"dummies"  to  enter  these  lands,  and  one  ques- 
tion before  the  Department  now  is  to  fix  the  re- 
sponsibility, because  it  is  manifest  that  these 
frauds  could  not  have  been  committed  in  this 
particular  way  without  collusion  on  the  part  of 
a  whole  string  of  government  officials. 

The    present   indications   are   that   the    clews 


originally  developed  in  Wyoming,  Colorado,  and 
Utah  lead  more  or  less  directly  into  the  general 
land  office  in  Washington.  Mr.  Binger  Hermann, 
of  Oregon,  now  a  member  of  Congress  from  that 
state,  is  to  be  tried  next  month  for  acts  he  is 
alleged  to  have  committed  as  a  commissioner- 
general  of  the  Land  Office.  He  resigned  from 
that  office,  and  his  alleged  malfeasances  were 
developed  afterwards,  and,  in  fact,  after  he  was 
elected  congressman. 

Richards  Asked  to  Explain. 

Commissioner  Hermann  was  succeeded  in 
charge  of  the  General  Land  Office  by  W.  A.  Rich- 
ards. He  received  his  appointment  through  the 
influence  of  Senator  Warren,  to  whose  state  Mr. 
Richards  was  credited.  The  present  commis- 
sioner sent  in  his  resignation  some  time  ago,  but 
since  then  he  has  been  called  upon  for  a  report 
in  regard  to  certain  gross  irregularities  in  the 
West.  Until  that  report  is  approved  it  may  be 
a  matter  of  uncertainty  whether  the  acceptance 
of  his  resignation  may  not  be  recalled,  and  Mr. 
Richards  forced  to  appear  before  the  secretary 
of  the  interior  to  answer  to  the  charge  of  inter- 
fering with  the  orderly  conduct  of  ])ublic 
business. 

The  secretary  of  the  interior  is  anxious  that 
the  entire  matter  should  be  cleared  up  before 
Mr.  Richards  retires  from  the  Land  Department, 
and  this  seems  to  be  more  necessary  because 
there  are  no  criminal  charges  against  him  what- 
soever, but  there  are  serious  allegations  that  he 
has  allowed  personal  influences  to  interfere  with 
the  proper  conduct  of  his  bureau,  and  that  he 
has  paid  more  attention  to  the  personal  influence 
of  Senator  Warren  than  to  the  positive  ordera 
of  the  secretary  of  the  interior  himself. 

Frauds  Beyond  Question. 

There  is,  of  course,  no  question  as  to  the  ex- 
tent of  the  frauds  and  the  criminality  of  the  men 
who  perpetrated  them  upon  the  government.  In 
the  affidavit  made  by  Special  Agent  Myendorff 
and  the  testimony  submitted  by  him  to  the  Inter- 
state Commerce  Commission  at  Salt  Lake  recently 
it  was  alleged  specifically  that  Senator  Warren 
tried  to  induce  him  to  drop  the  investigation 
of  the  Union  Pacific  and  its  connection  with  the 
coal-land  frauds.  It  also  was  asserted  that  the 
General  Land  Office  in  Washington  had  for  years 
refused  to  listen  to  his  report,  hampered  him  in 
every  way  possible,  and  finally  had  transferred 
him. 

The  witness  went  on  to  say  that  Senator  War- 
ren had  copies  of  his  confidential  reports  to  the 
secretary  of  the  interior  and  had  used  these  in 
an  effort  to  compel  him  to  stop  his  investigations 
so  as  not  to  interfere  with  the  re-election  of  Sen- 
ator Clark. 

It  was  also  alleged  that  George  F.  Pollock, 
chief  of  one  of  the  bureaus  of  the  Interior  De- 
partment, advised  him  to  destroy  four  affidavits 
which  he  had  obtained  against  the  Union  Pacific 
Railway  Company. 

Pollock  Denies  Charges. 
Senators   Warren   and   Clark    are    both   away 


THE     P  A  N  D  E  X 


17 


THE   WOLF    CHASE. 


St.  Louis  Republic. 


18 


THE     PA  NDEX 


from  Washington.  The  commissioner-general  of 
the  Land  Office  declined  to  see  anybody  at  all  in 
regard  to  these  charges.  He  is  still  at  work  on 
the  report  which  Secretary  Hitchcock  demanded 
of  him  some  time  ago.  Chief  Clerk  Pollock  said 
emphatically  that  he  never  saw  and  never  was 
informed  of  any  affidavits  from  Mr.  Meyendorff 
or  anybody  else  which  did  not  in  regular  course 
become  and  remain  a  part  of  the  records  of  his 
office.  He  says  emphatically  that  he  has  never  in 
any  way  aided  or  countenanced  the  failure  to 
prosecute  the  land  frauds  in  Wyoming  or  any 
other  state. 

The  inclusion  of  Mr.  Pollock  in  the  charges 
made  at  Salt  Lake  City  is  particularly  important 
because  he  was  being  pressed  as  successor  to 
Commissioner  Richards.  The  publication  of 
these  charges,  of  course,  will  prevent  his  consid- 
eration for  that  place  by  the  president.  He  was 
urged  by  Mr.  Richards  himself  and  by  Senator 
Warren,  it  is  understood. 


CAUSED  THE  FUEL  FAMINE 


Shortage    in   Coal   Results   From  the  Thefts  by 
the  Railroad  Monopolists. 

A  consequence  of  the  coal  crimes,  and 
something  which  in  itself  is  likely  to  call 
for  the  same  examination  and  correction 
tliat  other  questionable  institutions  are  re- 
ceiving, is  reflected  in  the  following  from 
the  Chicago  Record-Herald: 

Salt  Lake  City,  Utah. — Owing  largely  to  the 
monopoly  which  has  been  built  up  by  fraud,  per- 
jury, and  wholesale  stealings  in  the  vast  coal 
fields  of  the  West,  the  entire  country  this  side  of 
the  Missouri  River  is  in  the  grip  of  the  greatest 
fuel  famine  ever  experienced. 

So  extensive  and  general  has  become  the  short- 
age in  the  coal  supply  that  industries  are  being 
crippled,  manufacturing  paralyzed,  mines  and 
smelters  closed,  the  business  of  the  farm  and  of 
the  cities  seriously  retarded,  and  even  life  in  the 
homes  of  the  people  is  being  threatened.  The 
coal  producers  and  the  transportation  companies 
are  totally  unable  to  cope  with  the  situation, 
although  they  are  bending  every  energy  to  re- 
lieve the  urgent  necessity  of  the  people. 

The  shortage  in  coal — due  partially  to  the 
fruits  of  the  greed  and  monopoly — grows  daily 
and  has  become  alarming.  So  inadequate  is  the 
present  supply  of  coal  to  meet  the  demand  that 
in  this  city  there  is  not  a  single  coal  firm  which 
will  guarantee  the  delivery  of  a  single  ton  of 
coal  to  the  home  of  a  consumer  under  fourteen 
days. 

Storm  to  Mean  Disaster. 

The  business  of  this  city  and  of  every  large 
center  almost  from  the  Canadian  border  to  the 
Rio  Grande  and  from  the  Missouri  River  to  the 
Pacific  Coast  is  running  on  one  or  two  days'  coal 
supply.  Should  there  come  a  bad  storm  in  the 
mountains  sufBcient  to  hinder  still  further  trans- 


portation of  coal,  the  situation  in  almost  the  en- 
tire West  would  become  dangerous.  Both  the 
transportation  and  the  coal  companies  are  bend- 
ing every  effort  to  relieve  the  situation.  Their 
managers  in.sist  that  it  is  the  wonderful  and  un- 
precedented growth  of  the  country  which  is  caus- 
ing the  shortage. 

The  people  who  are  suffering  and  who  are 
clamoring  for  coal  insist  that  their  sufferings  are 
due  from  the  monopolistic  grip  which  the  Gould 
and  the  Harriman  systems  have  succeeded  in 
placing  on  the  coal  industry  of  Wyoming,  Utah, 
Colorado,  and  other  western  states.  In  proof  of 
this  contention  they  point  to  the  disclosures  re- 
cently made  by  the  investigation  by  the  Inter- 
state Commerce  Commission. 


LIGHT  ON  RAILWAY  DIVIDENDS 


Interstate  Commerce  Commission  About  to  Inves- 
tigate Complaints  of  Undue  Rates. 
How  much  is  at  stake  in  the  fight  of  the 
corporate  interests  against  the  new  conditions 
is  reflected  in  the  following  from  the  New 
"i  ork  Herald: 

Washington,  D.  C. — So  many  complaints  have 
been  received  that  railroads  are  increasing  divi- 
dends while  failing  to  give  adequate  car  service 
that  the  Interstate  Commerce  Commission  is 
about  to  start  upon  one  of  the  most  important 
investigations  in  its  history. 

It  will  take  up  the  question  of  increased  divi- 
dends in  connection  with  assertions  that  they  are 
the  result  of  unduly  high  rates.  In  connection 
with  the  shortage  of  cars  there  are  intimations 
that  some  shippers  are  favored  at  the  expense  of 
others. 

Generally  railroad  rates  have  not  been  reduced. 
The  tendency  has  been  to  higher  figures,  but  the 
principal  grievance  of  shippers  is  that  they  can 
not  get  the  cars  to  transport  their  goods,  and 
these  complaints  have  become  general.  They 
have  been  pouring  in  on  the  Commission  at  the 
rate  of  hundreds  a  day. 

All  this  time  the  railroad  stockholders  have 
been  receiving  melons  and  increased  dividends. 
One  example  was  the  ten-per-cent  dividend  of 
Union  Pacific.  Another  was  the  ten-per-cent 
extra  dividend  of  the  Lackawanna.  Still  another 
was  the  division  of  valuable  rights  bv  the  Pull- 
man Company. 

The  investigation  of  the  increased  dividends 
in  connection  with  the  shortage  of  rolling  stock 
will  be  undertaken  by  the  Commission  imme- 
diately, and  be  followed  up  by  an  investigation 
of  the  relation  between  increased  dividends  and 
the  increased  cost  of  articles  of  necessity. 

Saving  on  Rolling  Stock. 

One  point  that  is  made  by  many  complainants 
is  that  where  railroads  are  practically  in  com- 
bination, as  is  the  case  with  the  anthracite  lines, 
instead  of  taking  all  the  traffic  they  can  get  and 


THE    PANDEX 


19 


providing  facilities  for  it,  they  are  saving  money 
on  rolling  stock  and  favoring  certain  shippers  in 
certain  localities. 

If  this  can  be  established  it  will  prove  the  ex- 
istence of  a  widespread  evil  that  the  rate  bill 
was  designed  to  cheek,  and  make  necessary  rec- 


eompanies  to  do  business  at  lower  rates.  Many 
of  the  petitioners  assert  that  if  the  traffic  com- 
panies, by  reducing  grades,  removing  curves,  and 
improving  terminals  and  switching  facilities,  are 
able  to  haul  freight  at  less  cost  there  should  be 
a  reduction  of  freisrht  rates. 


THE   "SWOLLEN  FORTUNE"    IS  BECOMING  FRIGHTENED. 

— Chicago  Tribune. 


ommendations  to  Congress  for  the  passage  of  a 
law  empowering  the  commission  to  compel  rail- 
roads to  supply  cars  and  rolling  stock  for  all 
traffic  offered. 

Petitions  received  by  the  Interstate  Commerce 
Commission  also  recite  exorbitant  dividends  paid 
by  all  the  express  companies,  and  these  are  put 
forth  as  conclusive  evidence  of  the  ability  of  the 


CAR  FAMINE  UP  FOR  INQUIRY 


Commission    Will    Investigate    Excuses    Roads 

Have  Been  Making  Shippers. 

Year  after  year,  the  public  has  found  the 

railroads  less  able  to  handle  with  success 

and  satisfaction  the  great  business  given  into 


20 


THE     PANDEX 


their  hands ;  and  latterly  the  inabilities  have 
concentrated  in  a  national  complaint  against 
a  so-called  "car  famine."  What  this  means 
and  the  extent  to  which  it  demands  public 
correction  are  to  be  inferred  from  the  fol- 
l(>winf;  in  the  Chicago  Record-Herald: 

Washington. — The  Interstate  Commerce  Com- 
mission is  to  take  cognizance  of  inci'cased  rail- 
road dividends  in  connection  with  railroad  rates. 
Prior  to  that  it  will  investigate  the  car  shortage 
that  has  aroused  the  conntry-wide  wave  of  com- 
plaint from  shippers. 

Within  a  short  time  the  Commission  ninst  de- 
cide whether  increased  dividends  arc  ))rima  facie 
evideuce  of  excessive  rates  and  whether  the  al- 
leg:ed  inability  of  the  railroads  to  handle  all 
traffic  offered  is  merely  a  cloak  for  discrimina- 
tion against  particular  shippers  and  localities. 
Complaints  of  shortage  of  cars  have  been  ponring 
in  upon  the  Commission  for  months,  and  they 
have  been  looking  for  some  authority  under  the 
law  for  taking  the  matter  up.  Coming  from  all 
.sections  of  the  country  and  from  different  sta- 
tions along  the  same  line  of  railroa<l,  it  was  evi- 
dent that  the  conditions  complained  of  are  gen- 
eral, and,  whatever  the  cause,  they  presented  a 
condition  of  aifairs  affecting  shipjiers  evei'vwhere. 

Most  Important  Question. 

There  is  notiiing  in  the  law  requiring  railroads 
to  furnish  sutficient  accommodations  to  accept 
all  traffic  offered.  It  is  to  be  supposed  that  the 
railroads  are  out  after  business,  and  the  law- 
makers never  contemplated  a  deluge  of  com- 
plaints from  shippers  who  are  unable  to  get  their 
goods  to  market.  No  question  pending  before 
the  Commission  at  this  time  is  as  important  as 
that  raised  by  the  shortage  of  cars. 

Shippers  everywhere  are  protesting  that  be- 
cause of  the  refusal  of  railroads  to  accept  and 
transport  freight  offered  they  are  suffering  .great 
loss.  This  is  caused  in  some  instances  by  the 
deterioi'ation  of  freight  denied  transportation, 
and  in  all  instances  by  the  loss  of  a  ])rofitable 
market.  The  Commission,  recognizing  the  im- 
perative necessity  of  relief  for  the  shippers,  has 
been  seeking  an  excuse  for  delving  into  the  prob- 
lem. It  has  been  found,  and  an  inquiry  will  soon 
be  set  afoot  which  will  develop  whether  there  is 
an  actual  inability  on  the  part  of  railroads  to 
handle  all  trallic,  and  if  so,  the  cause. 

Various  Excuses  Oflfered. 

Different  railroad  officials  offer  different  ex- 
cuses for  a  condition  which  all  admit  with  re- 
gret prevails.  In  some  instances  inability  to  fur- 
nish cars  is  given.  In  others  the  motive  power 
of  the  railroads  is  taxed  to  the  utmost  and  no 
more  freight  can  be  hauled,  while  in  other  cases 
inadequate  terminal  and  switching  facilities  are 
given. 

The  Commission  has  been  informed  that  what- 
ever the  cause,  the  railroads  are  taking  advantage 
of  the  congestion  to  discriminate  between  ship- 
pers  and   localities.     Some    preferred    shippers 


manage  to  get  practically  all  the  cars  they  want, 
while  others  in  the  same  locality  are  unable  to 
get   any.      Some    localities   are   denied   cars,    the . 
(Commission  has  been  advised,  while  near-by  com- 
petitors are  given  preference. 

This  question  of  discrimination  gives  the  Com- 
mission sufficient  authority  to  go  into  the  whole 
question.  It  will  be  learned  whether  the  railroads 
have  been  derelict  in  not  providing  a(le(|uatc  fa- 
cilities to  handle  all  the  traffic  reasonably  to  be 
expected.  There  is  adequate  power  in  the  pres- 
ent law  to  pnni.sh  all  cases  of  discrimination  be- 
tween individuals  and  localities,  under  whatever 
cloak  it  may  be  practiced. 

Congress  Might  Act. 

Should  it  be  found  that  the  railroads  are  fol- 
lowing the  common  practice  of  large  combinations 
to  reap  large  and  unnatural  profits  by  restricting 
the  supply,  arid  liot  permitting  it  to  equal  the 
demand,  a  question  will  be  jiresented  to  Con- 
gress calling  for  additional  legislation.  If  it  is 
true,  as  asserted  by  shippers,  that  the  railroads 
are  maintaining  high  rates  by  failing  to  provide 
sufficient  accommodations,  it  is  believed  Congress 
will  not  be  slow  in  enacting  a  law  if  one  can  be 
const itutionallv  framed. 


INDICTMENTS  HIT  FOUR  RAILROADS 


Minneapolis  Grand  Jury  Returns  Ten  True  Bills 
in  Grain  Rate  Investigation. 

One  of  the  niost  successful  litics  of  attack 
taken  by  the  Federal  authorities  is  disclosed 
in  the  follo\vin<j  from  the  Chicago  Tribune: 

Minneapolis,  Minn. — Railroad  and  grain  com- 
panies were  astounded  and  the  rebate  evil  dealt 
a  staggering  blow  in  this  state  when  the  grand 
jury  investigating  grain  rates  returned  indict- 
ments against  the  Wisconsin  Central,  the  Minne- 
apolis and  St.  Louis,  the  Chicago,  St.  Paul,  Min- 
neapolis and  Omaha,  and  the  Great  Northern  rail- 
roads and  the  McCaull-Densmore  Grain  C<im- 
pany. 

Six  indictments  containing  one  hundred  counts 
and  naming  five  ollicials  were  returned  against 
(he  Great  Northern  Railroad,  the  officials  named 
being  Freight  Agents  David  G.  Black,  Minneajm- 
lis;  W.  W.  Broughton,  A.  G.  McGuire,  (1.  I.  Swe- 
ney,  and  H.  A.  Kindjall,  St.  Paul. 

One  indictment,  containing  .seventeen  counts, 
was  returned  against  the  Wisconsin  Central,  the 
officials  named  being  Freight  Agents  Burton 
Johnson,  Milwaukee,  and  G.  T.  Huey,  Minne- 
apolis. 

One  indictment,  containing  five  counts,  was  re- 
turned against  the  Minneapolis  and  St.  Louis,  the 
officials  named  being  Freight  Agent  J.  T.  Kenney, 
Minneapolis. 

One  indictment,  containing  fifty  counts,  was 
returned  against  the  Omaha  road,  the  officials 
named  being  Freight  Agents  F.  C.  Gifford,  Min- 
neapolis; E.  B.  Ober  and  H.  M.  Pearce,  St.  Paul. 

The  indictment  against  the  McCaull-Densmore 


THE     1' AND  EX 


21 


PLEASANT  DREAMS. 

Apropos  of  the   fact  that  District  Attorney  Jerome,  of  New  York,  after  months  of  investi- 
gation, reported  against  the  prosecution  of  the  insurance  men. 

—New    York    Wmld. 


22 


THE     PANDEX 


Company  contains  five  counts,  charging  the  ac- 
ceptance of  rebates.  The  railroads  and  their 
officials  are  indicted  for  giving  rebates.  The 
minimum  penalty  for  conviction  on  each  count 
is  $1000  and  maximum  $20,000. 

The  general  offense  alleged  in  the  railroad  in- 
dictments is  the  absorption  of  grain  elevation 
charges. 

The  indictments  came  as  a  complete  surprise  to 
the  railroads.  Each  company  had  disclaimed  any 
criminal  intent  in  its  relations  with  the  grain 
companies  concerning  which  its  employees  had 
given  testimony  before  the  jury.  The  companies 
received  no  inkling  of  the  fact  that  they  were 
threatened  with  indictment.  No  member  of  the 
grain  company  was  called  to  the  stand,  no  rail- 
road men  indicted  who  had  testified  before  the 
grand  jury. 


GEIP  OF  LUMBER  TRUST 


Inquiry  Proposed  by  Senator  Kittredge  "Will  Dis- 
close Most  Grinding  of  Monopolies. 

In  the  course  of  time,  probably,  the  Fed- 
eral probe  will  touch  every  line  of  trade 
vhieh  affects  modern  life,  as  may  be  judged 
from  the  following  from  the  New  York 
World  in  regard  to  one  of  the  most  im- 
portant of  commodities: 

Washington. — The  investigation  of  the  lumber 
trust,  as  proposed  in  a  resolution  offered  by  Sen- 
ator Kittredge,  is  regarded  by  members  of  Con- 
gress as  of  more  general  interest  to  all  the  people 
than  any  previous  inquiry  of  the  kind.  Every 
household  in  the  country  where  furniture  is  used 
is  interested. 

Farmers  in  such  states  as  do  not  produce  tim- 
ber have  reached  a  point  where  they  are  help- 
less. They  can  not  afford  to  pay  the  high  prices 
demanded  for  lumber,  and  improvements  have 
been  checked.  This  is  especially  true  in  the  Da- 
kotas  and  other  prairie  states.  The  special  agents 
sent  out  by  the  Interstate  Commerce  Commission 
under  the  La  Follette  resolution  for  a  general 
investigation  of  the  relations  existing  between 
railroads  and  elevators  met  with  countless  ap- 
peals for  an  inquiry  into  the  lumber  trust. 

At  present  the  lumber  trust  is  the  most  com- 
plete of  all  the  great  combinations.  It  is  oper- 
ated without  a  holding  company  or  any  outward 
evidence  of  being  a  monopoly.  It  fixes  the  prices 
for  all  lumber.  These  prices  have  steadily  ad- 
vanced for  fifteen  years  and  are  now  approach- 
ing the  prohibitive  point,  although  there  is  more 
lumber  on  hand  in  yards  and  storehouses  than  at 
any  previous  period. 

The  lumber  trust  operates  through  several  or- 
ganizations. These  are  the  Hemlock,  Pine,  and 
Hardwood  Associations.  Every  branch  of  the 
business  is  covered  by  an  association.  Repre- 
sentatives of  the  concern  meet  every  month  and 
fix  prices.  Lists  are  sent  out  to  all  customers.  If 
any  retail  dealer  disregards  the  fixed  price  a  boy- 


cott is  established  and  he  is  forced  out  of  busi- 
ness. 

Through  this  system  operated  under  a  "gentle- 
men's agreement,"  all  competition  has  been  en- 
tirely eliminated.  No  portion  of  the  country  has 
been  overlooked  and  all  the  lumber  product  of 
the  United  States  is  controlled  by  the  lumber 
trust.  The  capital  of  the  trust,  according  to  the 
last  census,  is  $611,000,000.  Lumber  is  the  fourth 
largest  industry  in  the  country,  being  surpassed 
only  by  the  steel  and  iron,  the  textile,  and  the 
meat-packing  industries. 

By  continually  increasing  the  price  of  lumber 
sold  to  furniture  dealers  for  the  last  fifteen  years 
the  price  of  all  household  goods  made  of  wood 
has  gradually  advanced.  There  is  no  relief  for 
the  manufacturers  of  furniture,  as  they  must  pay 
the  prices  demanded  by  those  selling  the  neces- 
sary lumber. 


TRUST  IN  GUNPOWDER  NEXT 


Government  is  Preparing  for  Attack  in  Court  on 
Monopoly  in  Explosives. 
In  the  following  item  from  the  Chicago 
Kecord-Herald  is  an  exhibit  of  the  manner 
\a  which  the  unlawful  businesses  have  in- 
jured the  Federal  Government  itself: 

Washington. — The  gunpowder  trust  is  next  on 
the  list  for  decapitation.  An  investigation  of  its 
operations  and  methods  has  been  under  way  for 
several  months,  and  while  officials  of  the  Depart- 
ment of  Justice  refuse  at  this  time  to  say  any- 
thing as  to  their  plans,  enough  is  known  to  war- 
rant the  statement  that  action  looking  to  dissolu- 
tion of  this  particular  octopus  will  be  taken  soon 
after  the  change  in  the  head  of  the  denartment 
occurs,  which  will  be  immediately  after  the  ap- 
pointment of-  Attorney  General  Moody  to  the 
supreme  bench  is  confirmed  by  the  Senate. 

Attack  on  the  gunpowder  trust  is  not  to  be 
made  in  the  courts  alone,  either.  Following  the 
move  made  last  winter  to  start  the  government 
in  the  manufacture  of  smokeless  powder,  and 
thereby  break  up  the  monopoly  now  enjoyed  by 
the  Dupont  international  combination.  Congress 
is  to  be  asked  at  the  coming  session  to  appro- 
priate a  sufficient  amount  of  money  to  establish 
plants  to  manufacture  all  the  smokeless  powder 
required  for  the  use  of  the  navy  and  our  coast 
defenses. 

Robert  S.  Waddell,  president  of  the  Buckeye 
Powder  Company  of  Peoria,  111.,  who  largely  was 
instrumental  in  forcing  the  appropriation  of 
$165,000  to  establish  the  first  unit  in  the  scheme 
of  government  control  and  operation  of  its 
powder-making,  has  been  in  Washington  the  last 
few  days  arranging  for  his  winter's  campaign  to 
complete  the  project. 

Measures  probably  will  be  introduced  in  Con- 
gress looking  to  the  appropriation  of  $3,000,000 
for  three  smokeless  powder  plants,  two  to  be 
located  on  the  Atlantic  and  Pacific  seaboards, 
respectively,  where  they  will  be  easy  of  access 
for  the  navy,  and  the  third,  under  the  direction 


THE    PANDEX 


23 


of  the  War  Department,  to  be  located  somewhere 
in  the  interior,  where  it  will  be  safe  in  case  of 
invasion  by  a  foreign  enemy. 

Mr.  Waddell,  aside  from  conducting  his  cam- 
paign for  government  manufacture  of  gunpowder, 
has  been  engaged  recently  in  gathering  material 
for  local  grand-jury  action  against  agents  of  the 
trust  in  Chicago,  Peoria,  and  other  points,  and 
these  prospective  proceedings  promise  some  start- 
ling sensations.  It  is  understood  also  that  Mr. 
Waddell  during  his  visit  here  has  been  spending 
considerable  time  in  conference  with  Department 
of  Justice  officials,  and  it  is  probable  such  con- 
ference has  an  important  bearing  on  plans  now 
forming  to  dissolve  the  combination. 


Oil  Company,  because  the  government  agents 
were  concentrated  on  this  work,  where  the  first 
blow  has  fallen. 


MOVE  ON  SMELTER  COMPANY 


Department  of  Justice  Will  Follow  Standard  Oil 
Case  With  Proceedings  Against  Many  Others. 
Tho  less  talked  of  than  many  of  the  other 
monopolies,  none  is  likely  to  prove  more 
amenable  to  reproof  and  reorganization 
along  the  new  lines  than  the  one  described  in 
the  following  from  the  New  York  Herald : 

Washington,  D.  C. — Actual  proceedings  against 
the  Standard  Oil  Company,  now  under  way  in  St. 
Louis,  are  not  to  be  permitted  to  stop  the  investi- 
gation of  the  government  into  the  business  meth- 
ods of  other  trusts  that  are  believed  to  be  amen- 
able to  the  provisions  of  the  Sherman  anti-trust 
law.  Suits  against  these  other  law-breaking  cor- 
porations will  not  be  withheld  until  the  conclu- 
sion of  the  case  against  the  Standard  Oil,  as 
under  the  most  favorable  circumstances  with 
cases  advanced  to  an  early  hearing  before  the 
higher  courts,  it  is  recognized  that  many  months 
may  elapse  before  a  final  determination  can  be 
reached  in  the  Supreme  Coijrt.  For  this  reason, 
the  fight  on  the  trusts  all  along  the  line  will  be 
commenced  as  soon  as  the  government  is  ready  to 
bring  the  actions. 

One  of  the  trusts  to  feel  the  weight  of  the  gov- 
ernment's  displeasure  will  be  the  American 
Smelting  and  Refining  Company,  which  within 
the  last  few  days  has  endeavored  to  compel  the 
treasury  to  pay  tribute  to  its  control  of  the  bul- 
lion market  of  the  country,  in  the  purchase  of 
silver  bullion  for  the  coinage  of  subsidiary  silver. 
Instead  of  complying  with  the  demands  of  this 
Company,  Secretary  Shaw  refused  to  buy  at  all, 
and  intimated  that  the  methods  of  the  Smelter 
Company  would  be  made  the  subject  of  an  imme- 
diate investigation. 

Meanwhile  the  agents  of  the  Department  of 
Justice  and  of  the  Bureau  of  Corporations  are 
busily  engaged  investigating  the  business  meth- 
ods of  the  sugar  trust,  the  tobacco  trust,  and  one 
or  two  other  combinations  that  are  charged  with 
violating  the  law.  The  evidence  secured  against 
them  has  not  been  gathered  on  the  elaborate 
scale  carried  out  in  connection  with  the  Standard 


AFTER  TURPENTINE  TRUST 


Federal  Attorneys  Collecting  Evidence  Against 

Still  Another  Concern. 

New  York. — ^Energetie  efforts  are  being  made 
by  the  Federal  Government  to  clip  the  tentacles 
of  what  has  come  to  be  known  as  the  turpentine 
trust,  and  the  United  States  district  attorney 
here  is  co-operating  with  the  United  States  attor- 
ney for  the  southern  district  of  Georgia.  The 
turpentine  'combine'  has  its  headquarters  in  the 
South,  and  many  complaints  have  been  received 
by  the  government  authorities  concerning  its  op- 
erations. It  is  alleged  that  a  hard-and-fast  agree- 
ment exists  between  the  various  constituent  com- 
panies belonging  to  the  so-called  trust,  and  that 
the  business  and  territory  have  been  divided  up 
in  regular  octopus  fashion.  A  representative  of 
the  district  attorney  at  Macon,  Ga.,  it  is  learned, 
has  been  in  conference  with  the  district  attorney 
here,  and  it  is  understood  the  government  is  hot 
on  the  trail  of  the  concern. 

It  is  intimated  that  the  turpentine  trust,  so 
called,  is  influenced  and  controlled  to  a  greater 
or  less  degree  by  the  Standard  Oil  Company,  al- 
though government  officials  are  disposed  to  be 
reticent  on  this  phase  of  the  question.  It  is 
known,  at  any  rate,  that  Standard  Oil  interests 
in  the  past  have  endeavored  to  absorb  the  turpen- 
tine and  rosin  industries,  but  how  far  they  have 
succeeded,  if  at  all,  remains  to  be  disclosed.  The 
determination  of  the  government  to  dissolve  the 
Standard  Oil  trust,  if  possible,  by  means  of  the 
suit  in  equity  that  is  to  be  filed  in  the  United 
States  Circuit  Court  at  St.  Louis,  and  its  an- 
nounced intention  to  make  it  hot  for  the  Standard 
all  along  the  line,  appears  to  justify  the  opinion 
that  the  Federal  authorities  strongly  suspect  that 
intimate  relations  exist  between  the  two  enter- 
prises. 


BURNS  TOBACCO  FACTORIES 


Rioters    Disarm    Kentucky    Town    Marshal    and 
Seize  Water  Works  and  Telephone  Office. 

The  risk  which  trusts  and  unlawful  busi- 
ness institutions  run,  when  they  disregard 
and  challenge  too  far  the  popular  sentiment, 
is   illustrated    in    the    following    from  the 

Louisville,  Ky. — Fire  kindled  by  a  mob  of 
masked  men,  at  an  early  hour  recently,  destroyed 
the  tobacco  stemmeries  of  John  Steger  and  John 
G.  Orr,  at  Princeton,  Ky.,  the  latter  controlled 
by  the  Imperial  Tobacco  Company,  of  New  York. 
The  loss  is  estimated  at  about  $170,000.    Several 


24 


THE     P AND EX 


small   dwelling  houses  in   the  vicinity  were  also 
partially  destroyed,  but  no  person  was  injured. 

Tlie  work  of  the  mob  is  believed  to  be  only  a 
furtherance  of  the  agitation  by  the  tobacco  rais- 
ers against  the  tobacco  trust.  The  organization 
of  farmers  is  known  as  the  Dark  Tobacco  Grow- 
ers' Protective  Association,  but  it  is  not  known 


that  any  member  of  that  organization  was  in  tlie 
mob. 

The  ill  feeling  began  about  six  years  ago,  when 
the  Italian  Government  sent  agents  into  the  dark 
tobacco  field.  These  agents  paid  such  higli  prices 
for  the  tobacco  that  others  were  driven  out  of 
the  tield. 


TRANSFORMATION  IN  NEW  YORK 


REALIGNMENT  IN  BOTH   PARTIES  GROWING  OUT  OF   CHAOS   IN 
RECENT    CAMPAIGN.— EACH    MACHINE    MUST    BE    PRAC- 
TICALLY RECONSTRUCTED  BEFORE  IT  RUNS  AGAIN 


WHEN  the  business  world  is  being  so 
severely  overhauled  and  regauged,  it 
is  to  be  expected  that  the  political  world 
HLUst  follow  in  the  same  course,  especially 
in  so  important  a  state  as  New  York,  wherein 
all  political  precedents  have  recently  been 
broken  and  all  political  organizations 
severely  shaken.  The  following  from  the 
New  York  Herald,  therefore,  is  a  story  of 
significance: 

Out  of  the  chaos  of  the  campaign  just  ended 
has  emerged  a  realignment  of  political  parties  in 
the  state  of  New  York.  The  political  transforma- 
tion which  has  taken  place  is  engaging  the  care- 
ful study  of  the  political  leaders  of  all  shades  of 
opinion.  It  has  not  yet  been  mapped  and  charted. 
Its  shoals  and  quicksands  remain  to  be  discov- 
ered. To  what  it  will  lead  and  where  it  will  end 
nobody  as  yet  can  tell. 

By  grace  of  Charles  F.  Murphy  and  W.  R. 
Hearst,  a  Republican  governor  will  once  more 
take  the  oath  of  office  in  Albany  with  the  begin- 
ning of  the  new  year,  though  all  the  other  elective 
offices  in  the  new  administration  will  be  filled  by 
Democrats.  This  mixed  condition  of  affairs  in 
the  state  capitol  is  typical  of  the  tangled  situa- 
tion which  pervades  the  politics  of  the  state. 
While  political  lines  have  been  merged  at  many 
points,  the  party  machines  on  both  sides  have 
suffered  so  severely  that  they  will  require  prac- 
tical reconstruction  before  they  will  be  in  running 
order  again. 

From  one  end  of  the  state  to  the  other  the 
shadow  of  the  new  political  twins.  Murphy  and 
Hearst,  has  fallen  on  the  Democracy.  With 
ruthless  determination  to  control  the  party  ma- 


chinery at  all  hazards,  they  have  entered  upon 
a  policy  of  boldly  driving  out  of  the  party  ranks 
all  Democrats  who  refuse  to  accept  Hearst  and 
his  doctrines  as  Democratic,  or  wlio  hesitate  to 
hail  the  leader  of  Tammany  Hall  as  the  master 
of  the  party  in  the  state.  They  are  widening  by 
every  means  at  their  command  the  Democratic 
split  caused  by  the  sandbagging  of  the  Buffalo 
convention  by  Mr.  Murphy  in  the  interest  of  Mr. 
Hearst. 

Republican  Discipline  Relaxed. 

That  Republican  atfairs  are  in  slightly  better 
condition  is  due  to  the  popularity  of  President 
Roosevelt  and  the  fact  that  he  is  now  tacitly,  if 
not  openly,  recognized  as  the  head  of  his  party. 
But  tlie  discipline  in  the  party  is  greatly  relaxed 
and  there  is  nearly  everywhere  a  lack  of  unity. 

B.  B.  Odell,  Jr.,  who  forced  himself  into  the 
leadership  two  years  ago  while  still  governor  by 
the  open  use  of  the  state  patronage  to  compel 
obedience,  has  been  ousted  from  the  chairmanship 
of  the  State  Committee.  The  influence  of  Presi- 
dent Roosevelt  anil  his  immediate  followers 
brought  about  the  nomination  of  Charles  K. 
Hughes,  who  was  not  the  candidate  the  Repub- 
lican "bosses"  would  have  chosen  had  they  been 
left  to  their  own  devices. 

That  tlie  new  governor  will  perform  the  task 
he  was  elected  to  perform  is  the  general  expecta- 
tion in  the  Republican  organization.  The  leaders 
look  forward  to  a  genuine  housecleaning,  after 
January  1,  1907,  and  they  do  not  like  the  pros- 
pect, even  while  they  realize  that  the  future  suc- 
cess of  Republicanism  in  the  state  absolutely  de- 
pends upon  a  reorganization  of  the  state  govern- 
ment in  a  thorougli  and  workmanlike  manner. 

Mr.  Odell  and  the  small  group  of  leaders  who 
went  down  with  him  are  seeking  to  magnify  Mr. 
Hearst  in  the  hope  that  he  will  bring  about  a  gen- 


THE    PANDEX 


25 


eral  smashing  of  botli  inachines.  whicli  will  en- 
able them  to  regain  the  places  from  which  they 
have  been  ousted. 

Timothy  L.  Woodruff,  the  new  chairman  of 
the  Republican  State  Committee,  is  not  and  prob- 
ably will  not  be  the  leader  of  his  party.  He  lost 
his  own  county  of  Kings,  although  aided  by  a 
Democratic  defection  which  brought  more  than 
twenty  thousand  votes  to  the  head  of  the  Repub- 
lican state  ticket.  The  weakness  of  the  Repub- 
lican machine  was  demonstrated  in  the  election 
returns.  Thousands  of  the  Republican  voters  in 
the  interior  of  the  state  either  went  over  to  the 
enemy  or  did  not  vote  at  all.  Mr.  Hughes  was 
elected  by  Democratic  votes. 

Mr.  Hughes'  Victory  Personal. 

Although  Mr.  Hughes  was  elected,  his  triumph 
was  a  personal  one,  due  to  the  fact  that  the  peo- 
ple of  the  state  had  confidence  in  his  integrity, 
while  they  felt  a  deej)  distrust  for  Mr.  Hearst 
and  his  methods.  There  was  undoubtedly 
treachery  in  the  Republican  camp,  and  there  is  a 
deep  feeling  of  discouragement  in  the  organiza- 
tion over  the  defeat  of  the  state  ticket  with  the 
exception  of  its  head.  Every  leader  is  blaming 
his  neighbor  and  seeking  justification  for  him- 
self. Many  of  the  chairmen  of  the  Republican 
county  committees  feel  they  were  ignored  and 
neglected  during  the  campaign  as  of  no  import- 
ance. Insurance  interests,  which  had  felt  the 
Hughes  dissecting  knife,  threw  their  influence 
against  him.  Friends  of  Governor  Higgins  did 
not  exert  themselves  overmuch  to  roll  up  a  large 
vote. 

There  is  no  Republican  "boss"  to  hold  the 
party  reins  with  a  firm  grasp  and  compel  obe- 
dience. Senator  Piatt 's  day  has  passed.  Mr. 
Odell's  attempt  to  make  himself  dictator  of  the 
party  cost  him  his  leadership.  President  Roose- 
velt can  not  give  his  attention  to  the  details  of 
party  management  even  if  he  were  so  disposed. 

The  Republican  organization,  therefore,  has 
become  an  oligarchy  filled  with  animosities  and 
private  quarrels.  The  warfare  for  the  control  of 
the  machine  which  smouldered  all  through  the 
Odell  administration  has  ended  with  his  defeat, 
and  for  the  present  there  is  a  truce. 

There  is  no  truce,  however,  in  the  Democratic 
ranks.  Mr.  Murphy  has  come  to  the  conclusion 
that  the  time  is  at  last  ripe  for  the  extension  of 
the  power  of  Tammany  to  the  entire  organiza- 
tion of  the  state.  He  made  W.  J.  Conners  chair- 
man of  the  State  Committee  as  his  representative, 
and  he  is  now  in  fact,  temporarily,  at  least,  the 
Democratic  state  leader.  Taking  advantage  of 
the  demoralization  of  the  Democratic  machine 
created  by  Samuel  J.  Tilden  and  maintained  by 
David  B.  Hill,  he  is  seeking  to  read  out  of  the 
party  all  Democrats  who  rejected  Mr.  Hearst  or 
who  will  not  submit  to  his  will,  so  that  he  may 
build  up  a  new  organization,  with  himself  in 
supreme  power. 

The  realization  of  Mr.  Murphy's  ambition  has 
been  the  signal  for  an  organized  revolt  headed  by 
a   score   of   the   more   influential   leaders   outside 


the  city.  Such  men  as  William  M.  Osborne,  of 
Auburn ;  D.  Cady  Herrick,  John  N.  Carlisle,  John 
B.  Stanchfield,  George  Raines,  Charles  N.  Bulger, 
and  many  others  are  in  more  or  less  open  rebel- 
lion against  Murphy  and  Hearst.  They  have  be- 
gun a  systematic  organization  of  the  Democracy 
in  the  up-state  counties,  with  the  avowed  purpose 
of  defeating  the  aggressions  of  the  Murphy- 
Hearst  alliance.  They  are  determined,  if  pos- 
sible, to  repair  the  neglect  which  permitted  Mr. 
Hearst  to  gain  a  foothold  in  the  organization 
and  to  drive  Mr.  Murphy  back  to  the  Westchester 
line.  There  has  been  no  ees.sation  in  the  Demo- 
cratic warfare  since  election  day,  and  there  is 
likely  to  be  none  until  the  issue  has  been  decided. 

Murphy  Weaker  in  City. 

But  while  Mr.  Murphy  is  .seeking  to  subdue 
the  up-state  counties  his  power  in  the  city  is  by 
no  means  secure.  The  organization  in  Kings, 
under  the  leadership  of  Senator  McCarren,  laughs 
at  his  assumption  of  authority  and  his  threats 
to  exclude  it  from  the  party.  Richmond  is  in 
revolt  and  Queens  is  preparing  to  rid  itself  of 
Joseph  Cassidy,  the  Murphy  figure-head,  set  up 
after  the  regular  delegates  from  the  county  had 
been  driven  out  of  the  state  convention.  The 
Democrats  of  Queens  overthrew  Mr.  Cassidy  in 
the  primaries  and  the  organization  there  is  in 
the  hands  of  his  enemies. 

Mr.  Murphy's  most  immediate  danger,  how- 
ever, is  in  Tammany  itself,  where  Mayor  McClel- 
lan  has  at  last  found  a  leader  with  courage  and 
ability  enough  to  attack  the  "boss,"  even  though 
he  is  now  backed  by  the  support  of  Mr.  Hearst. 
This  leader  is  Maurice  Featherson,  admittedly 
one  of  the  ablest  and  most  successful  leaders  in 
the  Tammany  organization.  Mr.  Featherson,  if 
he  can,  will  depose  Mr.  Murphy  from  the  leader- 
ship when  the  Tammany  general  committee  reor- 
ganizes in  the  last  week  in  December,  and  the 
fight  for  control  promises  to  be  one  of  the  most 
memorable  in  the  history  of  the  organization. 

Mr.  Murphy  and  his  friends  profess  to  be  con- 
fident he  will  manage  to  hold  the  organization 
against  Mr.  Featherson,  but  there  is  an  uneasy 
feeling  among  the  Tammany  leaders  who  will  be 
called  upon  in  the  next  six  weeks  to  make  their 
choice. 

The  Feathei'son.  forces  are  already  laying  claim 
to  the  support  of  fourteen  of  the  thirty-live 
assembly  districts.  There  has  been  no  real  fight 
against  Mr.  Murphy  since  the  mayor  decide>\  to 
get  along  without  him  at  the  beginning  of  his 
second  term. 

Every  Tammany  leader  depends  very  largely 
upon  his  ability  to  hold  office  himself  and  to  keep 
his  followers  in  office.  In  addition  he  must  be 
able  to  procure  favors  for  his  friends  and  to  pun- 
ish his  enemies.  The  followers  of  Mr.  Mui-phy 
are  seeking  to  raise  the  confidence  of  their  adhe- 
rents by  promising  that  places  will  be  found  in 
the  state  departments  under  the  Democratic  state 
officials  for  all  Murphy  men  who  are  displaced  by 
the  contest  for  the  control  of  the  local  organiza- 
tion. 


26 


THE     PANDEX 


Not  Much  Patronage. 
This  assurance  has  made  some  impression,  and, 
of  course,  it  can  not  be  verified  until  the  new 
administration  has  come  into  power  after  the  re- 
organization has  taken  place  in  the  General  Com- 
mittee. As  a  matter  of  fact,  however,  there  will 
be  very  little  patronage  at  the  disposition  of  the 
state  officials.  There  are  few  places  to  be  par- 
celed out,  as  the  great  majority  of  the  state  em- 
ployees are  under  the  civil  service  and  in  depart- 
ments controlled  by  officials  appointed  by  the 
governor  and  not  elected.  The  state  patronage 
which  will  fall  to  the  share  of  the  Democratic 
officials  will  be  insignificant  in  comparison  with 
the  patronage  at  the  disposal  of  the  mayor  and 
the  heads  of  his  departments. 

Richard  Croker's  expected  arrival  in  this 
country  early  in  December  is  attracting  much 
attention  in  Tammany,  in  view  of  the  contest  be- 
tween Messrs.  Featherson  and  Murphy.  It  was 
Mr.  Croker  who  first  made  Mr.  Featherson  a  dis- 
trict leader,  and  the  former  master  of  Tammany 
has  watched  his  progress  ever  since  with  a 
friendly  interest.  Mr.  Croker's  retirement  from 
the  leadership  of  Tammany  has  left  him  without 
direct  authority  in  the  organization,  but  he  still 
has  friends  there,  and  whatever  influence  he  may 
be  able  to  exert  will  be  thrown  in  favor  of  Mr. 
Featherson. 

If  Mr.  Featherson  succeeds  in  defeating  Mr. 
Murphy  the  latter 's  campaign  to  get  absolute 
control  of  the  party  machinery  in  the  up-state 
counties  will  collapse  and  the  conservatives  will 
have  no  difficulty  in  regaining  the  mastery.  If 
Mr.  Murphy  gains  the  victory  the  contest  for 
control  will  go  on,  backed  by  the  organization  in 
Kings  and  by  at  least  a  strong  minority  in  Tam- 
many Hall.  The  mayor  has  still  three  years  to 
serve  before  his  term  ends,  and  the  local  battle 
will  be  renewed  in  the  primaries. 

It  is  the  opinion  of  the  most  farsighted  of  the 
leaders  of  both  parties  that  whether  the  radical 
movement  in  this  state  shall  gain  strength  or 
decline  between  now  and  the  next  election  will 
depend  mainly  upon  the  administration  of  Gov- 
ernor Hughes  and  the  work  of  the  legislature. 
If  the  demand  for  reform,  both  in  legislation  and 
in  administration,  is  satisfied  there  will  still  re- 


main the  radical  element  which  is  the  basis  of 
the  Hearst  movement  and  which  will  be  satisfied 
with  nothing  short  of  a  redistribution  of  prop- 
erty; but  the  dissatisfaction  with  existing  condi- 
tions and  the  distrust  of  the  old  parties  which 
caused  thousands  of  voters  all  over  the  state  to 
vote  for  Mr.  Hearst  as  a  protest  will  very  largely 
disappear. 

The  best  judges  of  the  situation  in  the  state 
sum  it  all  up  in  the  remark,  "  It 's  up  to  Governor 
Hughes. ' ' 


CORRECTING  A  MISAPPREHENSION. 

"I  do  not  control  one  mile  of  railroad." — E. 
H.  Harriman. 
Oh, 

Is  that  so? 

Well,  now,  do  you  know 
Some  people  think  that  you 
Have  corralled  a  few 
And  laid  them  away 
For  a  rainy  day? 
Not  many,  of  course,  but  enough 
For  a  bluff 
When  the  game 
Calls  for  the  same, 
If  it  ever  does. 
My  suz! 
Ain't  it  funny 
How  a  chap  with  money 
Acquires   a  reputation 
Among  the  common  herd 
Of  really  and  truly  being 
A  Julius  Caesar  bird. 
When  he  ain't  anything  but  a  dove 
Chuck-full  of  brotherly  love- 
For  everything  that  has  a  worm 
He  needs  in  his  business? 
Oh,  say. 

Ain't  it  rotten  to  think  that  way? 
It's  a  sham  dame 
To  queer  the  fair  fame 
Of  a  saint 

Who  is  what  he  is  and  ain't  what  he  ain't. 
Don't  it? 

What  do  you  suppose  inspires 
People  to  be  such  liars? 
Huh?  —W.  J.  L.,  in  New  York  World. 


FORETHOUGHT. 

"What  are  yez  goin'  back  agin  to  the  house  fer?" 

"Sure,  I  forgot  me  pipe  an'  I'll  just  go  back  an'   lave  me  tobaccy  pouch, 
aggravate  me,  knowin'  I  couldn't  smoke  all  day." 


It  would  only 

— Judge. 


THE    PANDEX 


27 


Corporations 

Raise 

Wages  zuid 

Standard  Oil 

Makes  an 

Appeal. 


T.     FORTUNE     RYAN— HE     RETIRES. 

— Adapted   from  New   York   World. 

GENERAL  EVIDENCE  THAT  THE  MEN  OF  INFLUENCE  AND  MEANS 

HAVE  CHANGED  THEIR  POINT  OF  VIEW  AND  HAVE 

BEGUN  TO  CONCILIATE  THE  PUBLIC  IN  ALL 

POSSIBLE  RESPECTS. 


GIVEN  the  benefit  of  the  doubt,  even  the 
big  corporation  man  may  be  said  to  be 
beginning  to  emerge  from  the  period  of 
eastigation  and  enforced  reform  with  a  lib- 
eral inheritance  of  the  spirit  of  the  times 
and  an   apparent  conviction  that  t^e  com- 


munity in  vrhich  he  seeks  to  be  a  leader, 
either  financially  or  otherwise,  will  be  the 
better  both  for  him  and  for  others  if  he  does 
his  part  in  the  reforming.  With  this  faith 
in  mind,  he  finds  himself  raising  wages,  pay- 
ing   hitherto    evaded    taxes,    withdrawing 


28 


THE     PANDEX 


from  directorates  to  which  it  is  impossible 
that  he  give  just  or  adequate  attention,  and 
even  proposing  new  laws  for  the  restraint 
of  trusts  and  receiving  government  sub- 
penas  as  cheerfully,  almost,  as  if  they  were 
coupons. 


CORPORATIONS    RAISE    WAGES 

General  Movement  to  Meet  Anti-Capitalistic 
Sentiment  Said  to  Be  the  Cause. 
The  strife  of  November  6  was  scarcely 
over  and  time  had  hardly  elapsed  to  permit 
of  a  study  of  the  returns,  when  a  number  of 
the  largest  of  the  corporations  announced  a 
general  advance  in  wages.  Said  the  New 
York  Herald: 

It  became  known  in  Wall  Street  recently  that 
practically  all  the  great  railroad  and  industrial 
corporations  of  the  country,  the  affairs  of  which 
are  directed  from  this  city,  have  decided  to  in- 
crease the  jjrevailing  rate  of  wages  to  their  em- 
ployees. It  was  predicted  that  the  action  of  the 
Pennsylvania  Railroad  management  in  increas- 
ing the  wages  of  its  array  of  165,000  men  nearly 
$12,000,000  would  soon  be  followed  by  all  the 
important  railroad  and  industrial  corporations 
of  the  United  States. 

The  Standard  Oil  Company  has  decided  to  in- 
crease the  wages  of  its  60,000  employees  in  dif- 
ferent parts  of  the  United  States.  The  increase 
will  be  carried  out  through  the  company's  sub- 
sidiary corporations. 

Information  also  reached  the  city  from  Mon- 
tana that  the  Amalgamated  Copper  Company, 
generally  known  as  the  Copper  Trust,  which  em- 
ploys nearly  15,000  men  in  the  mines  of  Mon- 
tana, has  already  made  a  proposal  to  its  em- 
ployees increasing  their  wages  about  10  per  cent. 
The  United  States  Steel  Corporation,  the 
world's  largest  trust,  which  advanced  the  wages 
of  its  army  of  175,000  employees  in  March,  1905, 
without  solicitation  from  the  men,  is  also  con- 
sidering the  question  of  a  wage  increase. 

The  Philadelphia  &  Reading  Company,  the 
New  York  Central,  the  Lackawanna,  and  other 
Eastern  roads  have  either  been  requested  to  ad- 
vance the  wages  of  the  employees  or  have  taken 
some  steps  to  do  so. 

Cost  of  Living  Higher. 
One  reason  for  the  general  tendency  of  trust 
managers  to  increase  the  wages  of  the  workmen 
was  brought  out  recently  by  a  trade  agency, 
which  reported  that  the  present  cost  of  living 
was  the  highest  in  twenty  years.  According  to 
Dun's  Index  Number  of  commodity  prices  pro- 
portioned to  consumption,  the  average  cost  was 
$106,683  on  November  11  last.  Compared  with 
a  year  ago  on  the  same  date  the  present  cost, 
ns  shown  by  the  Index  Number,  is  $3  higher. 

Another  reason  given  by  financiers  is  that  the 
industrial  corporations  are  all  in  a  highly  pros- 


perous condition  and  the  scores  of  plants  are 
being  worked  to  their  full  capacity  and  under 
high  pressure.  Under  these  conditions  it  is  said 
to  be  the  desire  of  the  managements  of  the 
larger  corporations  to  have  their  workmen  par- 
ticipate in  the  prosperity. 

Men  of  prominence  in  the  financial  world  saw 
in  the  concerted  action  of  the  great  corporations 
a  desire  to  checkmate  the  growing  tide  of  antag- 
onism to  corporations  such  as  was  brought  out 
in  the  recent  election.  The  discontent  among 
the  laboring  element,  the  higher  cost  of  living, 
tiie  lowered  purchasing  power  of  the  dollar  unit 
and  the  effect  of  the  disclosures  of  corporate 
abuses,  it  is  generally  admitted  here,  forced  the 
corporations  to  adopt  a  more  liberal  policy  to 
the  workingmen  and  thereby  conciliate  the  active 
antagonism  which  was  reflected  in  the  election. 


PAYS  UNCALLED  FOR  TAXES 

Seth  Low,  Former  Mayor  of  New  York,  Sets  a 
New  Example  in  Honesty. 
With  wages  being  raised  without  coercion, 
the  following  story  of  another  act  done  with- 
out coercion  is  doubly  meaningful.  It  is 
from  the  New  York  Times : 

Ex-Mayor  Seth  Low  paid  $27,397:28  in  back 
taxes  voluntarily  recently.  It  came  to  Controller 
Metz  in  the  form  of  a  check  from  Mr.  Low 's 
counsel,  Edward  M.  Shepard,  for  the  payment 
of  taxes  which,  through  indefiniteness  in  the  law 
governing  the  taxation  of  mortgages  in  1901  and 
misajaprehension  of  its  terms,  Mr.  Low  had  failed 
to  pay  at  that  time  and  also  in  1902  and  1903. 

Mr.  Low  deducted  from  his  personal  estate 
liable  to  taxation  a  mortgage  on  certain  prop- 
erty belonging  to  him.  Just  learning  that  he  was 
not  entitled  to  make  the  deduction  as  the  law 
then  read,  because  technically  the  bond  secured 
by  the  mortgage  was  not  his  own,  he  determined 
to  pay  forthwith  the  additional  sum  that  was 
legally  due  the  city  in  1901  from  his  estate  with 
interest  at  6  per  cent. 

In  his  letter  to  Mr.  Shepard  the  ex-Mayor  said: 

"The  law  that  constrains  me  to  such  action 
because  the  mortgage  upon  mv  property  did 
not  secure  my  own  bonds  seems  to  be  very  in- 
equitable, and  I  shall  be  very  glad  if  this  incident 
does  something  to  bring  about  an  amendment  to 
the  law." 

New  York  City  citizens  have  been  knocking 
at  the  doors  of  the  Legislature  for  several  ses- 
sions to  get  amendments  to  the  mortgage  tax  law. 
They  have  obtained  some,  but  never  all  that  they 
believed  mortgage  conditions  in  that  city  de- 
manded. 


CHICAGO  ROADS  TO  MAKE  RAISE 


Increase  of  $30,000,000  Depends   on  Employees 
Giving  Up  Eight-Hour  Day. 
The  following  from  the  New  York  World 


THE     PANDEX 


29 


WHAT  WE  MAY  NEXT  EXPECT. 
Kansas    City,    Mo.,    Nov.    22.— The   spectacle  of  W.  J.  Bryan,  commoner  and  former  advo- 
cate of  radical   currency  reforms,   leading  Leslie  M.  Shaw,  Roosevelt's  Secretary  of  the  Treas- 
ury and  stand-patter,  to  the  rostrum,  was  afforded  delegates  to  the  annual  Congress  of  Trans- 
Mississippi    Commercial    Clubs    here    to-day. — Dispatch  to  the  Inter-Ocean. 

,    — Chicago  Inter  Ocean. 


gives  a  little  further  idea  of  the  extent  of 
the  increased  wage  movement: 

Chicago. — The  railways  of  Chicago  contem- 
plate increases  in  the  wages  of  their  men  be- 
tween now  and  January  1  which  will  make  the 
combined  incomes  of  the  450,000  employees  of 
these  lines  from  $25,000,000  to  $30,000,000 
greater  in  1907  than  in  1906. 

The  only  thing  that  may  prevent  the  pro- 
posed advances  is  the  inability  of  the  railroads 
and  their  trainmen  to  reach  an  amicable  agree- 
ment. The  engineers,  conductors,  firemen,  brake- 
men,  and  other  trainmen  have  asked  for  10  per 
cent  advances   and  for  an  eight-hour  day. 

Railway  officials  indicate  that  they  are  will- 
ing to  give  the  10  per  cent  increase,  but  they  are 
not  willing  to  grant  the  demand  for  an  eight- 
hour  day,  and  their  present  disposition  is  to 
withhold  the  wage  advance  until  the  eight-hour 
dav  demand  is  withdrawn. 


RYAN  LEAVES  COMPANIES 


Capitalist  Withdraws  From  Many  Holdings  in 
Interest  of  Limited  Few. 

While  the  cartoonist  seems  to  east  doubt 
upon  the  sincerity  of  the  incident  described 
in  the  following  from  the  New  York  World, 
it  yet  is  consistent  with  other  manifestations 
of  reform  among  the  financial  leaders: 

Thomas  F.  Ryan,  who  controls  the  majority 
of  the  stock  of  the  Equitable  Life  Assurance  So- 
ciety, made  the  following  announcement  recently 
through  an  intermediary: 

'•I  have  resigned  from  the  directorates  of  a 
large  number  of  railroads  and  other  corpora- 
tions. My  accumulating  interests  and  responsi- 
bilities render  it  impossible  for  me  to  attend  so 


30 


THE     PANDEX 


ONE    OF    THE   BETTER   PAY   SCHEDULES. 


HOW  A  RECENT  RAISE  IN  WAGES  AFFECTS 

EMPLOYEES. 

Rate  two    ■ 
years  ag-o. 

Eng-ineers  of  passenger  trains $   3.88  a  day 

Engineers  of  freight  trains 3.82  a  day 

Engineers  on  yard  locomotives 3.27  a  day 

Firemen  on  passenger  engines 2.20  a  day 

Firemen  on  freight  engines 2.25  a  day 

Firemen    on    yard    engines 1.96  a  day 

Conductors   of  Passenger  Trains 3.65  a  day 

Conductors   of   freight    trains 3.41  a  day 

Brakemen  of  passenger  trains 1.91  a  day 

Brakemen  of  freight  trains 1.82  a  day 

Flagmen   on  trains 1.91  a  day 

Baggage   men   on   trains 2.18  a  day 

Section  men  and  trackmen 1.35  a  day 

Machinists  and  mechanics 72.73  month 

Gatemen  and  ferrymen 45.00  month 

Clerks,  average 72.73  month 

NOTE — The  present  raise  of  ten  per  cent  in  wages  appli 
Pittsburg  and  Erie  "who  are  now  receiving  $200  or  less  a 
about  95  per  cent  of  the  Eastern  service. 


PENNSYLVANIA      RAILROAD 


Present  rate 
of  wages. 

$  4.27  a  day 
4.20  a  day 
3.60  a  day 
2.42  a  day 

2.47  a  day 
2.16  a  day 
4.01  a  day 
3.75  a  day 
2.10  a  day 
2.00  a  day 
2.10  a  day 
2.40  a  day 

1.48  a  day 
80.00  month 
49.50  month 
80.00  month 


New  rate 

of  wages. 

$   4.70  a  day 

4.62  a  day 
3.96  a  day 
2.66  a  day 
2.72  a  day 
2.38  a  day 

•4.42  a  day 
4.12  a  day 
2.31  a  day 
2.20  a  day 
2.31  a  day 
2.64  a  day 

1.63  a  day 
88.00  month 
54.45  month 
88.00  month 


es  to  all   employees  east  of 
month.    The  order  Includes 

— New   York   World. 


many  directors'  meetings  and  to  properly  dis- 
charge my  obligations  to  the  stockholders  con- 
cerned. 

"I  have  also  reached  the  conclusion  that  I 
can  best  serve  the  financial  and  fiduciary  institu- 
tions with  which  I  am  associated  by  severing  my 
ofHcial  connection  with  the  railroad  and  indus- 
trial corporations  with  which  they  necessarily 
have  constant  business  relations.  I  hope  and 
believe  that  the  decision  which  I  have  made  will 
prove  to  the  advantage  of  all  the  interests  for 
which  my  friends  hold  me  responsible  and  of 
the  gentlemen  with  whom  I  have  so  long  been 
associated  in  the  various  corporations  from 
whose  boards  I  have  resigned." 


ATTACKS  MONEY  PRACTICES 


Jacob  H.  Schiff  Charges  New  York  Bank  With 
Immoral  Methods  of  Loaning. 

Still  another  evidence  that  the  financial 
men  do  not  look  with  approval  upon  many 
practices  vt'hieh  formerly  were  generally  ac- 
cepted and  endorsed  is  to  be  found  in  the 
following  from  the  New  York  Times : 

Jacob  H.  Schiff,  at  the  Chamber  of  Commerce 
meeting  recently,  in  the  course  of  an  attack  on 
what  he  described  as  the  'barbarous  conditions' 
in  the  call  money  market  on  the  New  York 
Stock  Exchange,  accused  one  of  the  prominent 
financial  institutions  in  Wall  Street,  which,  how- 
ever, he  did  not  mention  by  name,  of  calling  its 
loans  when  money  is  lending  at  6  or  7  per  cent 
and    taking    advantage    of    the    demand    thereby 


created,  and  the  consequent  rise  in  rates,  to  put 
out  the  funds  again  at  the  increased  premium. 

Mr.  Schiff  introduced  a  resolution,  which  was 
adopted  by  the  Chamber,  calling  on  the  Commit- 
tee of  Finance  and  Currency  "to  examine  into 
and  report  upon  the  practicability  of  devising 
means  through  which  the  interest  rate  beyond 
6  per  cent  upon  call  loans  made  at  the  New 
York  Stock  Exchange  can  be  better  regulated 
than  is  the  case  at  present." 

Speaking  in  support  of  his  resolution,  Mr. 
Schiff  said  he  could  not  believe  that  the  con- 
ditions in  the  call  money  market  were  a  neces- 
sary evil. 

"While  at  times,"  he  continued,  "under  ex- 
isting methods  and  conditions,  money  is  liable 
to  advance  beyond  the  legal  rate  of  interest,  I 
can  not,  for  a  moment,  believe  that  it  is  neces- 
sary for  the  rate  of  interest  on  demand  loans  at 
the  Stock  Exchange  to  advance  on  a  single  day 
from  6  to  7  per  cent  in  the  morning  to  25  or 
30  per  cent  and  higher  in  the  afternoon.  It  must 
be  in  the  long  run  destructive  of  the  best  inter- 
ests of  the  country,  and  there  must  be  means, 
even  if  they  are  difficult  to  find,  to  better  regu- 
late such  a  state  of  affairs.  Such  means  may  be 
actual  methods  or  moral  methods.  It  is  stated, 
for  instance,  that  one  of  the  prominent — and 
I  do  not  hesitate  to  say  so,  because  it  is  stated 
with  much  emphasis — that  one  of  the  prominent 
financial  institutions  in  this  city,  which  is  a  large 
loaner  of  money,  makes  it  a  rule,  when  money 
in  the  morning  is  only  6  or  7  per  cent,  to  call 
its  loans,  and  to  wait  until  the  rate  has  ad- 
vanced, which  it  naturally  does,  in  consequence 
of  large  calls,  to  consent  to  loan  its  money  again. 

' '  Such  methods  are  reprehensible,  and  ought  to 
be  corrected  by  moral  pressure  and  moral  means; 


THE    PANDEX 


31 


HOPE. 


'8^^.VH  vliiiDE'R'-rD 


— Chicagfo  Record-Herald. 


32 


THE     PANDEX 


but  there  must  be  actual  means,  too,  possibly 
in  the  Clearing  House,  and  possibly  in  the  Stock 
Exchange  itself  by  which  this  barbarous  con- 
dition may  be  corrected.  I  believe  the  Commit- 
tee on  Finance  and  Currency,  if  it  looks  into  the 
question,  can  suggest  something  which  to  some 
extent,  at  least,  will  improve  the  existing  state 
of  affairs." 


POINTS  A  TRUST  CURB. 


Beef  Trust  Attorney   Suggests  a   Special   Com- 
mission for  Corporations. 

The  following  may  or  may  not  have  its 
genesis  in  the  discovery  by  the  corporate  in- 
terests that  there  is  no  reversal  possible  for 
the  existing  movement  toward  corporate 
regulation.  The  item  is  from  the  Chicago 
Record-Herald : 

A  commission  similar  in  power,  scope  and  com- 
position to  the  Interstate  Commerce  Commission, 
and  which  will  have  full  charge  of  the  corpora- 
tions of  the  country,  is  the  recommendation  of 
John  S.  Miller,  who  probably  will  be  the  chief 
attorney  for  Standard  Oil  in  the  Government  at- 
tack. 

Mr.  Miller  prophesies  that  Congress  will  pro- 
vide such  a  tribunal  either  directly  by  its  own 
act  or  by  an  enlargement  of  the  provisions  of 
the  Sherman  anti-trust  law,  the  act  which  the 
Standard  Oil  Company  and  its  individual  fac- 
tors are  now  up  against. 

Indicating  that  his  estimation  of  the  Sherman 
anti-trust  law  was  that  it  was  incomplete, 
equivocal,  and  weak,  Mr.  Miller  all  but  declared 
tnat  the  energies  of  the  Standard  attorneys 
would  be  devoted  to  an  attack  directly  upon  the 
act  itself. 

"Nobody  knows  just  what  the  law  permits 
and  what  it  prevents,"  he  said.  "What  is  neces- 
sary is  a  statute  whereby  the  business  man,  the 
merchant,  or  the  manufacturer  can  read  the  law 
and  know  when  he  is  in  danger  of  violating  it 
without  having  to  see  a  lawyer.  That  is  impos- 
sible under  the  law  as  its  provisions  now  stand. 

Remedy  is  Offered. 

"The  proper  remedy,  it  appears  to  me, 
would  be  to  provide  for  the  appointment  of  a 
commission  to  be  constructed  along  the  same 
lines  as  mark  the  powers  of  the  Intei-state  Com- 
merce Commission.  I  would  have  this  new  com- 
■  mission  a  part  of  or  a  bureau  under  the  Depart- 
ment of  Commerce  and  Labor.  Its  duties  would 
be  to  exercise  general  supervision  of  corporations. 
It  would  construe  the  law,  it  would  make  its  in- 
distinct provisions  clear,  and  it  would  make  of 
practical  operation  a  law  which  now  fails  to 
perform  the  functions  for  which  it  was  in- 
tended. ' ' 

Mr.  Miller  could  not  indicate  the  length  of 
time   which   he   deemed   would   be   necessary   for 


completing  the  case  which  was  opened  at  St. 
Louis  Thursday,  in  view  of  the  fact  that  he  was 
hot  able  to  state  definitely  that  he  would  be  of 
counsel  for  the  Standard  Oil  Company. 

"Ordinarily  it  would  take  up  a  great  deal  of 
time  simply  in  taking  the  necesstiry  testimony, 
where  there  was  no  h.ard-fough^,  'ontcst  to  im- 
pede the  progress  of  the  hearing,"  was  the  sig- 
nifieant  statement  of  Mr.  Miller. 


WANTS   JUSTICE   FOR  RAILWAYS 


J.  J.  Hill  Urges  Some  of  the  Difaculties  Which 
They  Meet. 
As  the  corporations  clear  themselves  of  the 
burden  of  fighting  the  popular  will  it  be- 
comes increasingly  easy  for  them  to  make 
such  appeals  and  pleas  as  the  following,  from 
the  Chicago  Record-Herald: 

Chicago. — In  an  indignant  outburst  in  the 
midst  of  a  speech  James  J.  Hill,  president  of 
the  Great  Northern  Railroad,  protested  against 
the  agitation  against  the  American  railroads 
and  plans  for  Government  ownership  of  the  lines. 
He  declared  political  agitators  are  hampering 
the  Nation's  growth. 

"To-day  the  entire  country  is  suffering  from 
want  of  transportation  facilities  to  move  its 
business  without  unreasonable  delay,"  he  said. 
"The  prevailing  idea  with  the  public  is  that  the 
railways  are  short  of  cars,  while  the  fact  is 
that  the  shortage  is  in  tracks  and  terminals  to 
provide  a  greater  opportunity  for  the  movement 
of  the  cai-s." 

"It  has  been  noticed,"  he  said  emphatically, 
"that  from  June  30,  1895,  to  190.5— ten  years— 
the  growth  in  ton  mileage  was  110  per  cent.  The 
growth  in  the  mileage  of  railroads  to  handle 
that  traffic  was  20  per  cent.  There's  where  you 
stand  to-day — you  can  see  it  in  that  brief  com- 
parison. There's  where  the  whole  country 
stands.  The  traffic  of  the  country  is  congested 
beyond  imagination.  The  commerce  of  the  coun- 
try is  paralyzed,  which,  continued,  means  slow 
death. 

"More  cars?  Yes,  we  need  more  cars,  but  we 
need  also  cars  of  greater  capacity,  heavier 
trains,  and  more  miles  of  railroad  to  haul  them 
over.  In  ten  years  the  railroads  of  the  country 
expanded  20  per  cent  for  the  handling  of  a 
business  that  increased  110  per  cent.  Suppose 
you  are  able  in  the  near  future  to  increase  that 
expansion  50  per  cent?  That  will  still  leave 
40  per  cent  a  year  of  the  business  without  any 
facilities  for  taking  care  of  it. 

"It  is  estimated  that  from  115,000  to  120,000 
miles  of  track  must  be  built  at  once  to  take 
care  of  this  immense  business.  But  to  build 
that  amount  will  cost  as  much  as  the  Civil  War 
cost,  at  least.  It  will  cost  from  .$4,000,000,000 
to    .$5,000,000,000.      A    thousand    million    dollars 


THE     PANDEX 


33 


a  year  for  five  years  will  scarcely  suffice.    Why,  Civil  War  of  half  the  consequence  of  this  one. 

there  is  not  money  enough  nor  rails  enough  in  Why,  you  can't  go  out  and  contract  with  any 

all  the  world  to  do  this  thing.  railroad   in   this   country   to   move   500   cars   of 

"And  if  the  rails  were  piled  up  ready  for  the  freight  from  here  to  New  York  in  thirty  days. 


STACKING  THE   CARDS! 


-St.  Louis  Republic. 


undertaking  and  if  the  money  were  in  the  bank  And  the  i-ailroad  could  not  deliver  it  if  it  should 

to-day,  it  would  be  impossible  to  get  •  the   labor  contract  to  do  it.  '     ' 

with  which  to  do  it.     Labor  in  the  mines,  in  the  ,(fri,„..„  :^'-^^4. _■ u'L:iJ:i 

forest,    in ,  the   quarry   are    behind    a   stone   wall 
which  they  can  not  scale. 

.."I    tell,  yon    there   is    no   question    since    the  isting. "  ' 


"There  is'iiot  money  enough' available  to  bring 
relief  to  this  situation  under  the  conditions  ex- 


34 


THE    PA  NDEX 


DEFENSE   OF   STANDARD   OIL 


Foreign   Representative    of   the    Trust    Declares 
Corporate  Form  Necessary. 

Even  the  Standard  Oil  itself  has  encour- 
aged itself  to  appeal  to  the  public,  as  witness 
the  following  from  the  Chicago  Tribune : 

The  Standard  Oil  Company,  in  a  statement 
just  issued  over  the  signature  of  William  H. 
Libby  of  the  company's  foreign  department, 
maintains  that  the  form  of  its  corporate  organ- 
ization is  necessary  if  the  company  is  to  hold  its 
large  foreign  trade.  Mr.  Libby  holds  the  com- 
pany is  obliged  to  compete  with  combinations  of 
oil  producers  in  every  other  country  and  cites 
many  examples  of  such  combinations. 

It  is  only  by  combination,  he  insists,  that 
American  oil  producers  can  compete  in  the  for- 
eign markets.  He  insists  the  business  of  Amer- 
ican oil  producers  would  be  crippled  abroad  in 
the  event  of  the  success  of  the  Government 's  pro- 
ceeding to  dissolve  the  company.  The  statement, 
which  is  in  the  form  of  a  letter  to  the  editor, 
says: 

"The  desirability,  and  the  necessity  almost, 
of  the  concentration  of  brains  and  capital  have 
been  recognized  without  exception  in  all  the  im- 
portant petroleum  producing  countries  of  the 
world.  Not  only  have  corporations  and  holding 
companies  on  the  general  lines  of  the  Standard 
organization  and  other  similar  American  organ- 
izations been  created,  but  several  have  become 
international  in  their  scope. 

"These  amalgamations  administered  by  some 
of  the  best  industrial  brains  and  most  prominent 
capitalists  of  Europe,  so  far  from  receiving  the 
opposition  of  governments,  press,  or  communi- 
ties, so  far  from  being  regarded  as  'conspiracies 
in  restraint  of  trade'  or  as  ingenious  subterfuges 
in  trade  autocracy,  are  regarded  abroad  as  being 
the  natural  pathways  of  legitimate,  economic, 
progressive  commerce,  especially  commended 
when  the  motive  is  emphasized  of  eliminating 
the  American  product  from  competitive  markets. 
Against  this  array  of  formidable  elements  in- 
numerable, and  other  opposing  factors,  the 
Standard  Oil  Company  is  fighting  the  world's 
markets  for  the  continued  supremacy  of  Amer- 
ican petroleum." 


WINGS  SPROUTING  ON  JOHN  D. 


Bill  Henkel,  U.  S.  Marshal,  Seeking  Ogre,  Finds 
a  Lamb. 

And  as  if  the  above  incident  were  not 
sufficient  to  denote  a  change  in  the  strongest 
of  all  quarters,  the  following,  from  the 
Chicago  Tribune,  to  be  treated  levitously,  is 
for  those  who  remain  skeptical : 

New  York. — Breezy  Bill  Henkel,  United  States 


marshal,  has  grasped  the  tentacles  of  the  oil 
octopus  and  likes  the  memory  of  the  sensation. 
As  Bill  puts  it  himself,  he  shook  hands  with 
John  D.  Rockefeller,  Henry  M.  Flagler,  and 
others  while  serving  them  with  subpenas  to  ap- 
pear as  witnesses  in  the  Standard  Oil  case  in 
Missouri,  and  "never  found  a  finer  bunch  of 
gentlemen"  in  his  life. 

Some  of  his  deputies  served  papers  on  the 
lesser  lights  of  the  Standard  Oil  corporation,  but 
he  himself  made  the  appointments  with  the  sub- 
penaed,  chiefly  by  telephone.  He  personally 
visited  Mr.  Rockefeller  at  his  home  at  4.10  p.  m., 
November  28. 

"Naturally,"  said  the  marshal,  "I  expected 
to  have  some  trouble  after  reading  about  the 
time  they  had  trying  to  serve  John  D.  last  sum- 
mer. But,  say,  it  really  was  a  cinch — the  softest 
thing  I  ever  struck  in  my  life.  I  felt  almost 
ashamed  I  hadn't  a  silver  salver  —  say,  that's 
a  fine  combination  of  words,  almost  as  good  as 
truly  rural — to  put  the  subpena  on  when  I  went 
up  to  John  D.'s  house  after  I  had  called  him 
up  by  phone  and  told  him  Uncle  Sam  had  a  little 
business  with  him.  He  set  the  hour  and  minute 
he  would  see  me,  and  told  me  to  come  up  myself. 

"Dee-lighted,"  John  D.  Says  to  Him. 

"After  a  little  ride  in  the  subway  I  found 
myself  pressing  John  D.'s  electric  bell.  Out 
comes  a  little  man — a  butler,  I  guess — who  asks 
me  what  I  want.  I  told  him  I  was  a  United 
States  marshal  and  he  looked  as  if  he  didn't 
believe  it.  I  guess  he  thought  I  ought  to  be 
togged  out  in  uniform,  with  a  sword.  He  invites 
me  to  step  into  the  hall  and  presently  out  comes 
John  D.  himself,  with  a  smile  as  broad  as  a 
slice  of  cantaloupe.  He  grasps  me  by  the  hand 
and  says  he's  delighted  to  see  me,  pronouncing 
the  word  just  like  the  President  does,  and  asks 
me  to  sit  down. 

"I  began  to  think  somebody  surely  had  been 
lying  about  the  old  gentleman,  his  manners 
were  so  fine.  In  fact,  I  was  a  bit  embarrassed, 
when  he  began  talking  about  the  weather.  I 
began  to  spar  for  an  opening  and  he  gave  me  a 
chance  to  get  in.  I  had  pulled  out  the  subpena, 
intending  to  shove  it  at  him  the  moment  I  met 
him,  but  I  sneaked  it  back  inside  my  pocket 
and  when  he  gave  me  a  chance  I  got  it  out  again. 
He  was  direct  and  to  the  point,  but  all-fired 
pleasant. 

All  Smiles  and  Soft  Talk. 

"When  he  saw  my  hand  going  up  to  the 
pocket  he  said : 

"  'I  believe   you  have  a  subpena  for  me.' 

"Of  course,  he  knew  I  had,  as  I  had  told  him 

over  the  phone   all   about  it,  but  it  was  a  

gentlemanly  way  to  put  it.  It  relieved  me  a 
good  deal  to  have  him  say  it. 

"He  took  the  paper  and  said  he  was  much 
obliged  to  me  and  regretted  he  had  given  me 
the  trouble  of  coming  all  the  way  uptown.  Then 
he  shook  my  hand  again  with  the  grasp  of  a 
man  that  has  a  pretty  long  lease  on  life  on  this 


THE    PANDEX 


35 


planet  and  went  to  the  door  with  me.  He  bowed 
to  me  and  I  bowed  back.  He  also  smiled  a  few 
more  times  and  then  I  left  him  with  the  paper 
in  his  hand.  He  didn't  look  at  it  before  vae.  It 
wasn't  necessary,  however,  as  he  knew  what  was 
in  it." 

The  service  on  the  other  defendants  was  made 
at  the  offices  of  their  companies. 


350,000  WORKMEN  NEEDED 


Expert   Says   Tide   of  Prosperity  Is  Rendering 
the   Situation  Acute. 

Chicago. — Great  interest  is  manifested  in  Chi- 
cago and  the  entire  West  in  the  general  move- 
ment for  an  increase  in  the  schedule  of  wages 
paid  to  labor,  in  the  scarcity  of  laijorers  to  meet 
the  demand,  and  incidentally  in  the  figures  that 
have  been  submitted  showing  the  high  cost  of 
living  at  present.  AH  these  things  are  taken 
to  mean  a  tide  of  prosperity  never  before  reached 
ifa  the  country. 

After  receiving  reports  from  many  labor  cen- 
ters, F.  W.  Job,  secretary  of  the  Chicago  Em- 
ployers' Association,  announces  there  is  a  short- 
age of  350,000  to  500,000  workingmen  in  the 
United  States,  as  compared  with  the  urgent  de- 
mand. He  expresses  the  opinion  that  if  the 
present  pace  of  manufacturing,  railroad  building, 
and  general  industrial  activity  keeps  up  there 
will  need  to  be  some  revision  of  the  immigration 
laws  to  meet  an  emergency. 


LABOR  ADOPTS  POLICY 


Principles   for  Which  Trade   Movement   Stands 
Stated  by  Federation. 

Minneapolis. — After  defeating  resolutions  fa- 
voring old-age  pensions  and  attacking  the  militia 
in  the  various  states,  the  convention  of  the 
American  Federation  of  Labor  adopted 
a  declaration  of  principles  outlining  what  the 
American  trade-union  movement  stands  for.  The 
declaration  of  principles  followed  the  demand 
of  a  number  of  delegates  in  the  early  days  of 
the  convention.  It  was  suggested  then  that,  as 
labor  had  gone  into  politics,  it  should  provide 
an  economic  platform  which  would  let  the  gen- 
eral public  know  what  the  organized  labor  move- 
ment stood  for. 

The  Committee  on  Resolutions  appointed  its 
chairman,  James  Duncan,  to  write  a  platform 
which  was  submitted  to  the  convention.  The 
platform  contains  seventeen  planks  and  is  the 
first  to  be  submitted  to  a  convention  since  the 
Denver  gathering  in  1894.  It  contains  some  of 
the  same  planks  as  the  old  platform  and  several 
new  ones  are  added. 

Varioos  Reforms  Asked. 

The  preamble  outlines  the  reasons  why  the 
organized    workers     demand    certain    economic 


reforms,    and    then   gives   the   following   as   the 
labor  platform: 

1.  Free  schools  and  compulsory  education. 

2.  Unrelenting  protest  against  the  issuance 
and  abuse  of  injunction  process  in  labor  disputes. 

3.  A  workday  of  not  more  than  eight  hours 
in  the  twenty-four-hour  day. 

4.  A  strict  recognition  of  not  over  eight 
hours  per  day  on  all  federal,  state,  or  municipal 
work  and  at  not  less  than  the  prevailing  rate 
per  diem  wage  of  the  class  of  employment  in 
the  vicinity  where  the  work  is  performed. 

5.  Release  from  employment  one  day  in 
seven. 

6.  The  abolition  of  the  contract  system  "on 
public  work. 

7.  The  municipal  ownership  of  public  util- 
ities. 

8.  The  abolition  of  the  sweatshop  system. 

9.  Sanitary  inspection  of  workshop,  factory, 
and  home. 

10.  Liability  of  employers  for  injury  to  bodj 
or  loss  of  life. 

11.  The  nationalization  of  telegraph  and  tele- 
phone. 

12.  The  passage  of  anti-child-labor  laws  in 
states  where  they  do  not  exist,  and  rigid  defense 
of  them  where  they  have  been  enacted  into  law. 

13.  Woman  suffrage  co-equal  with  man  suf- 
frage. 

14.  Suitable  and  plentiful  playgrounds  for 
children  in  all  cities. 

15.  Continued  public  agitation  for  publie 
bath-houses  in  all  cities. 

16.  Qualifications  in  all  permits  to  build  in 
all  cities  and  towns  that  there  shall  be  bath- 
room and  bathroom  attachments  in  all  houses  or 
compartments  used  for  habitation. 

17.  We  favor  a  system  of  finance  whereby 
money  shall  be  issued  exclusively  by  the  Govern- 
ment with  such  regulations  and  restrictions  as 
will  protect  it  from  manipulation  by  the  banking 
interests  for  their  own  private  gain. 


FROM  NAPKINS  TO  OATMEAL 


Men  on  Medium  Salaries  Can  No  Longer  Afford 
the  Orange. 

"There  was  a  great  deal  of  talk  in  the  recent 
campaign,"  said  a  young  married  man,  who 
holds  a  salaried  position  at  fair  wages,  "about 
the  handing  out  of  lemons  to  this  candidate 
or  that. 

"In  my  opinion  oranges  had  not  a  little  to 
do  with  the  result;  with  the  vote  that  elected 
Hughes,  and  at  the  same  time  was  altogether 
too  small  to  satisfy  those  who  were  opposed  to 
Mr.  Hearst." 

When  asked  to  explain  this  anagram,  the 
young  man  said — and  he  spoke  for  a  great  many 
thousand  men,  young  and  old,  when  he  said  it: 

"When  oranges  were  twenty-five  or  thirty 
cents  a  dozen,  my  wife  and  T  each  ate  one  at 
breakfast,  and  occasionally  the  children  took 
part  with  us.     Now  that  they  are  sixty  cents  a 


36 


T  II  E     P  A  X  D  E  X 


dozen,  we  go  direct  from  napkins  to  oatmeal, 
or  let  a  small  apple  take  the  place  of  the  oranne. 
I  said  a  small  apple,  because  the  large  ones 
even  this  early  in  the  year-  are  bpoimiins;  to 
cost  money." 

The  Protest  First  at  Hand. 

' '  I  have  made  use  of  the  orange, ' '  he  con- 
tinued, "as  typical  of  the  whole  list  of  eatables, 
whether  meat,  fish,  or  fruit.  The  cost  of  living 
in  New  York  City,  rent  included,  is  becoming 
so  great,  that  men  on  medium  salaries  are  find- 
ing it  more  difficult  each  day  to  make  both 
ends  meet.  We  have  been  looking  for  a  cause 
and  a  remedy,  and  let  me  tell  you  that  there 
were  more  thousands  of  fellows  like  me  who 
voted  for  Hearst  than   most  people  imagine. 

"Why  did  we  do  it?  As  a  dumb  protest.  The 
only  sort  of  a  protest  we  can  see  our  way  to 
make." 

Two  Classes  Help  Themselves. 

Since  the  election  there  has  been  heard  not 
a  little  talk  like  the  above.  The  men  of  medium 
salaries,  whether  in  manufacturing,  mercantile, 
or  professional  concerns,  are  stating  their  posi- 
tion in  words  like  these : 

"The  employers  can  protect  themselves  by 
combination  and  consolidation.  They  can  put 
up  the  price  of  goods  on  which  they  have  not 
been  making  money,  and  then  meet  the  advances 
in  the  cost  of  raw  material  and  in  the  price 
of  living. 

"The  men  who  work  in  the  trades  can  protect 
themselves  by  another  form  of  combination. 
They  form  their  trade  unions,  and  by  confer- 
ence or  by  strike  have  been  steadily  increasing 
their  wages  to  meet  the  increase  of  the  cost  of 
living  in  the  past  half  dozen  years.  A  carpenter 
or  a  bricklayer  can  afford  to  live  as  well  as  he 
did  in  1902  even  though  food,  clothing,  and 
rent  are  higher,,  for  he  is  getting  much  larger 
wages   than   he  did  four  years  ago.     The   fruits 


of  the  present  prosperity  have  been  his,  because 
in  his  unions  he  has  had  a  club  with  which  to 
knock  them  from  the  tree." 

Votes  Not  Understood. 

"But  let  me  call  your  attention  to  another 
class  of  men  whose  woes  have  not  excited  the 
agonies  of  the  political  orators  or  been  wept 
over  by  the  press.  There  are  tens  of  thousands 
of  us  in  New  York  City.  We  do  not  do  much 
talking  because  we  do  not  care  to  risk  our 
.jobs.  AVe  do  not  hold  mass  meetings,  or  write 
signed  letters  to  the  newspapers.  But  we  read 
and  think  and  talk  it  over  with  the  wife  at  home 
— and  the  politicians  who  have  overlooked  us  are 
surprised  when  the  votes  are  counted,  because 
there  is  found  in  the  ballot  boxes  a  lot  of  tickets 
that  they  are  totally  unable  to  understand." 

Men  of  the  Middle  Class. 

These  statements  were  made  by  a  man  of 
education  and  of  temperate  views  on  religion 
and  social  topics.  He  was  very  much  in  earnest; 
has  been,  he  said,  a  Republican  all  his  life,  and 
still  is  one.     He  was  then  asked : 

"The  class  of  which  vou  speak — who  are 
they?'-' 

"Men  who  occupy  positions  like  mine,"  he 
answered.  "Clerks,  stenographers,  bookkeep; 
ers,  salesmen,  bank  employees,  all  that  class  that 
lies  between  the  men  who  own  the  place  and 
those  who  put  on  an  apron  and  do  the  physical 
labor.  Ninety-nine  out  of  each  one  hundred 
are  getting  no  more  pay  than  they  did  three  or 
four  years  ago,  but  the  cost  of  living  has  greatly 
increased,  and  an  advance  is  made  in  something* 
each  day.     No  one  can  tell  where  it  will  end. 

"We  are  not  combined  in  unions.  Each  case 
must  be  considered  on  its  individual  merits.  We 
can  resign  at  any  moment  we  care  to,  but  who 
cares  to  give  up  a  job  unless  he  can  get  a  better 
one?" 


OWN  THEIR  OWN  COLLIERIES 


THRIFTY  MINERS  OF  SAGINAW,  MICH.,  WHO  HAVE  CONQUERED 

THE  WAGE  AND  STRIKE  PROBLEM  BY  BECOMING 

THEIR  OWN  MANAGERS. 


IF  IT  be  true  that  wealthy  men,  as  well  as 
poorer  men,  are  becoming  appreciative  of 
the  values  of  higher  social  motives  and  are 
to  that  degree  altering  their  own  standards 
and  methods,  the  need  of  such  steps  as  are 
indicated   i^'   the   following   story  from   the 


Philadelphia  '  North  American  will  become 
much  less  in  the  future  years.  But,  for  the 
present,  it  stands  as  an  instance  of  the  power 
of  men,  in  whatever  station  and  circum- 
stances, to  unite  and  protect  themselves 
against'odds  of  almost  any  magnitude. 


THE     PANDEX 


37 


After  a  year's  trial,  a  co-operative,  coal-mining 
industry  at  Saginaw,  Mich.,  has  been  declared 
a  success. 

This  mine  is  owned  by  the  workmen  who  oper- 
ate it.  They  establish  prices,  make  contracts, 
and  go  down  underground  to  dig  out  the 
product. 

There  are  no  labor  troubles  or  strikes,  for 
every  man  is  personally  interested  in  the  wel- 
fare of  the  company. 

It  was  on  September  1,  1905,  that  coal  was 
first  sold  from  the  new  mine  of  the  Caledonia 
Company.  There  has  been  no  idleness  since,  and 
the  ■  workmen-owners  are  preparing  to  put  on 
double  shifts   to  keep  pace   with   their  orders. 

When  it  was  organized,  the  plan  was  to  have 
the  company  consist  of  100  men  and  the  capital 
stock  was  placed  at  $50,000.  After  a  year  of 
success,  it  has  been  decided  to  increase  the  cap- 
ital to  $250,000  and  the  company  to  500  men. 

So  well,  in  fact,  has  this  purely  co-operative 
mine  done  that  two  other  organizations  have 
been  formed  in  Michigan  along  similar  lines. 
One  of  these  new  companies,  like  the  Caledonia, 
is  formed  entirely  of  practical  handlers  of  the 
pick  and  shovel. 

The  men  forming  the  Caledonia  selected  their 
executive  officers  from  among  themselves.  Busi- 
ness of  the  company  is  looked  after  by  a  gen- 
eral superintendent,  who  is  responsible  to  a 
board  of  managers. 

At  all  times  the  acts  of  the  Board  are  subject 
to  review  by  a  general  assembly  of  the  miners, 
who  keep  as  closely  in  touch  with  the  affairs 
of  the  concern  as  they  do  with  the  vein  of  coal 
from  which  they  make  their  hving. 

When  it  came  to  an  allotment  of  the  stock 
few  of  the  men  were  able  to  take  more  than  a 
small  holding.     They  were  not  capitalists. 

Some,  in  fact,  had  little  or  no  money  and  ar- 
ranged to  pay  their  part  in  labor. 

Last  spring  the  Caledonia  workers  fixed  upon 
the  1903  scale  of  wages  as  that  to  be  paid  in 
their  mine.  This  is  5.55  per  cent  higher  than  the 
scale  of  the  succeeding  season — 1904-05.  The 
average  pay  of  the  Caledonia  miner  is  now 
$2.75  a  day. 

So  far  the  workmen-owners  have  refrained 
from  declaring  a  dividend.  Starting  with  a 
small  capital,  they  have  considered  it  wiser  to 
turn  back  into  the  mine,  for  the  development  of 
the  property,  all  profits  above  operating  ex- 
penses. 

Then,  too,  the  original  mine  had  only  foiiy 
acres  of  coal  land,  and  as  there  has  been  a 
steady  demand  for  the  output  it  was  necessary 
to  look  to  the  future. 

Recently  the  company  has  purchased  an  addi- 
tional 500  acres  adjoining  its  mine  and  is  sink- 
ing a  shaft  on  that  property. 

It  was  by  good  fortune  and  an  exercise  of 
shrewdness  that  the  Caledonia  people  secured 
their  original  forty  acres. 

In  the  midst  of  land  controlled  by  a  combina- 
tion of  existing  companies  was  this  little  tract, 
on  which  the  combination  was  paying  royalties. 


Thinking  that  it  would  be  well  to  save  this 
amount,  and  that  there  woult^  be  no  difficulty 
in  securing  control  at  any  time,  the  holders 
pei-mitted  the  lease  to  lapse. 

Waiting  for  just  such  an  opportunity,  the 
Caledonia  promoters  quietly  and  quickly  secured 
a  lease  upon  it  themselves. 

So  secretly  were  all  the  preliminaries  carried 
on  that  it  was  only  when  the  work  of  sinking 
a  shaft  was  begun  that  the  actual  existence  of 
the   new   workingmen's   company   became   gener- ' 
ally  known. 

Success,  however,  was  not  attained  without  op- 
position on  the  part  of  the  other  companies. 
The  Caledonia  miners,  for  instance,  wished  a 
spur  run  to  their  property  from  a  nearby  rail- 
road. They  offered  to  grade  the  track  and  fur- 
nish the  ties. 

About  one  thousand  feet  of  rails  were  necessary 
to  make  the  spur,  and  for  this,  it  is  stated,  the 
railroad  company  demanded  $3000.  The  mine- 
owners  are  still  pegging  along  without  their 
spur. 

The  first  brush  over  prices  began  almost  as 
soon  as  Caledonia  coal  was  placed  on  the  mar- 
ket. Other  operators  had  advanced  to  the  reg- 
ular winter  combination  price  of  $4.50  a  ton ; 
the  Caledonia  began  selling  at  $4.25. 

After  storming  their  expostulations  in  vain, 
the  other  operators  undertook  to  smoke  out  the 
workmen  owners  by  lowering  the  prices,  which 
dropped  in  the  city  to  $4  and  then  to  $3.50, 
where  the  Caledonia  figures  have   remained. 

For  a  time  opposition  coal  was  sold  in  front 
of  the  Caledonia  Mine  for  $1.75  a  ton,  but  this 
measure  was  too  drastic  to  be  kept  np,  especially 
as  the  Caledonia  people  made  no  attempt  to  meet 
the  cut,  but  sold  all  the  coal  they  could  mine 
at  their  own  price.  This  opposition,  however, 
continued  to  sell  at  $3  a  ton,  which  was  fifty 
cents  under  the  Caledonia  price. 

Undaunted  by  Opposition. 

The  Caledonia  people  went  serenely  along 
their  way,  selling  all  the  coal  they  could  mine 
at  the  price  they  had  fixed,  and  constantly  add- 
ing to  their  contracts.  Many  of  the  largest  con- 
sumers of  the  city  are  now  using  the  Caledonia 
product. 

Having  their  reputation  to  make,  the  miners 
see  to  it  that  their  output  will  stand  the  test 
of  quality.  Then,  too,  the  officials  have  made  a 
specialty  of  giving  the  retail  trade  preference 
over  everything  else,  and  this  policy  has  brought 
them  a  large  number  of  regular  customei-s. 

When  it  seemed,  early  last  spring,  that  oper- 
ators and  miners  would  be  unable  to  get  to- 
gether upon  a  satisfactory  basis  of  agreement, 
there  was  a  general  accumulation  of  coal.  Of 
the  many  heavy  orders  given  the  Caledonia 
workers  got  their  share. 

More  than  this,  however,  they  announced  that 
the  result  of  the  pending  differences,  even  of  a 
prolonged  strike,  would  not  affect  them.  They 
owned  the  mine  they  worked,  they  fixed  their 
own  wages,  and  had  no  quarrel  witG  themselves. 


38  THBPANDEX 

Consequently,    they    were    able    to    announce  So    this    experiment    of    a   co-operative    mine, 

they  would  go   right   along  digging  and  selling  owned    as   well    as  worked   by   the   miners,   has 

coal,  even  if  a  strike  settled  over  a  greater  part  proved  successful, 

of  the  country.  The    men    say    that    they    have    enjoyed    their 

This  brought  them  a  great  deal  of  additional  freedom   and   independence,   and   in    a   financial 

business.     Consumers  hastened  to  make  contracts  way  they  have  fared  much  better  than  their  fel- 

with    a   concern    that   had    no   fear   of    a   strike  low-workmen,  employed  by  operators  in  the  sur- 

and  was  never  crippled  by  labor  troubles.  rounding  territory  under  the  old  conditions. 


SONG  OF  THE  PLOW 

I'll  sing  you  a  song  of  the  plow;  deep  with  my 
tempered  share 
I  furrow  the  earth,  the  rich  brown  earth,  pav- 
ing the  way  for  spoil. 
With  joy  I  bend  to  my  task,  guided  with  sturdy 
care — 
Prom  dawn  till  dusk  I  follow  the  way  through 

loam  and  fragrant  soil. 
And  sing  as  I  go  my  way. 

From  dawn  till  the  sunset's  gold. 
And  I  sleep  when  the  world  is  gray — 
Deep  in  the  morn's  enfold. 

I  come  with  the  lark  and  thrush,  and  my  good 
steel   shimmers   bright. 
Steady   I   turn   my   furrows   deep   that    fields 
may  grow  and  wave; 
The  bread  of  the  world  is  mine,  reared  by  my 
strength  and  might, 
And  I  scatter  it  wide,  from  land  to  land,  that 

all  may  say  I  gave. 
And   I   sing   as   I   go   my   way, 

From   dawn   till   the   sunset's  gold. 
And  I  sleep  when  the  world  is  gray — 
Deep  in  the  morn's  enfold. 

My  share  came  from  the  earth,  and  so  to  the 
earth    I   cleave. 
And  I  shall  cling  to  its  breast  fore'er,  to  serve 
my  master,  man; 
And  never  shall  I  forsake,  and  never  my  master 
leave, 
Till  the  world  and  Time  are  old  and  gray  in 

this,  God's  earthly  plan. 
But  I  sing  as  I  go  my  way. 

From  dawn  till  the  sunset's  gold. 
And  I  sleep  when  the  world  is  gray — 
Deep  in  the  morn's  enfold. 

— Exchange. 


THE    PANDEX 


39 


'Consam  ye,  this  ain't  no  time  to  fight!" 


-Cleveland  Plain  Dealer. 


BROADER  THAN  NATIONALITY 


WORLD  COMPLICATIONS  WHICH  MAY  COMPEL  AMERICANS  TO  AN 

ENLARGED  VIEWPOINT.— JAPANESE  CONTROVERSY  BUT 

ONE  OF  MANY  WITH  WHICH  THE  COUNTRY 

IS  BEING  CONFRONTED 


HOWEVER  great  America's  traffic  prob- 
lem, however  pressing  the  repeated 
money  crises,  or  hoM'ever  reassuring  the  pro- 
gress that  has  been  made  in  the  regulation  of 
corporations  and  the  reform  of  general  poli- 
tics, there  still  lie  before  the  country  issues 
and  burdens  which  are  likely  to  make  these 
appear  only  as  preparatory  steps.  For,  not 
only  is  the  nation  already  confronted  with  the 
gravity  of  the  Japanese  controversy,  but  its 
entire  economic  system  has  reached  the  point 
where  it  can  probably  no  longer  stand  alone 
without  reference  to  the  systems  of  other 


countries;  its  postal  agreements  are  in  jeop- 
ardy, its  friendship  with  Great  Britain  is 
being  assailed  for  strategic  purposes  by 
enemies  of  Great  Britain,  its  fraternity  with 
Mexico  may  sooner  or  later  be  strained  be- 
cause of  the  revolt  of  a  section  of  the  Mex- 
ican people  against  the  liberality  with  which 
commercial  concessions  have  been  made  to 
Americans;  its  precipitation  into  the  vex- 
atious storms  of  Africa  is  almost  inevitable 
thru  the  recalcitrancy  of  Morocco  and  the 
reckless  challenging  of  human  decency  by 
King  Leopold  in  the  Congo  Free  State,  and 


40 


THE     PANDEX 


it  is  only  a  question  of  time  when,  the  pres- 
ent Sultan  of  Turkey  dying  and  the  coun- 
try remaining  in  debt  to  the  United  States, 
participation  must  be  had  in  the  perennial 
international  vortex  that  sweeps  around  the 
Bosporus  and  the  Adi-iatie. 


FOREIGN  COMPLEXITIES   CONFRONTED 


Some   of   the    Considerations   With   Which    the 
President  Was  Recently  Burdened. 

A  few  of  the  international  difficulties 
which  the  President  had  before  him  when 
he  spoke  so  strongly  on  the  Japanese  ques- 
tion were  thus  reflected  by  John  Callan 
O'Laughlin,  the  Washington  correspondent 
of  the  Chicago  Tribune: 

Washington,  D.  C— President  Roosevelt 
punctuated  his  consideration  of  various  domestic 
questions  by  dealing  with  those  of  international 
moment.  The  questions  involving  foreign  rela- 
tions ranged  from  Morocco  in  the  near  east  to 
Japan  in  the  far  east,  from  Newfoundland  in  the 
north  to  Cuba  and  Santo  Domingo  in  the  south. 
Through  all  ran  the  subject  which,  is  especially 
close  to  the  heart  of  the  President  and  Secretary 
Root — expansion  of  American  trade. 

Secretary  Root  and  Assistant  Secretary  Bacon 
lunched  with  the  President,  and  discussed  the  va- 
rious matters  mentioned.  And  Secretary  Met- 
calf  submitted  his  report  on  his  investigation  of 
the   Japanese   school  incident   in   San  Francisco. 

Regarding  Morocco,  it  appears  that  the  pow- 
ers are  raising  numerous  questions  under  the 
treaty  signed  on  April  7  last  at  Algeciras,  Spain, 
including  the  military  occupation  by  the  forces 
of  France  and  Spain.  It  has  been  determined 
to  pursue  in  this  affair  a  'hands  off'  policy,  and 
leave  Europe  to  settle  the  disturbances  which  are 
injurious   to  the  trade   of  all  countries. 

Expect  England  to  Respect  Modus. 

As  far  as  Newfoundland  is  concerned,  the 
United  States  will  continue  to  look  to  Great 
Britain  to  prevent  any  annoyance  of  American 
fishermen  by  the  colonial  authorities  and  to  see 
that  the  latter  respect  the  modus  vivendi  ar- 
ranged by  Secretary  Root  and  Sir  Edward  Grey, 
the  British  Secretary  of  State  for  Foreign  Af- 
fairs. 

The  new  treaty  with  Santo  Domingo  will  be 
signed  probably  this  week  and  the  President 
urged  upon  Senator  Cullom,  who  is  chairman  of 
the  important  Committee  of  Foreign  Affairs,  to 
press  it  for  ratification  by  the  Senate  immediate- 
ly after  that  body  convenes. 

Governor  Magoon  is  doing  as  well  as  could  be 
expected  in  Cuba  under  the  circumstances,  and 
there  will  be  no  .change  in  the  policy  he  is  pur- 
suing. 


The  President  has  approved  the  steps  taken 
by  Secretary  Root  to  adjust  tho  tariff  questions 
which  have  ari.sen  with  German.v,  Spain,  and 
Italy,  and  it  is  apparent  he  is  in  hearty  sym- 
pathy with  the  plan  of  reciprocal  trade  relations 
wherever  it  can  be  adopted. 

The  Senate  is  the  great  obstacle  in  the  way  of 
the  satisfactory  achievement  of  general  reci- 
procity, as  it  has  giveji  unmistakable  evidence  of 
its  unwillingness  to  ratify  any  treaties  dealing 
with   this  subject. 


NATIONAL  TRADE  HITS  SNAGS. 


Tariff  Differences  With  Europe  Act  as  Curb  on 
Commercial   Growth. 

Something  of  the  trade  aspect  of  the  in- 
ternational situation  was  also  given  by  the 
above  writer: 

(By    John    Callan    O'Laughlin.) 

Washington,  D.  C. — There  is  no  concealing  the 
fact  that  the  administration  is  becoming  more 
and  more  concerned  over  the  present  status  of 
the  commercial  relations  of  the  United  States 
with  various  European  countries. 

An  effort  is  being  made  through  mutual  dis- 
cussion in  Berlin  to  pave  the  way  to  the  re- 
moval of  tariff  diffei-ences  with  Germany.  Aus- 
tro-Hungary,  taking  its  cue  from  the  policy  of 
its  (lerman  all.y,  has  excluded  American  meats. 
Spain  has  negotiated  new  commercial  treaties 
against  which  the  United  States  can  make  no 
complaint,  but  which  are  harmful  to  American 
trade.  Now  Italy,  according  to  news  received  at 
the  state  department  to-day,  is  about  to  conclude 
an  arrangement  with  Russia  which  will  kill  the 
valuable  oil  trade  between  the  United  States  and 
the  Italian  kingdom. 

To  add  to  the  sum  of  our  commercial  woes, 
the  differences  with  Newfoundland  over  the  fish 
eries  question  are  arousing  so  much  resentment 
in  that  British  dependency  that  apprehension  is 
felt  here  it  will  embark  upon  a  policy  of  dis- 
crimination  against   American  products. 


CANADA  BALKS  AT  MAIL 


Cancels   Its   Convention  with  United   States  on 
Second-Class  Matter. 

An  instance  of  the  unavoidable  overlap- 
ping of  American  domestic  problems  into 
the  international  field  is  reflected  in  the  re- 
volt of  Canada  against  the  excesses  of 
American  second-class  postal  matter,  con- 
troversy over  which  has  become  somewhat 
strained  within  the  United  States.  Said 
the  Chicago  Record-Herald: 


THE     P AND EX 


41 


f 


^^v  ^ 
rf 


The   California  View  of  It. 

^Pittsburg  Gazette-Times. 


Ottawa. — The  Canadian  postal  authorities 
have  canceled  the  convention  with  the  United 
States  for  the  exchange  of  seeond-class  mail  mat- 
ter. The  Po-stmaster  General  of  Canada  is 
authority  also  for  the  statement  that  the  entire 
postal  arrangements  as  between  the  Dominion 
and  the  United  States  are  undergoing  a  sweeping 
revision. 

It  may  be  pointed  out  tliat  many  years  ago  it 
was  agreed  by  the  governments  of  the  two  coun- 
tries that  each  should  handle  all  the  newspapers 
and  other  second-class  mail  matter  originating 
in  the  other  country  free  of  charge.  This  ar- 
rangement operated  considerably  to  the  disad- 
vantage of  Canada,  for  not  only  did  the  United 
States  offer  Canada  ten  times  the  weight  of 
newspapers     that    Canada    offered     the    United 


States,  but  Americans  threw  open  their  second- 
class  list  to  printed  matter  that,  in  this  country, 
was  treated  as  advertising  merchandise  and  only 
carried  at  the  rate  of  eight  cents  a  pound. 

As  such  printed  matter  originated  in  the 
United  States,  it  came  to  Canada  as  second-class 
matter  and  was  carried  at  the  rate  of  one  cent 
or  one-half  cent  a  pound,  according  to  circum- 
stances. This  state  of  affairs  has  been  regarded 
as  giving  Americans  a  privilege  in  Canada  from 
which  Canadians  themselves  were  excluded,  and 
it  allowed  a  flood  of  advertising  matter  to  come 
in  which  had  the  effect  of  diverting  a  consider- 
able quantity  of  trade  to  American  firms  which 
should  have  gone  to  Canadians.  Efforts  to  get 
the  United  States  authorities  to  change  their  sec- 
ond-class conditions  not  being  successful,  it  was 


42 


THE     PANDEX 


therefore  decided  that  Canada  would  cancel  the 
convention  after  May  1  next.  This  will  give  the 
two  countries  an  opportunity  to  make  necessary 
changes  in  the  classification  of  their  second-class 
matter,  and  it  is  expected  that  an  agreement  will 
again  be  made  for  the  exchange  of  newspaper 
mail  matter  on  a  more  equitable  basis.  If  a  new 
agreement  is  not  reached  all  American  publica- 
tions will  have  to  pay  postage  at  the  rate  of 
eight  cents  a  pound  to  enter  Canada. 


GERMAN  MEAT  DUTY  HURTS 


OFFERS  A  TARIFF  SOP 


Canada   Provides   an    "Intermediate"    Schedule 
for  Strategic  Uses. 

Larger  in  potential  difficulty  than  the 
mail  problem  betv^een  the  United  States  and 
Canada,  looms  the  tariff,  whose  latest  phase 
is  shown  by  the  Philadelphia  North  Ameri- 
can: 

Toronto,  Ont. — Speaking  generally,  the  new 
Canadian  tariff  just  presented  to  Parliament 
makes  an  all-round  increase  of  five  per  cent  on 
goods  imported  from  the  United  States. 

British  preference  has  been  lowered  five  per 
cent,  which  will  operate  against  American  im- 
portations. Much  dissatisfaction  is  heard  be- 
cause the  Government  refused  to  place  a  duty 
on  tinplate  and  thus  protect  a  Canadian  indus- 
try which  is  as  yet  in  its  swaddling  clothes. 

A  new  feature  is  the  arrangement  of  the  tariff. 
Hitherto  there  have  been  only  two  divisons  in 
the  protectionist  schedules,  the  general  tariff  and 
the  British  preference.  Both  these  are  con- 
tinued, and  there  is  added  an  intermediate  tariff 
in  which  the  rates  generally  are  one-tenth  less 
than  those  in  the  general  tariff. 

This  new  tariff  is  not  to  go  into  effect  at  once. 
It  is  to  be  used  in  negotiating  with  countries  that 
will  make  tariff  deductions  in  favor  of  Canadian 
exports.  In  such  cases  it  may  be  put  into  force 
by  order  in  council.  The  arrangement  then 
made  will  continue  only  from  day  to  day  and  may 
be  ended  at  any  time  at  the  instance  of  either 
party  to  the  arrangement. 

When  it  takes  on  a  permanent  character  it  will 
be  submitted  to  the  Canadian  Parliament,  and 
after  having  received  its  sanction  the  treaties 
that  are  so  approved  will  be  negotiated  through 
the  British  Foreign  Office  in  the  usual  way. 

Here  are  some  of  the  tariff  increases  against 
the  United  States: 

Silverware,  perfumery,  toilet  articles,  baths, 
bath  tubs,  30  to  35  per  cent ;  vegetables,  hats  and 
caps,  satchels,  purses,  cloaks,  watches,  25  to  35 
per  cent ;  typesetting  machines,  10  to  20 ;  bar- 
ley, 20  to  30;  collars,  silk  manufacturers,  35  to 
371/2;  brick  and  clay  manufactures,  20  to  221/2! 
brushes  and  canned  meats,  25  to  27%,  and  raw 
sugars,  15  per  cent. 

Lemons  and  oranges  are  placed  in  the  free  list. 
On  agricultural  implements  the  duty  is  reduced 
from  20  to  171/^  per  cent.  Iron  and  steel  boun- 
ties are  continued  for  four  years  longer. 


American  Packers  Pinched  by  the  Increased 
Duties  and  Closer  Inspection. 
Something  of  how  this  same  tariff  and 
reciprocity  matter  carries  the  American  re- 
sponsibilities across  the  Atlantic  is  shown 
in  the  following  from  the  Chicago  Record- 
Herald  :  (By  William  E.  Curtis.) 

Washington. — George  Marsles,  head  of  the 
foreign  department  of  the  Cudahy  Packing  Com- 
pany, calls  my  attention  to  the  fact  that  there 
was  a  sharp  advance  in  the  rates  of  duty  on 
American  pork  products  in  Germany  on  the  1st 
of  March  of  this  year,  which  was  dictated  by 
the  agrarian  party.  Bacon  was  advanced  from 
twenty  marks  to  thirty-six  marks  per  100  kilos, 
which  is  equal  to  nearly  four  cents  a  pound,  and 
the  duty  upon  the  new  beef  products  that  are 
allowed  entrance  was  more  than  doubled,  the  ad- 
vance being  from  seventeen  to  thirty-five  marks, 
or  from  about  one  and  three-quartei-s  to  three 
and  three-quarters  cents  per  pound.  This  in- 
creased duty,  with  the  high  prices  of  pork  prod- 
ucts at  home,  due  to  the  enormous  demands  for 
home  consumption  on  account  of  good  times,  will 
render  it  very  difficult  to  sell  meat  in  Germany. 
"In  addition  to  the  high  duties,"  said  Mr.  Mar- 
bles, "there  are  all  sorts  of  inspection  fees  and 
annoying  regulations  at  the  frontier.  We  had  an 
instance  the  other  day  when  a  shipment  of  ours 
of  250  half-barrels  of  lard  was  held  up  on  the 
ground  that  it  contained  cottonseed  oil.  We 
protested  that  the  lard  was  pure,  but  each  and 
every  one  of  the  250  packages  was  subjected  to 
a  chemical  analysis.  The  result  was  that  248 
half-barrels  were  passed  and  two  were  rejected, 
and  we  had  to  pay  a  bill  of  $75  for  the  chemists' 
fees. ' ' 

Mr.  Marsles  showed  me  a  letter  he  had  just 
received  from  Cudahy 's  agent  at  Frankfort,  who 
says  that  "all  meat  is  very  dear  here,  and  the 
large  stock  of  American  bacon  which  we  had 
on  hand  has  now  vanished  into  the  interiors  of 
our  poor  laborers,  who,  I  am  afraid,  have  very 
little  bacon  or  meat  to  bite  on.  Even  if  they 
buy  American  meats  the  duties  and  expenses  are 
so  exorbitant  that  the  retailers  are  compelled  to 
ask  immense  prices.  For  example,  American 
bacon  is  now  retailed  here  at  one  mark  per 
pound,  which  is  equal  to  twenty-five  cents." 

TO  SEND  POOR  TO  UNITED  STATES 


Alleged  Plot  in  Japan  to  Encourage  Emigration 
to  America. 

Also  that  the  immigrational  system  of  the 
country  must  be  vitally  reorganized  has 
been  a  political  purpose  for  two  or  three 
years.  One  reason  why  this  must  take  place 
is  reflected  in  the  following  from  the  Chi- 
cago Record-Herald: 


THE    P  A  N  D  E  X 


43 


suim ! 


THE  UNSIGHTLY  WALL. 


-Chicago    Record-Herald. 


44  • 


THE     PANDEX 


Washington,  D.  C. — In  connection  with  the  Jap^ 
anese  controversy  California  members  of  Congress 
are  using  a  forgotten,  but  very  sensational,  re- 
port made  in  1S!)9  to  the  Commissioner  (ieneral 
of  Immigration  by  Mr.  W.  M.  Rice,  Commis- 
sioner of  Immigration  at  San  Francisco,  and 
transmitted  to  Congress  under  a  resolution  of 
inquiry  by  Mr.  Lyman  J.  Gage,  Secretary  of  the 
Treasury,  on  May  14,  1900. 

As  a  preliminary  to  the  report  Mr.  T.  V.  Pow- 
derly.  Commissioner  General  of  Immigration, 
said  that  Mr.  Rice  had  been  dispatched  to  Japan, 
where  he  had  spent  several  months  making  his 
investigation,  and  added : 

''The  report  of  this  officer  expressed  tlie  opin- 
ion that  such  immigration  was  fostei'ed  by  a 
number  of  societies,  among  whose  members  were 
found  Japanese  subjects  high  in  political  and 
social  life,  and  that  the  occasion  of  the  organiza- 
tion of  such  societies,  while  ostensibly  for  the 
purpose  of  furnishing  passports  to  such  subjects 
of  the  Mikado  as  desired  to  come  to  this  country 
and  to  insure  that  only  such  as  were  admissible 
under  the  laws  of  the  United  States  should  em- 
bark for  the  purpose  of  temporary  or  permanent 
settlement  here,  the  true  occasion  was  the  large 
profit  derived  from  commissions  paid  either 
directly  by  the  immigrants  or  through  the 
agency  of  the  steamship  lines. 

In  his  report  Mr.  Rice  discloses  how  he  ob- 
tained evidence  that  there  was  an  important 
industry  in  Japan  for  inducing  and  assisting 
immigration  to  the  United  States,  because  the 
soil  of  Japan  could  not  support  the  enormous 
population  and  because  the  United  States  offered 
opportunities  for  Japanese  to  work  at  cheap 
wages,  but  far  larger  than  those  received  at 
home.  He  found  that  the  system  had  been  built 
up  through  a  combination  of  the  wealthy  and 
political  classes,  which  created  immigration  com- 
panies which  acted  in  connection  with  the  gov- 
ernment and  steamship  companies. 


IN  A  DIPLOMATIC  DUEL 


Roosevelt's  Act  May  Be  Master  Stroke  Which 
Will  Solve  Problem. 

While  the  Pacific  Coast  became  very  much 
incensed  over  the  President's  attitude  in  the' 
Japanese  matter,  there  were  some  close  stu- 
dents of  international  affairs  who  saw  in  the 
entire  dispute  the  following,  as  noted  in  the 
Chicago  Record-Herald: 

(By  Sumner.) 

Washington. — The  United  States  has  made 
the  flret  stroke  in  a  game  that  seems  likely  to 
match  the  diplomacy  of  America  and  the 
diplomacy  of  Japan  in  a  supreme  test, 
the  destinies  of  the  Orient.  President  Roose- 
velt's message  to  Congress  on  the  San  Francisco 
school   question,    assuring   Japan    of   the   sincere 


intention  of  this  Government  to  carry  out  to 
the  strict  letter  all  treaty  obligations,  eventually 
may  prove  a  master  stroke  in  the  direction  of 
reaching  an  agreement  that  will  not  place  Japan 
in  a  position  where  its  pride  will  suffer  injury, 
and  at  the  same  time  give  the  Pacific  Coast  peo- 
ple of  our  own  country  no  cause  to  harbor  anger 
or  indignation  over  the  Japanese  question. 

The  administration  is  most  desirous  of  retain- 
ing the  highest  regard  of  the  Japanese  Govern- 
ment. But  also  it  has  at  heart  the  interest  of 
Americans,  who  in  the  case  now  to  the  front 
happen  to  be  particularly  the  people  of  the 
Pacific  Coast.  There  may  be  found  good  reason 
for  changing  treaty  stipulations  to  the  extent 
of  restricting  immigration  along  certain  lines, 
and  strong  intimations  were  given  from  high 
official  sources  to-day  that  such  a  move  is  possi- 
ble. President  Roosevelt's  recommendation  to 
Congress  that  an  act  be  passed  specifically  pro- 
viding for  the  naturalization  of  Japanese  who 
come  here  intending  to  become  American  citizens 
will  go  a  long  way  toward  convincing  the  Gov- 
ernment beyond  the  Pacifi?  of  our  earnest  desire 
to  treat  it  on  a  basis  of  absolute  equality,  the 
same  as  we  treat  the  people  of  any  of  the  coun- 
tries of  Europe — provided  that  they  amalg  imate 
and  become  part  of  our  population,  in  fact,  as 
do  the  peoples  of  other  favored  countries. 

It  may  be  pointed  out  to  Japan  that  if  con- 
ditions were  reversed  and  a  tide  of  American 
emigration  to  its  shores  set  in,  resulting  in  the 
formation  of  alien  colonies  in  its  country,  a 
race  feeling  might  grow  up  there  which  would 
be  as  disagreeable  to  the  .lapanese  Government 
as  the  California  situation  is  to  our  Government. 
But  the  tide  of  emigraticfn  is  all  the  other  way. 
Our  citizens  in  Japan  are  either  merchants — men 
of  affaire — or  tourists,  mostly  the  latter.  The 
Japanese  in  this  country,  increasing  at  a  rapid 
rate,  are  of  the  labor-seeking  class,  who  retain 
their  Japanese  status  under  the  protection  of 
our  laws  and  treaties  with  respect  to  aliens.  The 
conditions  that  have  arisen  were  not  foreseen 
when  the  treaty  with  Japan  was  negotiated  in 
1894,  and  that  treaty  has  six  years  of  life  re- 
maining. 

Secretary  of  State  Root  is  not  only  behind  the 
President  in  all  that  has  been  developed  up  to 
date  in  the  more  than  sensational  Japanese 
affair,  but  it  developed  that  it  is  his 
diplomacy  that  is  being  played.  Secretary  Root, 
in  fact,  is  managing  the  situation  so  far  as  the 
American  end  of  it  is  concerned. 

The  situation  has  developed  its  theorists  on 
both  sides,  and,  while  there  are  those  who  look 
to  see  a  great  triumph  for  American  diplomacy 
that  will  maintain  the  record  made  during  Sec- 
retary Hay's  administration  of  the  State  De- 
partment when  troublesome  Eastern  problems 
perplexed  the  statesmen  of  all  the  great  world 
powers,  there  are  others  who  contend  that  Japan 
occupies  the  advantageous  position  now,  and 
later  will  make  a  stroke  against  us  in  the  inter- 
national arena  for  which  it  long  has  been  waiting- 
opportunity. 


THE     PANDEX 


45 


THE  COAST  HAS  A  SOLUTION 


How   California   Would   Settle   the   Controversy 
with  the  Japanese. 

San  Frandsco. — California  has  a  plan  for  the 
settlement  of  the  Japanese  embroglio  in  connec- 
tion with  the  school  situation  and  the  invasion 
of  the  little  brown  men.  and  it  now  comes  forth 
with  a  series  of  provisions  as  a  basis  of  a  settle- 
ment as  follows : 

The  Federal  Government  to  enact  a  new  treaty 
with  Japan,  excluding  Japanese  coolie  labor 
from  the  United  States  and  Hawaii,  and  Amer- 
ican labor  from  Japan. 

Japanese  contract  labor  importations  to  cease. 

Equality  in  public  schools,  with  separate 
schools  for  adult  Japanese  desiring  primary  and 
grammar  .school  training. 

A  decision  by  the  United  States  Supreme 
Court  on  the  state's  right  to  pass  anti-miscegena- 
tion and  school  laws. 

The  Federal  Government  to  decide  the  right 
of  franchise  for  the  Japanese,  California  sug- 
gesting only  Federal  cognizance  of  Japanese 
class  distinctions  in  passing  the  law. 

Keep  the  question  out  of  the  hands  of  Con- 
gress. 


ASIATIC  HORDES  ELSEWHERE 


Mexico  and  Great  Britain  Become  Alarmed  Over 
Situation. 

One  of  the  most  strenuous  contentions 
of  the  opponents  of  the  Japanese  was  that 
their  immigraion  but  foreshadowed  a  gen- 
eral immigration  of  Asiatics.  That  some 
ground  existed  for  this  apprehension  is  evi- 
dent from  the  following  dispatch  in  the 
St.  Louis  Republic : 

Washington. — America's  incipient  imbroglio 
with  Japan,  together  with  reports  from  Mexico 
that  Japanese  colonists  in  that  republic  are  com- 
plaining bitterly  to  their  Government  regarding 
treatment  alleged  to  be  cruel  and  unjust ;  Brit- 
ain's  troubles  in  Australia,  springing  from  an 
anti-Asiatic  feeling  among  her  subjects  in  that 
section  of  the  world,  and  the  Orient's  aggressive 
stand  in  matters  relating  to  encroachments  upon 
her  territory,  have  brought  students  of  world 
politics  to  the  belief  that  the  German  Emperor's 
outcry  against  the  ' '  yellow  peril ' '  is  not  with- 
out cause. 

Added  to'  this  is  the  announcement  that  Jap- 
anese military  operations  are  very  active  and ' 
that  the  Japanese  cabinet  has  decided  upon  a 
policy  which  will  increase  the  standing  anny  of 
the  island  empire  to  7.')0.000  men,  making  her 
fighting  force  equivalent  to  that  of  many  of  the 
greatest  military  nations  of  Europe  and  entirely 
eclipsing  the  soldiery  immediately  available  in 
the  United   States. 


China  Assembling  an  Efficient  Army. 

This  declaration  of  Japan's  new  policy  conies 
rapidly  upon  the  heels  of  confirmed  reports  of 
China's  awakening  and  her  assembling  of  an 
efficient  army. 

European  army  officers  who  have  recently 
viewed  the  maneuvers  of  China's  fighting  force 
express  the  belief  that  a  bettpr  drilled,  better 
disciplined,  and  better  equipped  soldiery  does  not 
exist  in  any  nation. 

Despite  the  strained  relations  between  the 
United  States  and  Japan,  growing  out  of  the 
San  Francisco  public-school  fiasco,  no  fear 
exists  in  the  minds  of  Washington's  diplomats 
that  any  serious  difficulty  will  result. 

That  some  understanding  relative  to  the  im- 
migration of  Japanese  coolies  into  the  United 
States  must  be  arrived  at  between  the  two  na- 
tions is  the  opinion  expressed  on  every  hand,  and 
that  Japan  will  be  willing  and  eager  to  enter  into 
such  a  readjustment  of  affairs  is  not  doubted. 

Japan  Wants  Natives  to  Go  to  Manchuria. 

It  is  pointed  out  by  public  men  familiar  with 
the  policies  of  the  Japanese  Government  that 
the  emigration  of  her  farming  class  to  the  Pacific 
Coast  and  other  parts  of  the  Western  Hemi- 
sphere is  not  sanctioned  by  the  Mikado,  nor  by 
any  of  his  advisers,  but  that  the  wish  of  Japan 
is  to  turn  the  tide  of  emigrants  to  the  fields  of 
Korea  and  Manchuria  where  their  work  will 
count  more  for  the  prosperity  of  their  own  Gov- 
ernment. 


HINDOOS  INVADE  CANADA 


British  Columbia  Finds  a  Campaign  of  Exclusion 
Is  Imperative. 

The  .same  thing  was  further  obvious  from 
the  following  dispatch  in  the  Associated 
Press : 

Vancouver,  B.  C. — British  Columbia  has  deter- 
mined to  wage  war  against  the  Hindoo  invasion. 
Two  hundred  more  of  these  cheap  laborei*s  ar- 
rived on  the  Athenian,  a  large  number  are  en., 
route  on  the  Empress  of  Japan,  and  the  Monteagle 
is  to  bring  one  hundred.  In  fact,  there  is  a  large 
colony  waiting  at  Hongkong  to  take  ship  for 
Vancouver.  There  is  no  law  to  keep  them  out, 
but  this  province  will,  demand  of  the  Dominion 
Parliament  that  it  pass  one  at  the  session  to  be 
held  at  Ottawa  next  month.  R.  G.  Macpherson, 
M.  P.  for  this  city,  has  already  started  the  cam- 
paign in  this  direction.  In  fact,  he  has  just  re- 
turned from  the  Federal  Cabinet,  and  stated  that 
the  Dominion  Government  is  so  alive  to  the 
menace  that  it  has  decided  to  introduce  restric- 
tive legislation. 

A  Hindoo  named  Dr.  Davichand  is  the  apparent 
moving  spirit  in  this  Asiatic  invasion.  He  and 
those  working  with  him  are  said  to  have  20,000 
more  contracted  for,  who  will  shortly  leave  Cal- 
cutta for  here. 


46 


THE     PANDEX 


Bernhard  Dernburg,  the  New  Head  of  the 
Kaiser's  Colonial  Department,  as  a  German  Car- 
toonist Sees  Him. 

— Chicago  Tribune. 


The  passage  of  these  Hindoos  through  Hong- 
kong and  Shanghai,  and  the  tales  told  of  wealth 
in  British  Columbia  are  causing  trouble  in  the 
Sikh  departments  in  those  cities,  many  of  the 
men  who  are  now  acting  as  police  there  desiring 
to  throw  up  their  jobs  to  join  in  the  rush  to  the 
El  Dorado,  which  they  imagine  this  province  to 
be.  To  those  who  formerly  earned  a  few  pence 
a  day  the  wages  offered  in  British  Columbia  seem 
vondrous  large. 


TRYING  TO  MAKE  ILL  FEELING. 


Attempt  to  Show  German-American  Hostility  to 
England. 

"With  the  United  States  at  tension  with 
Japan,  naturally  the  alliance  of  Japan  with 
Great  Britain  becomes  of  paramount  im- 
portance. The  following  from  the  Chicago 
News  shows  something  of  the  value  placed 
upon  this  point: 

London. — It  is  suspected  at  the  Foreign  Office 
and  the  American  embassy  that  systematic  efforts 
are  in  progress  in  some  quarters  further  to  re- 


frigerate Anglo-American  relations.  President 
Roosevelt  is  represented  as  being  in  close  and 
confidential  communication  with  the  Kaiser  and 
af  favoring  an  understanding  between  Germany 
and  America  to  act  in  harmony  if  Japan  should 
menace  the  white  race. 

American  Flag  Story  Discredited. 

In  the  House  of  Commons  last' night  Sir  Ed- 
ward Grey,  secretary  of  state  for  foreign  affairs, 
was  asked  if  he  had  heard  that  in  the  event  of 
a  war  involving  Germany,  the  German  merchant 
marine  would  he  taken  under  the  protection  of 
the  American  flag.  Sir  Edward  replied  in  the 
negative.  Afterward  the  gossip  of  the  members 
in  the  lobby  centered  upon  the  puzzle  as  to  the 
origin  of  such  a  report. 

Misrepresents  the  Alliance. 

Late  dispatches  from  New  York  indicate  an 
attempt  to  circulate  the  notion  in  America  that 
the  Anglo-Japanese  alliance  of  August,  1905, 
"contains  no  clause  relieving  the  British  people 
of  the  necessity  of  supporting  the  Japanese 
should  Japan  engage  in  a  conflict  with  the  United 
States."  Such  a  notion,  according  to  official 
information,  entirely  misrepresents  the  alliance. 
In  the  first  place,  the  treaty  relates  exclusively  to 
matters  connected  with  the  Far  East — Asia  and 
India;  secondly,  neither  of  the  contracting  powers 
can  start  a  war  without  the  consent  of  the  other, 
and,  thirdly,  neither  is  bound  to  assist  the  other 
in  resisting  aggression  unless  the  attack  is  upon 
the  territorial  rights  or  special  interests  of  the 
second  power.  The  special  interests  of  Britain, 
as  defined  by  the  treaty,  refer  to  the  Indian  fron- 
tier and  those  of  Japan  to  Korea.  Even  as  to 
Korea,  Japan  is  expressly  prohibited  from  in- 
fringing on  the  principle  of  equal  opportunities 
for  the  industry  and  commerce  of  all  nations. 

Conditions  of  Aid  in  War. 

This  principle  forms  one  of  the  three  main 
objects  of  the  treaty,  and  Lord  Lansdown  em- 
phasized the  point  when  the  agreement  was  pub- 
lished that  only  an  "unprovoked  attack"  could 
bring  either  party  to  the  support  of  the  other, 
and  such  attack  must  take  place  when  the  country 
attacked  is  defending  its  territorial  rights  and 
special  interests  as  indicated  in  the  text  of  the 
treaty.  The  Daily  News  correspondent  is  assured 
that  the  Foreign  Office  regards  the  Philippines  as 
quite  outside  the  scope  of  the  agreement. 


JAPAN  NOT  AFTER  JAVA 


Sensational  Report  in  an  Italian  Paper  Denied 
on  Good  Authority. 

For  several  years  Japan  has  been  accused 
of  looking  with  envy  upon  the  Philippines 
and  therefore  of  watching  for  an  oppor- 
tunity to  provoke  a  quarrel  with  the  United 
States.     Another  phase  of  the  Mikado's  al- 


THE    PANDEX 


47 


leged  territorial  ambition  is  reflected  in  the 
following  from  the  Chicago  News: 

The  Hague. — The  Italian  paper,  the  Giornale  del 
Lavori  Publice,  contains  a  sensational  article 
which  has  been  copied  by  the  German  press  and 


demonstration  against  Java.  Many  Japanese 
spies  and  agents  have  overrun  Java  in  every 
direction;  the  important  towns  swarm  with  Jap- 
anese agents,  who  are  trying  to  win  the  natives 
for  the  Mikado's  Government  and  inciting  to 
revolt  against  Dutch  rule.    Every  day  encounters 


CHEER  UP,  WILHELM! 


-Chicago  Tribune. 


which  alludes  to  Japan's  military  and  naval 
preparations  as  being  directed  against  the  Dutch 
East  Indies.  It  says:  "Japan's  naval  and  mili- 
tary preparations,  which  are  being  pushed  with 
feverish  haste,  are  directed  against  the  Dutch 
Indian  island  of  Java.  All  the  arsenals  and 
dockyards  are  overcrowded  with  work.  The 
Mikado's  Government  intends  to  make  a  naval 


occur  between  Japanese  sailors  and  Dutch  sub- 
jects, and  several  armed  conflicts  have  taken 
place.  By  its  geographical  and  strategic  position 
Java  would  be  of  great  importance  to  Japan,  and 
the  great  natural  wealth  of  the  country  would 
render  Japan  independent  of  Western  European 
nations. ' ' 


48 


THE     PANDEX 


No  Truth  in  Reports. 

It  seems  that  the  influential  papers  of  the 
foreign  press  have  taken  the  sensational  news 
seriously,  and  so  it  is  necessary  that  it  should  be 
immediately  denied  from  Dutch  sources.  I  can 
most  authoritatively  deny  the  truth  of  all  these 
rumors  with  reference  to  Java.  In  Dutch  Indian 
circles  nothing  is  known  about  conflicts  between 
the  Dutch  and  Japanese  sailors  or  about  the  secret 
working  of  Japanese  agents  among  the  natives. 
Sporadically  the  Indian  press  has  made  mention 
of  sujjposed  Japanese  spies  who  have  been  ar- 
rested on  suspicion  only.  Three  instances  oc- 
curred during  or  just  after  the  Russo-Japanese 
war  and  may  be  ascribed  to  the  fear  of  the 
Japanese  Government  that  Russia  might  try  to 
violate  the  neutrality  of  Holland  by  coaling  or 
taking  on  contraband  goods  in  Dutch  Indian  har- 
bors. The  Dutch  Indian  Government  affirms  that 
relations  between  Japan  and  the  Dutch  colonies 
are  of  the  most  friendly  nature,  and  that  nothing 
warrants  the  spread  of  such  sensational  reports. 

In  well-informed  circles  it  is  asserted  that 
Japan  is  far  too  clever  to  contemplate  any  such 
risky  scheme. 


COMPLICATIONS  WITH  MEXICO 


KNOWS  JAPAN'S  DEFENSES 


United  States   Carefully  Charting  Fortifications 
of  the  Mikado's  Empire. 

A  phase  of  the  Japanese  situation  likely 
too  reassuring  to  Americans,  is  the  follow- 
ing, as  given  in  the  Chicago'  News : 

AVashington,  D.  C. — The  Government  has  in  its 
possession  maps  showing  the  defenses  of  Japan. 
The  attempt  of  the  Japanese  to  sketch  the  forti- 
fications in  Manila  has  disclosed  the  fact  that  the 
War  Department  is  compiling  much  information 
about  those  of  the  Mikado.  No  underhand 
methods  are  employed. 

Maps  showing  everything  of  military  value  or 
significance,  together  with  other  information, 
have  been  procured,  and  the  work  already  done 
ir.  remarkably  complete. 

The  undertaking  is  not  based  on  any  particular 
impression  that  Japan  is  likely  to  become  an 
enemy,  though  among  army  and  navy  men  it  is 
the  general  opinion  that  there  is  more  likelihood 
of  complications  with  Japan  than  with  any  other 
country. 

In  gathering  military  information  American 
countries  and  .Japan  have  received  the  most  at- 
tention. Canada,  for  instance,  is  well  in  hand, 
and  Cuba  has  been  charted  with  the  greatest 
detail  and  exactness. 

These  maps,  verified  and  kept  corrected  to  date, 
would  be  of  the  greatest  value  in  case  of  war. 
fhe  Japanese  owed  much  of  their  Manchurian 
campaign  to  their  superior  intelligence  service, 
each  Japanese  commander  being  ^'ell  supplied 
with  information  at  the  beginning  of  his  cam- 
paign. 


Irrigation   Problem   Along   the  Rio   Grande  In- 
volves United  States. 

Last  Month's  Pandex  showed  the  relation 
of  the  United  States  to  the  incipient  but 
abortive  revolutionary  movement  in  Mexico. 
Another,  and  perhaps  more  serious  point  of 
relationship  is  the  following,  ■  as  shown  in 
the  New  York  World: 

Austin,  Tex. — Without  flourish  of  trumpets, 
the  Boundary  Commission  has  visited  Brownsvillt 
to  see  whether  the  big  Yoakum  irrigation  project 
is  getting  the  United  States  into  trouble  with 
Mexico  through  diverting  a  large  share  of  the 
waters  of  the  Rio  Grande. 

No  report  upon  the  conclusions  of  the  Commis- 
.  sion  has  been  made  public.  There  is  no  doubt, 
nevertheless,  that  it  learned  enough  to  keep  some 
of  the  wise  ones  at  Washington  busy  for  some 
time,  and  incidentally,  probably  set  in  motion 
plans  for  smoothing  over  the  abstraction  of  about 
one-fifth  of  the  entire  flow  of  the  Rio  Grande 
for  private  use. 

The  troublesome  phase  of  the  ease  lies  in  the 
relation  of  the  river  to  the  two  republics.  If  an 
American  syndicate  can  take  one-fifth  of  the 
waters  of  the  river  at  one  point,  there  is  no 
logical  reason  whj'  a  similar  syndicate  can  not 
take  a  similar  amount  elsewhere,  or  why  Mexicans 
may  not  use  the  water  as  the  Americans  are 
doing. 

Reduced  to  a  logical  conclusion,  the  present 
operation  and  possible  succeeding  ones  would 
permit  the  absorption  of  the  entire  water  supply 
of  the  river,  leaving  Biownsville.  a  river  town, 
without  a  river,  and  permitting  constant  passage 
across  the  border  of  all  classes  of  undesirable 
persons. 

Mexico  would  not  tolerate  the  building  of 
canals,  and  it  is  expected  that  the  Republic  may 
ask  some  questions  about  the  violation  of  her 
rights.  The  pumps  do  in  a  technically  legal  way 
what  it  would  be  unlawful  for  canals  to  do. 

Development  of  this  great  scheme  has  gone  on 
very  quietly.  It  is  the  greatest  irrigation  enter- 
prise ever  undertaken  by  private  capital.  Mil- 
lions are  expended  in  making  lands  worth  many 
times  their  cost  and  the  cost  of  the  improvements. 

But  Mexico  is  very  jealous  of  the  Rio  Grande. 
It  is  a  boundary  line  that  can  not  be  disputed 
under  the  law.  If  it  should  be  allowed  to  be 
obliterated — only  a  vague  possibility,  but  still. 
a  possibility — it  would  open  the  way  for .  the 
powerful  rival  Republic  on  the  north  to  encroach 
on  the  weaker  one  on  the  south.  So,  Mexico  is 
wisely  disposed  to  look  upon  any  movement  that 
may  hamper  the  flow  of  the  river  with  a  jealous 
eye.  What  action  it  may  take  is  purely  prob- 
lematic,' since  this  question  has  never  before 
arisen.     -  -  .  . 


THE     P  A  N  D  E  X 


49 


PROBLEM  IS  WORLD  VEXATIOUS  London.— The  question  of  relations  between  tlie 

■  white  race  and  peoples  of  other  colors  is  one  of 

White  Man's  Burden   Stirring  Minds  of  Diplo-  almost  world-wide  agritation  at   the  present  mo- 
mats  in  All  Europe.  ment.     It  occupies  the  public  mind  in  England, 
mi    i  ii,     TT   -i  J  c-i  i      •         i     1          •     ..  Germany,  Belgium,  France,  and  Spain. 
That  the  United  States  is  not  alone  in  the  The  Congo  question  has  passed  from  the  stage 


-"i>'^i. 


THE   KONGO   WILL   BE  ALL  RIGHT  PRESENTLY. 

"John   D.   Rockefeller,    Jr.,   is   a   stockholder   in  the  new  American  Kongo  Company." — News 
Item.  — Chicago  News. 


problem  which  San  Francisco's  school  board  of    sentimental    discussion    to    a    serious    inter- 
has    precipitated    is    made    evident    by    the  national  issue      Despite  the  scathing  condemna- 
^        1^                                                     •'  tion  of  King  Leopold  in  the  Belgian  Parliament, 
Chicago  Tribune's  dispatches:  it  is  doubtful  if  genuine  refonns  will  be  volun- 


50 


THE     PANDEX 


tarily  adopted  which  will  lead  Great  Britain  to 
abandon  its  declared  intention  to  intervene  in 
behalf  of  the  natives. 

Should  England  step  in  the  world  shall  see 
the  first  serious  test  of  the  Anglo-French  entente, 
for  in  all  previous  international  attempts  to  deal 
with  the  Congo  question  France  has  supported 
Germany,  and  there  is  little  doubt  that  Germany 
will  continue  to  oppose  any  interference  by  the 
powers. 

If  the  Clemeneeau  Government  reverses  its 
former  position  and  supports  Groat  Brits  in,  then 
for  the  first  time  the  world  will  realize  the 
momentous  and  far-reaching  importance  of  the 
recent  regrouping  of  the  powers,  which  has 
changed  the  direction  of  modern  political  history. 

Rough  Work  to  Quiet  Moors. 

France  and  Spain  are  on  the  eve  of  the  execu- 
tion of  their  mandate  to  reduce  the  turbulent 
Moors  to  order.  There  is  every  indication  that 
their  task  is  more  formidable  than  the  delegates 
at  Algeciras  expected.  Rough  work,  approach- 
ing war  on  a  small  scale,  seems  probable. 

Germany  watches  with  jealous  eye,  but  appar- 
ently it  has  no  intention  to  render  the  task  more 
difficult  either  by  real  or  threatened  interference. 

Germany,  indeed,  has  a  race  scandal  of  its  own 
of  the  blackest  description.  No  story  of  the 
Congo  or  of  Russian  ante  bellum  atrocities  in 
Manchuria  can  compare  in  horror  with  that  told 
in  the  Reichstag  recently  by  Herr  Bebel. 

The  Socialist  leader  described  the  extermina- 
tion of  whole  villages  in  Southwest  Africa  by 
German  troops,  which  massacred  adults  and  then 
drowned  children  in  the  river.  The  most  the 
Government  could  say  in  reply  was  that  there 
had  been  abuses,  but  that  the  reports  were  ex- 
aggerated.   The  Spectator  says: 

"There  is  positive  danger  lest  the  whole  native 
population  of  Africa  become  permeated  with  a 
dread  and  hatred  of  white  men.  It  is  reported 
from  many  quarters  that  this  feeling  already  is 
betraying  itself  throughout  the  vast  dominion  of 
the  Congo  State.  It  may  easily  spread  south- 
ward and  northward  till  the  entire  continent  is 
filled  with  a  hostility  to  Europe  resembling  that 
which  three  hundred  years  ago  undermined  the 
ascendancy  of  the  triumphant  Spanish  monarchy. 

Blacks  May  Band  Against  Whites. 

"There  is  a  comity  of  the  blacks  as  there  is  in 
the  white  world.  Though  the  black  is  prepared 
to  be  governed  by  his  white  superior  with  a  cer- 
tain absolutism,  he  will  not  bear  that  unreason- 
able cruelty  which  keeps  him  in  perpetual  terror 
as  well  as  a  kind  of  bewilderment  concerning 
what  is  required  of  him. 

"However  stern  the  conquerors  are  in  enforc- 
ing their  own  superior  civilization  they  must  be 
on  the  side  of  justice,  however  harsh  it  may  be 
to  themselves.  They  must  avoid  a  cruelty  which 
suggests  to  their  victims  that  they  are  in  the 
hands  rather  of  evil  demons  than  of  able  fighting 
men. 

"The  whites  must  learn  what  was  early  learned 


in  India — to  let  the  women  alone.  Negresses  are 
not  English  ladies,  but  they  care  for  their 
children.  If  some  of  the  stories  'told  in  the  Ger- 
man Parliament  be  true  there  may  be  hatred  of 
white  men  handed  down  through  villages  from 
generation  to  generation,  and  Europeans  won't 
rule  Africa. 

"Mussulman  missionaries,  already  thousands 
in  number,  can  say  with  truth  that  where  the 
Christian  is  there  is  the  habitation  of  cruelty." 

The  British  Government  finds  itself  faced  with 
a  similar  difficulty  in  the  Transvaal  as  confronts 
Roosevelt  in  California's  anti- Japanese  action. 

The  inhabitants  of  the  Transvaal  resent  the 
competition  of  the  natives  of  India  who  have  im- 
migrated into  the  country.  They  have  endeavored 
to  discriminate  against  them  by  imposing  serious 
disabilities  by  law.  The  victims  appealed  to  the 
home  government,  wheh  has  vetoed  the  act. 


AMERICA  GETS  INTO  THE  CONGO 


Ryan  Secures  Rubber  Concessions  in  the  Country 
of  Scandals. 
How  the  American  people,  willy  nilly,  may 
be  thrown  into  the  African  battle  is  shown 
in  the  following  from  the  New  York  Amer- 
ican: 

New  York.- — Confirmation  of  the  many  vague 
reports  received  from  the  Continent  in  recent 
months  of  the  enlistment  of  American  capital  in 
the  development  of  Central  African  mineral  fields 
has  been  obtained  from  the  Ryan-Guggenheim 
interests  in  an  acknowledgment  that  they  have 
obtained  mineral  rights  in  the  Congo  Free  State, 
and  are  proceeding  with  the  organization  of  a 
company  to  explore  and  develop  the  new  field. 

The  concession,  which  is  a  part  of  the  rights 
obtained  from  King  Leopold  personally,  and  from 
the  Belgian  Government  by  Thomas  F.  Ryan,  dur- 
ing his  stay  abroad  last  summer,  covers  an  area 
of  many  thousand  square  miles. 

It  has  been  known  in  a  general  way  since  the 
earliest  days  of  African  exploration  that  there 
are  large  mineral  deposits,  including  copper, 
silver,  and  gold,  in  the  Free  State  territory,  and, 
though  the  field  still  remains  largely  unmapped, 
it  was  said  at  the  Guggenheim  office  recently  that 
quiet  work  has  been  going  on  in  the  district  of 
late  years,  which  has  confirmed  the  early  finds 
beyond  doubt.  John  Hays  Hammond,  now  chief 
director  of  the  Guggenheim  field  work,  gained  a 
large  part  of  his  reputation  as  a  mining  engineer 
in  the  South  African  gold  fields,  and  during  the 
years  he  spent  in  Africa  had  opportunities  of 
gaining  knowledge  of  the  mineral  wealth  of 
Central  Africa  which,  it  is  said,  has  been  chiefly 
responsible  for  the  venture  of  the  Guggenheims 
into  this  untried  field.  Already  the  firm  headed 
by  Daniel  Guggenheim  is  the  largest  single  pro- 
ducer of  precious  metals  in  the  world,  and  is 
credited  with,  supplying  about  25  per  cent  of  the 
copper  produced  in  this  country. 

It   could   not   be   learned   on   what   terms   the 


THE    PANDEX 


51 


African  mineral  concessions  had  been  obtained, 
but  it  is  understood  that  they  are  part  of  the 
general  grant  obtained  by  Mr.  Ryan,  which  was 
announced  at  first  as  applying  only  to  the  rubber 
lands  owned  by  King  Leopold.  The  American 
Congo  Company  was  incorporated  at  Albany  a 
few  weeks  ago  in  the  interest  of  Thomas  F.  Ryan, 
the  Messrs.  Guggenheim,  Edward  B.  Aldrich,  and 
John  D.  Rockefeller,  Jr.,  to  take  over  the  rubber 
privileges. 

The  mineral  exploitation  will  be  undertaken  by 
a  foreign  corporation,  it  was  said  authoritatively, 
but  whether  this  would  be  organized  in  England 
or  on  the  Continent  could  not  be  definitely 
learned.  Neither  could  it  be  ascertained  whether 
the  Ryan-Guggenheim  interests  intend  to  carry 
on  the  work  alone  or  with  the  aid  of  French  and 
English  capitalists  whom  cable  reports  credit 
with  having  been  jointly  interested  with  Mr. 
Ryan  in  the  negotiations  with  King  Leopold. 


MOVE  TO  OVERTHROW  SULTAN 


MAY  LOSE  BIG  COLOfTY 


Ties  Said  to  Be  Weakening  Between  Australia 
and  Mother  Country. 

With  Anglo-American  friendship  threat- 
ened by  international  intrigue,  the  fate  that 
may  befall  English  colonies,  especially  in  the 
Pacific  ocean,  becomes  of  importance.  Said 
the  Chicago  Record-Herald: 

Ottawa,  Ont. — That  Australia  will,  in  the  near 
future,  declare  for  political  independence  is,  ac- 
cording to  G.  W.  Inglis,  who  passed  through  here 
on  his  way  to  Europe,  the  opinion  prevalent  in 
that  country  just  now.  Mr.  Inglis  is  a  member  of 
the  Australian  Parliament,  a  prominent  exporter 
of  Melbourne  and  in  touch  with  public  sentiment 
throughout  the  commonwealth.  He  states  that  the 
ties  are  weakening  between  Australia  and  the 
mother  country.  Organized  labor,  which  controls 
the  political  situation  in  Australia,  while  neither 
disloyal  nor  yet  loyal,  has  no  sympathy  with  im- 
peVial  connection.  The  Federation  scheme  itself 
is  not  regarded  by  the  people  as  having  proved 
anything  of  a  success  so  far. 

There  is  a  feeling  abroad  in  the  country  that 
it  is  over-governed;  that  the  system  of  govern- 
ment is  too  costly,  and  that  the  administrative 
chain  is  greatly  strained  by  overlaping  authority 
and  is  liable  to  break  at  any  moment.  No  actual 
rupture,  it  is  thought,  will  take  place  so  long  as 
the  country  is  enjoying  a  measure  of  pro.speritj' 
with  which  it  is  at  present  favored,  but  it  is 
claimed  that  when  the  pinch  of  depression  again 
is  felt,  as  it  will  be  with  the  return  of  unfavor- 
able seasons  and  the  blighting  effects  of  the 
periodical  drouth,  there  will  be  merciless  cutting 
down  as  the  result,  and  something  will  give  way. 


Revolutionary  Manifestos  Call  on  Inhabitants  of 
Empire  to  End  "Savage  Oppression." 

While  Turkey  remains  in  debt  to  the 
United  States,  the  following  as  to  the  in- 
ternal conditions  of  the  Ottoman  Empire 
bears  special  interest  to  American  states- 
men.   It  is  from  the  Chicago  Record-Herald : 

Constantinople. — A  number  of  revolutionary 
manifestos,  attributable  to  the  young  Turk  move- 
ment, are  being  circulated  clandestinely  here  and 
in  the  provinces.  One  of  these,  distributed  by 
an  organization  styling  itself  the  Ottoman  Liberal 
Committee,  advocates  in  moderate  but  explicit 
language  the  re-establishment  of  the  Constitution 
of  1878  in  revised  form,  rendering  some  of  its 
provisions  more  applicable  to  the  needs  of  the 
country,  and  invites  Ottomans  to  unite  for  the 
accomplishment  of  this  object  instead  of  by  vyork- 
ing  in  different  directions,  enabling  a  despotic 
government  to  neutralize  their  efforts. 

It  declares  that  the  new  sovereign  must  pledge 
himself  to  introduce  the  Constitution  of  1878,  in 
return  for  which  the  nation  shall  respect  the 
rights  of  the  imperial  dynasty,  especially  the 
mode  of  succession  to  the  throne  established  by 
centuries.  The  revised  Constitution,  it  is  added, 
should  rely  on  the  ancient  principles,  including 
the  respect  due  to  the  sovereign's  prerogatives, 
equality  and  liberty  in  equal  degree  for  all  Otto- 
mans, and  a  large  degree  of  decentralization  in 
the  provinces. 

Another  pamphlet  purporting  to  emanate  from 
the  same  source  invites  the  inhabitants  of  the 
Empire  without  distinction  to  combine  against 
the  "savage  oppression  of  those  unhealthy  beings 
who  are  the  intermediaries  of  the  cruelties  and 
persecutions  of  the  sultans,"  and  says  that  the 
despotic  government  must  be  overthrown  and  law 
and  justice  established. 

The  manifestos  are  considered  indicative  of  the 
feeling  of  general  discontent  prevailing  through- 
out the  Turkish  Empire. 


BETWEEN  GERMANY  AND  TURKEY 


Kaiser's  Government  Not  Trying  to  Rouse  the 
Moslems  Against  England. 

The  following,  also,  has  similar  interest 
to  the  above.    It  is  from  the  Chicago  News : 

Constantinople. — Much  has  been  said  about 
German  attempts  to  influence  the  Moslem  world 
against  England  but  it  is  very  doubtful  whether 
such  is  the  case.  At  the  very  time  when  the 
worst  accusations  were  being  made,  namely  when 
the  question  of  the  Egyptian  frontier  was  up,  it 
is   a  fact   well   known   here   that   Germany   was 


T  HE     P  A  N  D  E  X 


advising  the  Sultan  to  give  way,  pointing  out  to 
him  that  worse  would  befall  him  if  he  did  not. 
Of  course,  Germany  has  always  been  opposed 
to  England  on  commercial  grounds,  has  done  her 
utmost  to  oust  Great  Britain,  and  has  succeeded 
in  almost  every  attempt,  the  reason  being  that 
the  German  Emperor,  the  German  Government, 
and  German  trade  are  all  one  and  the  same  thing 
and  work  together  fox  one  end.  The  Germans 
saw  a  large  field  in  Turkey  for  German  enter- 
prise and  left  no  stone  unturned  to  secure  it. 

Has  Trade  in  View. 

The  German  Emperor's  visit  here  in  1898  was 
solely  for  the  pui-pose  of  helping  German  trade, 
and  lie  then  made  the  granting  of  the  Haidar 
Pasha  Harbor  a  personal  matter  and  got  it.  All 
the  time  he  posed  as  the  Sultan's  friend,  and 
coming  as  he  did  when  all  Europe  was  down 
on  the  Sultan  after  the  Armenian  massacres  and 
at  the  very  moment  when  the  Britisli  troops  were 
massacred  in  Crete,  it  is  not  surprising  that  the 
Sultan  should  have  been  taken  in  and  believed 
he  had  a  real  friend.  The  Emperor  has  proved  a 
friend  in  giving  advice,  but  there  it  ends.  In 
variably  when  a  crisis  has  occurred  and  the  con- 
cert of  ^urope  was  threatening  destruction, 
Germany  has  always  refused  to  help  in  coercion 
and  has  always  kept  in  the  background,  telling 
the  Sultan  that  Germany  is  his  friend  and  will 
not  act  against  him,  but  at  the  same  time  advis- 
ing him  to  give  way  or  come  to  terms  and  also 
at  the  same  time  getting  some  new  concession. 
In  all  this  there  is  no  special  animus  against 
England,  except  that  England  is  most  in  the  way 
and  interferes  with  German  commerce.  England 
was  the  stumbling  block  for  a  debouche  for  the 
Bagdad  Railway  and  had  to  be  opposed. 


RUSSIA  IN  SHAH'S  KINGDOM 


Has  Steadily  Lowered  Great  Britain's  Imports 
for  Ten  Years. 

Another  Oriental  kingdom  whose  imme- 
diate destiny  may  affect  America  is  told 
in  the  following  from  the  Philadelphia  In- 
quirer : 

London.^In  the  last  few  years  Russia  has 
made  wonderful  strides  in  the  Persian  markets 
and  it  is  now  stated  that  it  predominates  in  the 
trade  there.  This  is  due,  it  is  said,  as  a  result 
of  the  friendly  intercourse  established  between 
the  two  countries. 

Ten  years  ago  the  Russian  imports  into  Persia 
amounted  to  only  fifteen  per  cent  of  those  of 
Great  Britain.  Now,  however,  Russia  actually 
imports  more  than  England  does,  and  the  imports 
of  the  latter  country  are  steadily  diminishing. 
The  reason  for  this  is  not  far  to  seek:  Russian 
influence  is  now  supreme  in  Northern  Persia. 
A  new  railway  line  for  Russian  commerce  has 
also  been  opened,  facilitating  the  communication 


between  the  two  countries  and  enabling  Russians 
to  compete  successfully  with  other  commercial 
competitors. 

The  first  section  of  this  line,  Tiflis-Alexandro- 
pol,  was  opened  as  far  back  as  1899.  A  second 
section,  Alexandropol-Erivan,  was  then  opened 
in  1902,  while  the  third  section,  Envan-Nake- 
chevan-Jidfa  to  the  Persian  frontier,  has  re- 
cently been  completed.  In  this  way  a  continuous 
line  has  been  constructed,  connecting  Central 
Russia  with  Persia,  running  through  Rostof, 
Perofsk-Baladjar,  and  Tiflis.  The  distance  from 
St.  Petersburg  by  this  new  railway  is  about 
3000  miles,  and  from  Moscow  about  2600,  or 
six  days'  journey. 

This  new  line,  of  course,  very  much  shortens 
the  time  formerly  required  for  the  journey  by 
way  of  Baku  or  Petrofsk,  as  it  obviates  the  ne- 
cessity of  a  long  caravan  journey.  It  is  now 
proposed  to  extend  this  new  line  from  Julfa 
through  Persian  territory  as  far  as  Tabriz,  the 
Moscow  of  Persia  and  by  far  the  largest  trading 
center  of  that  cotmtry. 

The  surveys  for  this  railway  were  made  by 
the  Russian  engineers  in  1900-01  at  the  same 
time  as  those  for  the  Alexandropol-Julfa  line, 
and  the  intimate  relations  at  present  existing 
between  the  two  countries  render  the  realization 
of  this  scheme  only  a  matter  of  time,  as  the  con- 
struction of  the  final  link  in  the  chain  of  com- 
munication has  already  been  begun. 

The  Russian  Government  hopes  to  have  the 
line  completed  and  in  thorough  working  order 
early  next  year.  It  will  be  extremely  interesting 
to  see  which  extraneous  power  (if  any)  is  to 
predominate  in  the  commerce  of  the  kingdom  of 
the  Shah. 


AUSTRIAN  SUCCESSION  A  PROBLEM 


Ex-Grand  Duke    of   Tuscany,    or   His    Children, 
May  Succeed  to  Throne. 

A  country,  the  life  of  whose  ruler  the 
aspiring  German  emperor  watches  with  a 
keenness  that  bears  great  international  im- 
port is  Austria-Hungary,  concerning  whose 
probable  succession  to  the  throne  the  St. 
Louis  G-lobe-Demoerat  has  printed  the  fol- 
lowing :  ■ 

When  Archduke  Leopold  of  Austria  volun- 
tarily surrendered  his  imperial  rank  and  pre- 
rogatives, as  well  as  his  Austrian  citizenship,  to 
wed  a  little  actress,  and  became  a  citizen  of 
Switzerland  under  the  name  of  Leopold  Wolf- 
ling,  he  probable  failed  to  appreciate  the  fact 
that  he  was  sacrificing  not  only  his  status  as  a 
prince  of  the  reigning  house  but  likewise  the 
thrones  of  Austria  and  Hungary.  True,  at  that 
time  his  prospects  of  succession  may  have 
seemed  somewhat   remote.     But  since  then  there 


The   p  a  x  d  e  x 


53 


UNCLE  SAM  AS  A  JAPANESE  PAPER  SEES  HIM. 

This  cartoon,  taken  from  the  Tokio  Puck,  had  the  following  caption  attached  to  it:  "Pan- 
American  Trust."  Uncle  Sam,  who  has  already  swallowed  the  Philippines  and  the  Hawaiian 
Islands  and  has  lately  seized  the  Cuban  republic,  is  now  contemplating  a  Pan-American  trust 
to  look  down  on  the  Old  World. 


has  been  a  change  and  to-day  he  would  be  re- 
garded in  the  light  of  an  heir  presumptive  to 
Emperor  Francis  Joseph's  crown. 

As  everybody  knows,  that  venerable  monarch 
lost  his  only  son  at  Meyerling,  and  is  therefore 
without  male  issue.  His  eldest  nephew,  Arch- 
duke Francis  Ferdinand,  the  heir  apparent,  is 
morganatically  married,  and  has  solemnly 
pledged  himself  never  to  attempt,  when 
emperor,  to  endow  his  morganatic  sons 
with  imperial  prerogatives  or  rights  to 
the        throne.  Francis        Ferdinand's       next 

brother.  Otto,  has  just  died,  leaving  two  sons, 
namely  Charles  Francis  and  Maximilian,  both  of 
whom  are  delicate,  the  elder  one  especially  so. 
After  them  comes  their  father's  youngest 
brother,  Archduke  Charles  Louis,  who  is  in- 
fatuated with  the  daughter  of  Professor  Czuber 
of  the  Vienna  University  and  who  swears  that  he 
will  never  wed  any  one  else  unless  he  can  marry 
her.  The  infatuation  has  lasted  for  several 
years,  and  all  the  endeavors  of  the  Emperor  to 
put  an  end  thereto  by  sending  the  Archduke  to 
travel  abroad  have  merely  served  to  strengthen 


it.  The  Emperor  absolutely  refuses  to  give  his 
consent  to  any  union  of  his  nephew  with  Mile. 
Czuber,  a  union  which,  of  course,  could  only  be 
morganatic.  It  is  believed  than  when  the  Em- 
peror dies,  and  Francis  Ferdinand  ascends  the 
throne,  he  will  be  unable  to  withhold  from  his 
only  surviving  brother  the  permission  to  wed 
morganatically  the  woman  he  loves,  in  the  same 
way  he  (Francis  Ferdinand)  has  done  himself 
in  the  case  of  Princess  Hohenburg. 

Tuscan  Prince  Is  in  Line. 

Next  after  Archduke  Charles  Louis,  now 
thirty-eight  years  of  age,  comes  the  ex-grand- 
duke  of  Tuscany,  who  was  deprived  of  his  throne 
by  the  great  Italian  revolution  of  IStiO,  which  in- 
corporated his  dominions  into  the  present 
kingdom  of  Italy.  The  grand  duke,  who  is  over 
seventy  years  of  age,  is  hardly  likely  to  survive 
the  Archduke  Francis  Ferdinand  and  Charles 
Louis.  But  his  eldest  son  is  the  Ex-archduke 
Leopold,  now  a  Swiss  citizen,  and  his  second  son 
is  Archduke  Joseph  Ferdinand,  who,  it  may  be 
remembered,   was  dispatched   by   his   family  and 


54 


THE     PANDEX 


by  the  Emperor  to  Switzerland  to  endeavor  to 
induce  the  ex-erown  princess  of  Saxony  to  return 
to  Dresden,  after  her  elopement  with  Giron,  and 
to  persuade  Archduke  Leopold  to  abandon  his 
little  actress  and  to  resume  his  place  at  the  head 
of  his  regiment  at  Olmutz.  As  everybody  knows, 
the  mission  was  unsuccessful. 

Of  course,  the  Emperor  has  one  surviving 
brother,  Archduke  Louis  Victor,  but  he  has  long 
been  afflicted  with  softening  of  the  brain,  and 
for  several  years  past  has  been  under  restraint 
in  one  of  the  imperial  chateaux  near  Salsburg. 
His  case  is  incurable. 


FIRST  SCHOOL  FOR  DIPLOMATS 


It  Is  to  Be  Opened  by  Tale  and  Columbia 
Jointly. 

For  many  years  the  need  of  special  train- 
ing of  Americans  to  meet  the  increasing  bur- 
dens of  international  relationship  has  been 
agitated.  That  the  proposition  is  finally 
taking  shape  is  shown  in  the  following  from 
the  New  York  Sun; 

New  Haven. — The  Yale-Columbia  recipe  for 
making  expert  diplomats  is  just  out.  It  is  in 
the  form  of  a  circular  announcing  the  number 
and  names  of  the  courses  for  diplomats  that  are 
to  be  offered  by  Yale  and  Columbia  Universities, 
which  have  combined  to  start  the  first  school 
for  diplomats  in  this  country. 

The  experiment  is  the  result  of  the  efforts  of 
Yale  alumni  who  believe  that  the  diplomats  sent 
to  foreign  countries  by  the  United  States  are 
not  all  as  highly  trained  as  they  should  be.  Presi- 
dent Nicholas  Murray  Butler  of  Columbia  and 
President  Arthur  T.  Hadley  of  Yale  met  not 
long  ago  in  New  York  to  talk  over  the  matter. 
Secretary  Elihu  Root  is  said  to  be  in  sympathy 
with  the  movement  and  it  is  stated  that  Presi- 
dent Roosevelt  has  expressed  himself  as  favoring 
some  such  undertaking. 

Andrew  D.  White,  Yale  '53,  who  represented 
the  United  States  as  ambassador  in  Germany  for 


many  years,  started  the  movement  here.  On  re- 
turning to  New  Haven  to  celebrate  his  fiftieth 
anniversary,  he  criticized  the  diplomatic  service 
of  this  country  and  expressed  the  hope  that  the 
time  would  come  when  the  United  States  would 
train  its  diplomats  so  that  it  would  hesitate  as 
much  to  send  an  unlettered,  untrained  man  to 
represent  the  Government  at  some  foreign  post 
as  it  would  to  send  a  butcher  to  represent  Amer- 
ican surgery  at  an  international  gathering  of 
physicians. 


A  NEW  IDEA  IN  WARFARE 


To    Save,   Not   Destroy  Life,   Is   Inventor   Hol- 
land's Plan. 

New  York. — Believing  that  to  cripple  and  not 
annihilate  will  be  the  object  in  wars  of  the 
future,  John  Holland,  the  submarine  torpedo 
boat  inventor,  is  at  work  on  a  design  for  a  new 
boat  for  this  purpose.  Mr.  Holland  is  of  the 
belief  that  the  time  is  not  far  off  when  the 
nations  of  the  earth  will  be  settling  their  differ- 
ences without  fighting,  in  which  event  destructive 
agents  will  not  be  necessary.  He  hopes  by  his 
new  idea,  however,  to  startle  the  world  by  the 
creation  of  a  new  mode  of  warfare. 

Mr.  Holland  took  occasion  to  discuss  the  tor- 
pedo boat  and  some  of  his  plans  at  a  meeting 
of  the  Lasalle  Society  in  Newark. 

"Submarines,"  said  Mr.  Holland,  "are  the 
only  sort  of  weapons  built  against  which  there 
can  not  be  any  defense.  But  the  one  I  am  at 
work  on  and  hope  soon  to  build  is  a  real  new 
one  and  will  be  the  chief  instrument  of  all  in 
doing  away  with  wars.  It  will  not  go  forth 
with  the  idea  of  destroying,  but  with  a  view  to 
crippling  or  disabling,  incapacitating,  as  it  were, 
everything  it  attacks.  With  it  nations  can  seek 
antagonists'  ships  and  say,  'We  will  not  destroy, 
we  will  only  cripple.'  It  will  put  boats  out  of 
commission  and  render  them  unfit  for  service, 
and  without,  I  am  hoping,  the  loss  of  a  single 
life." 


THE    PANDEX 


55 


Cabinet,    Legislature,     Judiciary     and 
Others   at    Work 


— Adapted  from  New  York  Times. 


REFORMS     PROPOSED     BY    THE     VARIOUS    HEADS     OF    THE 

FEDERAL  DEPARTMENTS.— STRUGGLES  IN  CONGRESS  OVER 

SHIP  SUBSIDY  AND  RIVER  AND   HARBOR  BILLS. 


THE  opposition  of  Vested  Interests  to  leg- 
islation calculated  to  force  them  into 
consideration  of  the  public  welfare  having 
been  much  moderated,  if  not  indeed  having 
lost  the  bulk  of  its  once  enormous  force, 
the  attempt  of  the  Government  to  govern 
itself  takes  on  a  freer  and  far  more 
inspiring  aspect  than  it  has  for  many 
years  past.  Cabinet  officials,  as  well 
as  the  President,  give  an  unwonted  sub- 
stance and  progressiveness  to  their  annual 
reports,  and  Congressmen  venture  upon  res- 
olutions and  bills  with  an  earnestness  and 
assurance  which  can  but  be  most  wholesome 
for  the  country.  Whether  there  is  a  subtle 
and  deeply  hidden  antagonism  still  being 
waged  by  the  corporations  and  the  finan- 


ciers, and  whether  they  are  using  the  present 
surface  liberation  to  cover  designs  that  will 
entrench  them  more  vitally  than  ever,  is 
something  which  it  will  require  further  time 
to  demonstrate. 


PLAN  FOR  THE   CURRENCY 


Controller    Insists    upon    Reforms    That    Will 
Create   Elasticity. 

As  significant  as  anything  of  the  compara- 
tive harmony  of  interests  in  the  country  is 
the  unanimity  with  which  the  various  fac- 
tors appear  to  agree  upon  the  line  which  cur- 
rencv      reform     should     take.     Controller 


56 


T  H  E     P  A  i\  D  E  X 


Ridgeley  defined  the  movement  in  the  recom- 
mendations made  in  his  annual  report,  the 
following  summary  of  which  is  from  the 
Pittsburg  Gazette-Tim«s : 

Washington.— William  B.  Ridgely,  controller 
of  the  currency,  in  his  animal  report  to  Congress 
calls  the  attention  of  Congress  to  the  necessity 
of  a  change  in  the  national  currency  and  renews 
the  recommendations  made  in  his  report  of  De- 
cember 1,  1902.  that  the  national  banks  be 
authorized  to  issue  a  portion  of  their  circulation 
as  uncovered  notes  as  the  best  means  of  adding 
to  this  circulation  the  greatly  needed  quality  of 
elasticity. 

Controller  Ridgely  recommends  that  the 
laws  be  amended  so  as  to  allow  of  the  following 
changes : 

All  national  banks  which  have  been  in  oper- 
ation for  not  less  than  two  years  and  which 
have  an  unimpaired  surplus  of  not  less  than 
twenty  per  cent  of  their  capital  stock  to  be  per 
mitted  to  issue  not  to  exceed  fifty  per  cent  of 
the  amount  of  their  bond-covered  notes  in  notes 
uncovered  by  bond  deposits. 

To  protect  these  notes  the' banks  to  carry  the 
same  reserves  as  against  deposits,  in  gold  or  its 
equivalent.  In  reserve  banks  this  would  be 
twenty-five  per  cent  and  in  all  others  fifteen 
per  cent  of  the  outstanding  notes. 

These  notes  to  be  further  protected  by  a  guar- 
antee fund  of  five  per  cent,  to  be  deposited  by 
the  issuing  bank  with  the  treasurer  of  the 
United  States  before  any  are  issued. 

Out  of  this  guarantee  fnnd  all  such  gold- 
reserve  notes  to  be  redeemed  on  demand. 

The  guarantee  fund  to  be  kept  good  by  a  grad- 
uated tax  on  the  gold-reserve  notes,  beginning  at 
a  rate  of  not  over  two  and  one-half  per  ccat 
per  annum. 

Every  bank  issuing  gold-reserx^i  notes  to  be 
required  to  provide  means  of  redemption  for 
such  notes  in  every  reserve  and  central  reserve 
city,  and  also  such  other  points  as  may  be  desig- 
nated. 

These  points  to  be  numerous  ai'd  i'oiiveni?nt 
enough  to  put  every  national  bank  within  twenty- 
four  hours  of  a  redemption  center. 

The  provision  limiting  the  retiremeiu  of  the 
present  bond-secured  notes  to  $3,000,000  per 
month  not  to  apply  to  gold-reserve  notes,  and 
this  limit  to  be  repealed  or  greatly  extended 
at  the  discretion  of  the  Secretary  of  the  Treas- 
ury, in   its   application   to  bond-secured   notes. 

The  stock  of  money  in  the  United  States  on 
June  30,  1906,  amounted  to  $3,069,900,000,  of 
which  $2,162,000,000  was  in  coin  (including  bul- 
lion in  the  treasury)  and  $907,000,000  in  United 
States  notes  and  national  bank  notes.  The 
coin,  bullion  and  paper  currency  in  the  treasury 
as  assets  amounted  to  $325,400,000,  the  re- 
mainder, .$2,744,500,000,  being  in  circulation. 
The  estimated  population  of  the  country  on  that 
date  was  84,622,000.  giving  an  average  circula- 
tion per  capita  of  $32.42,   against   a   per  capita 


of  $31.08  for  1905  and  $21.10  in  1896.  The 
amount  of  money  held  by  national  and  other 
reporting  banks  in  the  United  States,  shown  by 
reports  nearest  to  June  30,  1906,  was  $1,010,- 
700,000,  which  leaves  $1,733,800,000  in  circula- 
tion, exclusive  of  money  in  the  treasury  and  in 
banks,  being  a  gain  of  $133,700,000  over  the 
amount  in  circulation  in  1905,  outside  of  the 
banks  and  the  treasury.  The  money  in  the  treas- 
ury on  June  30,  1906,  represented  10.60  per  cent 
of  the  stock;  in  reporting  banks,  .32.92  per  cent; 
and  elsewhere,  56.49  per  cent.  The  per  capita 
unaccounted  for  in  1906  appears  to  be  $20.48,  an 
increase  of  $1.26  over  the  per  capita  estimated 
for  1905,  and  a  gain  of  $6.83  in  the  per  capita 
of  money  estimated  to  be  in  circulation  ten 
years  ago. 


ASKS  POWER  AGAINST  TRUSTS 


Attorney  General  Advises  New  Laws  to 
Strengthen  Government. 
Another  significant  phase  of  the  state  of 
public  mind  is  reflected  in  the  emphasis  with 
which  the  retiring-  Attorney-General,  Mr. 
Moody,  urged  that  increased  power  be  given 
the  Government's  law  department  to  deal 
with  trusts.  Said  the  Chicago  Record- 
Herald  : 

Washington. — Recommendations  for  new  legis- 
lation which  will  assist  the  Department  of  Jus- 
tice in  the  prosecution  of  offenders,  particularly 
under  the  anti-trust  law,  are  made  by  Attorney 
General  William  H..  Moody  in  his  annual  report, 
which  was  submitted  to  Congress.  The  reforms 
which  he  urges  are  as  follows : 

1.  An  amendment  of  the  law  respecting  the 
arrest  of  persons  indicted  for  crime. 

2.  Enactment  of  a  law  giving  to  the  United 
States  the  right  of  appeal  on  questions  of  law 
in  criminal  cases,  with  the  proviso  that  a  verdict 
of  acquittal  on  the  merits  shall  not  be  set  aside. 

3.  Restoration  to  the  Government  of  the  right 
to   appeal  customs  cases   to  the   Supreme   Court. 

4.  The  necessary  legislation  and  appropri- 
ation to  send  the  reports  of  the  Supreme  Court 
to  each  place  of  holding  United  States  Circuit 
and  District  Courts. 

5.  Amendment  of  the  right  of  appeal  from 
the  Court  of  Appeals  for  the  District  of  Colum- 
bia, so  that  it  shall  be  coextensive  with  that  of 
the  various  Circuit  Courts. 


PROPOSE  FEDERAL  LICENSES 


Secretary  Metcalf   Thinks   This  the   Only   Way 
to  Regulate  Trusts. 

In  further  elaboration  of  the  requests  of 
the  Attornej'-General  were  those  of  the  re- 


THE     PANDEX 


57 


tiring  Secretary  of  Commerce  and  Labor. 
Said  the  Philadelphia  North  American  in 
summarizing  Mr.  Metcalf's  report: 

Washington. — In  his  annual  report  just  made 
public,  Secretary  Metcalf,  of  the  Department 
of  Commerce  and  Labor,  calls  attention  to  the 
fact  that  individual  states  have  demonstrated 
their  inability  to  effectually  curb  the  improper 
uses  of^  corporate  powers.  He  suggests  Federal 
control  of  corporations  and  says  the  most  feas- 
ible way  would  be  on  the  Federal  franchise  plan. 

"This  plan,"  suggests  the  Secretary,  "is  sim- 
ply to  require  the  greater  industrial  corpora- 
tions to  obtain  a  license  from  the  Federal  Gov- 
ernment if  they  are  to  engage  in  interstate  and 
foreign  commerce.  There  would  be  no  inter- 
ference with  the  powers  of  a  state  over  the  cre- 
ation of  corporations,  nor  their  actions  wholly 
within  the  state.  Under  a  license  the  Federal 
Government  should  require,  as  a  condition  prece- 
dent to  granting  the  license,  a  full  disclosure 
of  all  facts  necessary  to  show  the  ownerehip, 
properties,  tinaneial  condition,  and  management 
of  the  corporation. 

"Furthermore,  the  corporation's  records 
should  be  open  to  proper  inspection;  annual 
reports  should  be  required,  and,  finally,  the  Gov- 
ernment should  have  the  power  to  revoke  the 
license  and  prevent  the  continuation  of  engaging 
in  interstate  and  foreign  commerce  in  the  event 
the  coi-poration  fails  in  its  obligations  toward 
the  Government  or  is  convicted  of  violating  Fed- 
eral laws. 

"Ordinarily  the  imposition  of  fines  does  but 
little  to  correct  corporate  abuses,  but  if  the  pen- 
alty be  the  denial  of  the  right  to  continue  busi- 
ness a  most  effective  remedy  is  provided. 

"The  railways  have  been  brought  under  Fed- 
eral regulations  by  tlie  Interstate  Commerce  Act. 
The  principle  of  such  regulation  has  been  adopted 
in  the*  acts  regarding  meat  inspection  and  pure 
food.  The  next  act  should  extend  the  license 
plan  over  the  greater  industrial  eoi-porations 
dealing  in  the  staple  commodities." 


MORE  BATTLESHIPS  NEEDED 


Secretary   of   the   Navy   Urges    Stronger  Naval 
Equipment  at  Once. 

Public  sentiment,  regardless  of  other  an- 
tagonisms, has  long  been  well  united  on  the 
question  of  the  Navy  and  its  adequate  expan- 
sion, but  since  Congress  reassembled,  no  less 
of  a  Republican  than  Senator  Hale  has  given 
notice  of  his  intention  to  fight  further  in- 
creases of  naval  and  military  expenditure. 
In  view  of  this  the  following  summary  from 
the  Chicago  Tribune  of  the  retiring  Secre- 


tary   of    the    Navy's    recommendations    is 
doubly  interesting : 

Washington,  D.  C. — Three  new  battleships, 
each  as  large  and  powerful  as  the  already  famous 
British  Dreadnaught,  will  be  added  to  the  navy 
if  Congress  heeds  the  urgent  advice  of  Secretary 
of  the  Navy  Bonaparte,  in  his  report  recently 
made  public. 

Congress  already  has  authorized  the  construc- 
tion of  one  of  these  battleships. 

Secretary  Bonaparte  urges  the  simultaneous 
construction  of  two  more,  so  that  the  navy 
would  have  a  homogeneous  squadron  of  the  most 
formidable  fighting  ships  afloat.  In  doing  so, 
he  makes  one  startling  argument.     He  says: 

"I  think  it  is  but  right  to  call  attention  to 
certain  features  of  our  country's  situation, 
which,  although  sufficiently  obvious  and  of  self- 
evident  importance,  nevertheless  appear  to  be 
frequently  overlooked.  Although  a  continental 
power,  for  practical  purposes  we  share  with 
Great  Britain  the  immense  advantages  of  an  in- 
sular position.  Provided  our  naval  strength  be 
sufficient  to  retain  command  of  the  sea,  we  are 
absolutely  safe  from  invasion,  and  consequently 
escape  the  burdens  of  a  vast  military  estab- 
lishment, which  bear  upon  all  the  great  powers 
of  the  European  continent;  but  if  we  have  not 
a  sufficient  navy,  the  oceans  to  the  east  and  west 
of  us,  instead  of  serving  as  bulwarks  for  de- 
fense, become  highways  for  invasion. 

Invasion  Possible  in  a  Week. 

"The  extensive  steam  merchant  marines  which 
serve  the  commerce  of  the  world  are  no  less 
available  to  transport  men  and  munitions  of  war, 
and  they  place  our  shores  within  a  week's,  or  at 
least  a  fortnight's,  march  of  a  powerful  army 
from  any  one  of  the  great  military  countries 
of  the  world,  a  danger  rendered  far  more  serious 
by  the  fact  that  an  enemy  coming  by  water  is 
restricted  to  no  line  of  advance  ascertainable 
beforehand  and  may  choose  for  aggression  any 
point  of  our  coast  line  which  seems  the  most  vul- 
nerable. 

"Under  these  circumstances,  unless  \\e  are 
willing  to  maintain  a  strong  standing  army,  the 
maintenance  of  our  naval  strength  is  a  matter 
of  supreme  moment  to  the  national  safety,  and 
I  am  convinced  that  an  enlightened  and  patriotic 
opinion  will  assent  gladly  to  any  reasonable  sac- 
rifices necessary  to  assure  such  safety." 


CONDITION  OF  THE  FINANCES 


Large  Increase  in  the  Revenues  Shown  by  the 
Treasurer's  Annual  Report. 

Two  of  the  great  Departments  of  the  Gov- 
ernment exhibit  at  least  some  of  the  reasons 
why  the  country  is  so   easily   harmonized. 


58 


THE     PANDEX 


The  following  condensation  of  the  report 
of  the  Secretary  of  the  Treasury  gives  one 
phase  of  the  matter.  It  is  from  the  New 
York  Sun: 

Washington. — The  report  of  the  Secretary  of 
the  Treasury  for  the  fiscal  year  ended  June  30, 
1906,  was  just  transmitted  to  Congress. 

Mr.  Shaw  devotes  the  early  part  of  his  report 
to  a  setting  forth  in  detail  of  the  income  and 
disbursements  of  the  Government  which  show 
the  total  of  receipts  to  have  been  $762,386,904.62, 
and  the  total  expenditures,  $736,717,582.01,  show- 
ing a  surplus  for  the  fiscal  year  of  $25,669,322.61. 

Including  the  issue  of  Panama  bonds  the  pub- 
lic debt  November  1,  1906,  was  $925,159,250.  Of 
this  amount  bonds  of  the  face  value  of  $631,- 
542,630  were  held  by  the  Treasurer  of  the  United 
States  in  trust  for  national  banks  as  security 
for  circulating  notes  and  deposits,  leaving  $293,- 
616,620  in  the  hands  of  other  investors. 

Revenue  Receipts. 

Compared  with  the  fiscal  year  1905,  the  re- 
ceipts for  1906  increased  $65,285,634.67,  and 
there  was  an  increase  in  expenditures  of  $16,612,- 
083.46.  The  customs  receipts  for  1906  amounted 
to  $300,251,877.77,  an  increase  over  the  previous 
year  of  $38,453,020.86.  The  receipts  from  in- 
ternal revenue  for  the  year  were  $249,150,212.91, 
an  increase  over  the  previous  year  of  $15,054,- 
472.06.  The  receipts  from  the  operation  of  the 
Postofflce  Department  were  $167,932,782.95, 
being  an  increase  over  the  previous  year  of  $15,- 
106,197.85.  The  total  expenditures  on  account 
of  the  military  establishment  were  $117,946,- 
692.37,  an  increase  over  the  previous  year  of 
$5,776,843.35,  while  the  total  expenditures  on 
account  of  the  naval  establishment  were  $110,- 
474,264.40,  an  increase  of  $6,198,162.46.  The 
amount  paid  to  pensioners  was  $141,034,561.77, 
a  decrease  over  the  previous  year  of  $739,402.80. 
The  Indian  service  cost  the  Government  $12,746,- 
859.08,  a  decrease  over  the  previous  year  of 
$1,489,214.63.  Interest  on  the  public  debt 
amounted  to  $24,308,576.27,  a  decrease  over  the 
previous  year  of  $282,367.83.  The  aggregate 
expenditures  for  the  year  1906  were  $736,717,- 
582.01,  and  the  increase  for  the  year  was  $16,- 
612,083.46. 

The  revenues  of  the  Government  for  the  cur- 
rent fiscal  year  (1907)  are  estimated,  upon  the 
basis  of  existing  laws,  at  $813,573,264,  ana  for 
the  same  period  the  expenditures  are  estimated 
at  $755,573,264,  showing  a  surphis  of  receipts 
over  e.xpenditures  of  $58,000,000. 


ANENT  THE  MONEY  STRINGENCY 


Secretary  Shaw's  Optimistic  View  of  Its  Cause 
and  Its  Possible  Remedy. 
Despite  prosperity's  high  tide,  as  reflected 


by  the  condition  of  the  Treasury,  the  na- 
tional money  market  has  seldom  been  more 
strained  than  it  has  in  recent  months.  Here 
follows  Secretary  Shaw's  explanation,  as 
condensed  by  the  New  York  Sun  from  his 
annual  report: 

Reviewing  the  causes  and  effects  of  the  recent 
monetary  stringency  in  the  East  and  the  West 
particularly,  but  more  or  less  throughout  the 
country,  Mr.  Shaw  says: 

"In  February  of  1906,  $10,000,000  was  depos- 
ited in  national  bank  depositaries  in  seven  of 
the  principal  cities  and  satisfactory  security 
other  than  Government  bonds  accepted,  but  with 
the  distinct  understanding  that  it  would  be  re- 
called in  July  of  that  year.  This  relief  was  not 
sufficient,  however.  Banks  everywhere,  West  as 
well  as  East,  found  themselves  in  the  spring 
with  surphis  reserve  exhausted.  The  foreign 
exchange  market  responded  sympathetically  in  a 
very  marked  decline  in  sterling  exchange  suffi- 
cient to  have  insured  the  importation  of  gold  if 
the  banks  had  been  in  position  to  buy  the  ex- 
change with  which  to  secure  it.  The  Secretary 
then  offered  to  make  deposits,  satisfactorily  se- 
cured, equal  in  amount  to  any  actual  engagement 
of  gold  for  importation,  the  same  to  be  promptly 
returned  when  the  gold  actually  arrived.  In  this 
way  approximately  $50,000,000  (more  than  six 
carloads)  in  gold,  largely  in  bars,  was  brought 
from  abroad.  Most  of  this  came  from  Europe, 
but  in  part  from  Australia  and  South  Africa. 

"This  was  accomplished  without  expense  to 
the  Government  and  without  profit  to  the  import- 
ing banks,  but  with  great  benefit  to  the  business 
interests  of  the  country.  The  various  banks 
which  imported  this  gold  lost  in  the  transactions 
several  thousand  dollars,  as  established  by  their 
books;  the  price  of  exchange  promptly  advanced 
so  that  merchants  and  exporters  of  graih  and 
cotton  having  exchange  to  sell  were  benefited  in 
excess  of  $150,000,  and  interest  rates  dropped 
sufficiently  to  effect  a  saving  to  borrowers  in  New 
York  City  alone  of  more  than  $2,000,000.  This 
means  of  relieving  financial  stringencies,  which 
has  been  once  since  repeated  attracted  far  more 
attention  throughout  Europe  than  in  the  United 
States,  though  it  has  been  widely  commented 
upon  in  both  places.  It  has  at  least  demon- 
strated that  the  United  States  is  in  a  position  to 
more  effectually  influence  international  financial 
conditions  than  is  any  other  country,  and  justi- 
fies great  caution  lest  while  protecting  our  own 
interests  we  cause  distress  elsewhere  which  will 
soon  be  reflected  here. 

Crops  Taxed  Resources. 

' '  The  harvest  of  1906  overtaxed  our  granaries, 
our  warehouses,  the  carrying  capacity  of  our  rail- 
roads, and,  in  conjunction  with  our  unprece- 
dented industrial  activity,  strained  well  nigh   tr 


THE    PANDEX 


59 


AND  THE  CAT  COMES  BACK. 


-Indianapolis  News. 


60 


THE     PANDEX 


the  limit  the  credit  possibility  of  the  country. 
A  cotton  crop  sometimes  estimated  at  14,000,000 
bales,  750,000,000  bushels  of  wheat,  nearly  3,000,- 
000,000  bushels  of  corn,  300,000,000  bushels  of 
potatoes,  garnered  in  a  single  season,  required 
both  actual  money  and  bank  credit  based  thereon. 
During  the  summer  months  grain  sacks  were  not 
in  use,  granaries  and  warehouses  were  empty, 
freight  cars  stood  on  sidetracks,  business  men 
fished  in  mountain  streams  or  rested  at  vacation 
resorts.  Meanwhile  the  banks  were  comfortably 
well  supplied  with  money,  and  interest  rates  were 
low.  Everything  seemed  serene  to  everybody 
except  to  those  who  recognized  that  in  this  lati- 
tude crops  mature  in  the  fall. 

More  Gold  Imported. 

"Finding  transportation  facilities  inadequate 
to  promptly  export  our  agricultural  products,  the 
Secretary  of  the  Treasury  deemed  it  wise  to 
again  facilitate  the  importation  of  gold  from 
abroad  with  which  to  carry  them  until  they  could 
be  exported.  Under  plain  and  unequivocal 
authority  of  law,  and  without  a  penny  of  ex- 
pense to  the  Government,  approximately  another 
$50,000,000  of  gold  was  brought  from  abroad 
and  turned  into  the  channels  of  trade.  In  addi- 
tion $26,000,000  of  the  money  withdrawn  in  mid- 
summer was  restored.  Of  this,  $3,000,000  was 
given  to  New  York  City  and  the  same  amount 
tendered  to  Chicago,  a  part  of  which  was  de- 
clined, however,  because  the  banks  found  it  im- 
possible to  borrow  the  bonds  with  which  to  secure 
it  and  unprofitable  to  buy  them.  Boston,  Phil- 
adelphia, St.  Louis,  and  New  Orleans  each  re- 
ceived $2,000,000;  Baltimore,  Louisville,  Kansas 
City,  Cleveland,  and  Cincinnati,  $1,000,000  each; 
Pittsburg,  Buffalo,  Minneapolis,  Milwaukee,  De- 
troit, St.  Paul,  Omaha,  Des  Moines,  Denver, 
Sioux  City,  Memphis,  Peoria,  Atlanta,  Nashville, 
and  Sioux  Falls  approximately  $500,000  each. 
Meanwhile  sensational  writers  told  the  people 
that  all  this  was  being  done  for  the  encourage- 
ment of  speculation  on  Wall  Street. 

"If  those  who  recognize  that  a  deposit  of 
money  at  Denver  relieves  financial  tension  at 
Wall  Street  will  also  acknowledge  that  a  deposit 
in  New  York  relieves  financial  stringency  at  Den- 
ver, no  material  harm  will  ensue.  Money  is  al- 
most as  liquid  as  water  and  finds  its  level  about 
as  quickly." 


THE  TUSSLES  IN  CONGRESS 


Speaker  Against  Ship  Subsidy  and  River  and 
Harbor  Bill  a  Club. 
With  the  several  federal  Departments 
making  recommendations  with  unusual  free- 
dom, as  seen  above,  the  probable  result  of 
Congressional  action,  of  course,  becomes  ex- 
tremely important.  Early  in  December,  the 
New  York  Sun  gave  the  following  forecast 


of  the  session,  which  has  proved  so  remark- 
ably accurate  that  scarcely  any  other  his- 
tory of  the  doings  of  the  first  seventeen 
days  is  necessary : 

Washington,  December  2. — The  second  session 
of  the  Fifty-ninth  Congress  will  open  at  noon 
to-morrow. 

All  during  the  past  week  senators  and  members 
of  the  House  have  been  arriving  in  Washington 
preparatory  to  taking  up  the  work  of  legislation. 
To-night  the  hotel  corridors  and  the  apartment 
houses  are  crowded  with  solons,  private  secre- 
taries, clerks,  and  the  vast  horde  of  satellites 
which  are  drawn  here  by  reason  of  the  assem- 
bling of  the  national  lawmakers. 

If  the  plans  of  the  leaders  do  not  miscarry, 
and  usually  they  do  not,  this  will  be  strictly  a 
business  session  and  one  without  many  frills 
and  little  to  excite  the  attention  of  the  country 
at  large.  There  will  be  no  railroad  rate  bill 
or  statehood  measure  to  absorb  attention,  as  was 
the  case  at  the  fir.st  session  of  the  present  Con- 
gress, for  Congress  intends  that  the  Hepburn 
Act  shall  have  an  opportunity  to  demonstrate 
its  worth  or  lack  of  worth  before  any  attempts 
are  made  to  remedy  any  defects,  and  there  is  no 
possibility  of  statehood  for  New  Mexico  and 
Arizona  being  considered. 

Everything  is  in  readiness  to  start  the  wheels 
of  legislation  in  motion,  and  as  the  session  is 
short  no  time  will  be  lost  in  getting  down  to 
work.  For  the  past  ten  days  or  two  weeks  the 
House  Committee  on  Appropriations  has  been 
hard  at  work  on  the  Legislative  Appropriation 
Bill  and  now  has  it  practically  completed.  It 
will  be  reported  either  to-morrow  or  Tuesday. 
This  will  afford  opportunity  for  the  talkers  to 
talk  until  something  else  is  ready  to  be  acted 
upon. 

There  is  promise  of  a  lively  scrap  over  the 
River  and  Harbor  Bill,  the  ground  work  of  which 
was  laid  by  Representative  Burton  and  his  com- 
mittee last  session.  The  amount  which  it  will 
carry  will  depend  to  a  large  extent  upon  the  ap- 
propriation for  increase  in  the  navy  and  per- 
haps upon  whether  or  not  the  ship  subsidy  bill 
is  to  become  a  law.  It  will  be  large  if  the  in- 
crease in  the  navy  is  small  and  the  shipping  bill 
is  allowed  to  die  in  Representative  Grosvenor's 
committee,  and  comparatively  small  if  the  pos- 
sibility of  war  with  Japan  frightens  members 
into  complying  with  the  President's  demand  for 
a  lai'ger  navy  and  if  the  shipping  bill  is  not 
passed. 

The  prospects  are  that  Speaker  Cannon  will 
not  permit  the  Gallinger  Subsidy  Bill  to  come 
out  of  the  Committee  on  Merchant  Marine  and 
Fisheries.  The  Speaker  has  never  been  friendly 
to  the  proposition,  and  if  there  is  to  be  a  large 
appropriation  for  rivers  and  harbors,  and  an- 
other Dreadnaught  authorized,  the  shipping  bill 
will  stand  a  mighty  poor  show  of  enactment,  de--. 
spite  the  threat  of  Senator  Gallinger  and  others 


THE    PANDEX 


61 


OPENED. 


— New  York  World. 


62 


THE     PANDBX 


that  they  will  knife  the  River  and  Harbor  Bill 
if  the  subsidy  measure  does  not  meet  with  favor- 
able consideration. 

The  Speaker  is  not  easily  bluffed  by  the  Sen- 
ate, as  has  been  shown  upon  several  occasions, 
and  is  not  inclined  to  back  down  and  yield  upon 
a  measure  which  he  has  all  along  opposed  as 
he  has  the  Subsidy  Bill.  Still  the  friends  of 
that  measure  profess  to  have  some  hopes  for  it 
this  winter. 

Probably  the  most  interesting  topic  in  the 
Senate  this  winter  will  be  the  Smoot  case.  Sen- 
ator Burrows,  the  chairman  of  the  Committee 
on  Privileges  and  Elections,  has  declared  that  it 
is  his  intention  to  call  up  the  matter  early  in 
the  session  and  press  it  to  a  vote. 

Senator  Gallinger  of  New  Hampshire  arrived 
in  Washington  to-night  in  a  comparatively  happy 
mood.  In  reply  to  the  threat  of  Representative 
Burton  of  Ohio,  chairman  of  the  House  Com- 
mittee on  Rivers  and  Harbors,  that  he  would 
oppose  the  passage  of  the  Ship  Subsidy  Bill  this 
winter,  he  promptly  served  notice  on  the  Ohio 
Congressman  that  if  the  shipping  bill  were 
blocked  in  the  House  the  River  and  Harbor  Bill 
would  be  cut  into  ribbons  when  it  reached  the 
Senate.    Senator  Gallinger  said : 

"Mr.  Burton  should  understand  from  the  be- 
ginning that  if  he  interposes  any  obstacle  in  the 
way  of  the  shipping  bill,  there  will  be  some  men 
in  the  Senate  who  will  carefully  scrutinize  the 
provisions  of  the  River  and  Harbor  Bill.  There 
is  no  logical  reason  why  we  should  expend  hun- 
dreds of  millions  to  improve  the  highways  of 
commerce  for  the  benefit  of  foreign  shipping  and 
refuse  to  appropriate  a  mere  pittance  for  the 
rehabilitation  of  the  American  merchant 
marine. ' ' 


FIGHT  AGAINST  CHILD  LABOR 


Senator    Beveridge    Proposes    Drastic    National 
Legislation. 

A  new  object  in  national  legislation,  but 
one  which  promises  to  be  of  great  force,  was 
described  as  follows  in  the  Pittsburg  Dis- 
patch : 

Richmond,  Ind. — At  a  meeting  of  the  repre- 
sentatives of  the  Young  Men's  Christian  Asso- 
ciations of  Indiana  and  Ohio,  Senator  Albert  J. 
Beveridge  stated  that  on  the  opening  day  of  the 
coming  session  of  Congress  he  intended  to  in- 
troduce a  bill  prohibiting  the  labor  of  children 
throughout  the  country,  and  a  bill  to  make  more 
rigid  the  present  meat  inspection  law. 

He  said  the  Child  Labor  Bill  will  provide  that 
no  railroad,  steamship,  steamboat,  or  other  car- 
rier of  interstate  commerce  shall  transport  or 
accept  for  transportation  the  product  of  any 
factory    or   mine    that  employs    children    under 


fourteen.  The  bill,  he  said,  would  provide  that 
every  carrier  of  interstate  commerce  shall  re- 
quire an  affidavit  from  every  factory  or  mine 
owner  that  he  does  not  employ  children  under 
fourteen  years  of  age,  the  form  of  the  affidavit 
to  be  prescribed  by  the  Department  of  Commerce 
and  Labor  or  the  Interstate  Commerce  Commis- 
sion, with  heavy  penalties,  both  civil  and  crim- 
inal, for  violation  of  the  law. 

The  bill,  if  it  becomes  a  law,  he  believed,  will 
stop  the  practice  of  ruining  future  citizenship 
by  working  children  of  tender  age  in  factories 
and  mines. 

There  is  no  other  way,  he  said,  to  reach  this 
growing  evil.  A  Federal  statute  can  not  be 
passed  directly  controlling  the  factories  and 
mines  in  the  states.  That  is  the  province  of  the 
states.  But  Congress  has  absolute  power  over 
the  railroads,  boats,  ships,  and  other  agencies  of 
interstate  commerce,  and  unlimited  power  under 
the  Constitution  to  provide  that  they  shall  not 
carry  the  products  of  factories  and  mines  which 
employ  children. 

The  bill  to  amend  the  Meat  Inspection  Law 
will  require  the  putting  of  the  date  of  inspec- 
tions on  every  can  of  meat  product,  and  the 
packers  to  pay  the  cost  of  inspection. 


TARIFF  REVISION  AFTER  1908 


Republican  Leaders  Expect  to  Sweep  the  Coun- 
try on  This  Issue. 

Despite  an  obvious  popular  sentiment  in 
its  behalf  and  much  pressure  from  within 
the  party  itself,  the  President  has  refrained 
from  urging  tariff  revision.  One  of  his  rea- 
sons, possibly,  is  the  following,  as  given  in 
the  Washington  Post: 

Tariff  revision  immediately  following  the 
presidential  election  in  1908.  This  is  the  Repub- 
lican program.  There  will  be  no  extra  session 
of  the  Sixtieth  Congress.  The  President,  what- 
ever he  may  have  thought  of  revision  of  the 
tariff  twelve  months  ago,  does  not  now  think  it 
would  be  wise  to  agitate  this  matter  at  a  session 
of  Congress  on  the  eve  of  a  presidential  cam- 
paign. 

Members  of  Congress  of  the  Republican  faith, 
who  are  now  coming  into  Washington  appear  to 
be  largely  of  one  mind  on  the  tariff  question. 
The  stand-patters,  who  deprecate  the  idea  of 
anything  being  done,  admit  that  revision  is  made 
necessary  by  the  attitude  of  the  people,  who, 
whether  rightly  or  wrongly,  attribute  high  prices 
to  tariff-protected  trusts.  Revisionists,  who  wish 
to  see  their  party  perpetuated  in  power,  even 
though  the  majority  does  not  agree  with  them 
on  the  subject  of  amending  the  tariff  schedules, 
are  willing  to  postpone  action  for  a  short  period, 


THE    PANDEX 


63 


if  definite  pledges  are  given  them  and  the  coun- 
try. These  pledges  are  to  be  given  by  the  na- 
tional convention  of  1908. 

Revolt  Is  Threatened. 

Party  leaders  believe  that,  with  a  definite 
pledge,  couched  in  language  devoid  of  ambiguity, 
and  about  which  there  can  be  no  uncertainty, 
they  will  sweep  the  country  in  1908.    Up  to  this 


Senators  Cullom  and  Burrows,  standpatters  of 
the  most  pronounced  type,  have  begun  to  dis- 
cuss the  advisability  of  revision.  They  will  be 
followed  by  others  who  have  become  aroused  to 
the  danger  of  continuing  longer  in  a  policy  that, 
although  it  has  done  immense  good  to  the  coun- 
try in  general,  has  fostered  special  industries 
until  they  have  become  a  menace  to  the  peace 
of  the  people. 


READY  TO  BREAK  AWAY! 


-St.  Louis  Republic. 


time,  revision  has  simply  been  held  up  before  the 
people  as  a  possibility.  The  Republicans  have 
declared  their  intention  of  'revising'  the  tariff 
when  conditions  required  it,  and  have  asserted 
that  no  schedule  is  sacred.  These  things  have 
been  said  so  often,  and  revision  has  been  re- 
fused so  steadily,  that  revolt  has  crept  into  the 
party  and  threatened  to  disrupt  it. 

There  is  not  a  member  of  the  House  Ways 
and  Means  Committee  returned  by  the  Repub- 
licans to  the  Sixtieth  Congress  who  does  not 
come  back  with  the  warning  of  a  reduced  m.a- 
jority  staring  him  in  the  face  as  a  reminder  of 
promises  still  to  be  fulfilled.     Public  men,  like 


REVISION  OF  THE  LAWS 


Stupendous  Task  Being  Accomplished  by  Con- 
gressional Committees. 

A  phase  of  legislation  which  has  had  but 
little  public  comment  but  which  is  of  ex- 
treme moment  is  refiected  in  the  following 
from  the  New  York  Times: 

Washington. — Lawyers  throughout  the  country 
are  manifesting  much  interest  in  the  work  of  the 
joint  committee  of  the  Senate  and  House  to  re- 


64e 


THE     PANDEX 


vise  the  laws  of  the  United  States.  Members  of 
the  committee  are  in  receipt  of  many  letters  con- 
taining inquiries  about  the  work  of  the  commit- 
tee. The  stupendous  task  involved  is  appreciated 
by  few  laymen. 

Representative  Swager  Sherley,  of  Kentucky, 
who  is  a  rhember  of  the  committee,  talked  of 
the  scope  of  the  work  and  shed  a  good  deal  of 
light  on  the  subject. 

"The  committee,"  said  Mr.  Sherley,  "is  now 
at  work  on  the  Criminal  Code,  and  this  will  be 
the  first  general  section  to  be  reported.  It  is 
probable  that  this  code  will  be  submitted  soon 
after  Congress  convenes.  This  title  was  repoited 
to  the  House  at  the  last  session,  but  it  failed  of 
consideration  owing  to  the  congestion  of  legisla- 
tion at  that  time. 

"After  the  Penal  Code,  consideration  will  be 
given  to  the  title  relating  to  the  judiciary,  in 
which  it  is  proposed  to  make  some  far-reaching 
changes.  For  example,  the  district  courts  will 
be  the  only  courts  of  original  jurisdiction.  The 
Circuit  Court  of  Appeals  will  be  abolished  and 
the  Circuit  Court  will  sit  merely  as  an  appellate 
court.  The  consideration  of  this  title  will  con- 
sume much  of  the  time  and  attention  of  the 
committee,  and  it  is  not  at  all  improbable  that 
it  will  cause  considerable  discussion  in  the  Sen- 
ate and  the  House  after  it  has  been  reported  to 
these  bodies.  It  is  believedj  however,  that  the 
proposed  changes  regarding  the  District  and 
Circuit  Court  of  Appeals  meet  with  the  general 
approval  of  the  legal  fraternity. 

"After  the  Criminal  Code  and  the  judiciary 
title  are  disposed  of  the  committee  will  likely 
take  up  the  first  sections  of  the  revised  statutes 
relating  to  the  organization  of  the  Government, 
followed  by  the  army  and  navy  and  other  titles, 
until  the  entire  revision  is  completed. 

"The  enormity  of  the  task  before  the  com- 
mittee and  Congress  will  be  appreciated  when  it 
is  known  that  the  statutes  to  be  revised  and  codi- 
fied embrace  more  than  9000  sections.  The  Penal 
Code  alone  consists  of  nearly  500  sections,  and 
the  Judiciary  Code  embraces  more  than  700. 

"In  order  to  secure  consideration  of  this  re- 
vision at  the  coming  short  session,  it  is  not  un- 
likely that  night  sessions  will  be  necessary,  as 
proper  consideration  of  bills  of  such  magnitude 
will  practically  preclude  other  legislation. 

"The  last  revision  of  the  statutes  of  the  United 
States  was  made  in  1878,  and  the  present  revision 
is  the  result  of  tlie  Act  of  Congress  approved 
June  4,  1897,  which  authorized  the  President  to 
appoint  a  commission  to  revise  the  laws,  and  of 
subsequent  acts  of  Congress  enlarging  the  work 
of  the  commission.  The  work  is  now  practically 
completed,  and  the  commission  expires  on  De- 
cember 15  next. 

"Since  the  revision  of  1878,"  concluded  Mr. 
Sherley,  "there  has  been  a  great  mass  of  legis- 
lation of  a  permanent  nature,  and  these  enact- 
ments are  found  in  nearly  twenty  large  volumes 
of  the  Statutes  at  Large,  and  are  commingled 
with  temporary  enactments  and  appropriation 
bills  under  titles  which  often  give  little  or  no 


indication  of  their  nature  and  import.  The 
necessity,  therefore,  for  a  speedy  and  thorough 
revision  of  the  statutes  is  apparent.  There  is  a 
universal  demand  on  the  part  of  the  legal  pro- 
fession in  particular,  and  the  public  in  general, 
for  a  ready  and  accurate  reference  to  the 
statutes,  and  this  affords  sufficient  justification 
for  prompt  action  on  the  part  of  Congress. 

"The  revisiori  will  attempt  to  bring  together 
all  statutes  and  parts  of  statutes  relating  to  the 
same  subject,  omit  redundant  and  obsolete  en- 
actments, supply  omissions,  and  root  out  in- 
accuracies, even  making  changes  in  the  substan- 
tive existing  law,  where  such  changes  are  deemed 
necessary  and  imperative." 


THE  HUMOR  OF  IT. 


Not  Matured. 

"What  are  you  looking  so  gloomy  about?" 
"Oh,  I'm  just  home  from  the  race  track." 
"Why,    you    told    me    before    you    went    down 

there  that  you  had  picked  a  sure  winner." 
"Yes,  but — I — er — guess  I  picked  him  before 

he   was   ripe." — Philadelphia   Public    Ledger. 


??????? 

What? 

Great  Scott, 

Mathot ! 

You've  got 

Your  shot 

Too  hot. 

Somebody's   not 

All  rot. 

What? 

Of  couree,  a  lot 

Should  get  it  hot. 

But  please  spot 

That  lot. 

And  don't  pot 

Everybody  but  Mathot, 

See? 

— W.   L. 


Lampton. 


Realizing  that  their  magazine  is  hard  reading 
under  the  most  favorable  circumstances,  the 
editoi-s  of  the  Congressional  Record  have  decided 
not  to  apply  the  simplified  spelling  rules. — Puck. 


Count  Boni's  Love  Lyric. 

Across  the  lighted  boulevards 

The  happy  crowds  are  straying; 
Think,  countess,  of  the  happy  hours 

When  we  two  went  a-Maying. 
When  we  two  went  a-Maying,  Dieu ! 

My  creditors  were  trusting; 
For  with  your  francs,  oh,  heart  of  mine ! 

My  poeketbook  was  busting. 


THE    PANDEX 


65 


PUBLIC  ATTENTION  TURNS   TO 

CANALS  AND   WATERWAYS 

AS  A    MEASURE    OF 

SELF-DEFENSE 


A   MODERN   XERXES! 

— Adapted  from  St.  Louis   Republic. 

PRESIDENT  HILL  OF  THE  GREAT  NORTHERN  JOINS  IN  THE 

MOVEMENT  TO  PROVIDE   BROADER  FACILITIES  FOR 

HANDLING  THE  ENORMOUS  TRAFFIC  OF 

THE  COUNTRY 


While  the  country  is  so  phenomenally 
prosperous  and  yet  so  sharply  pinched  for 
the  medium  wherwith  to  conduct  its  busi- 
ness; and  while,  at  the  same  time,  no  small 
percentaore  of  its  prosperity  is  rendered 
futile  by  an  alleged  inadequacy  of  its  trans- 
portation facilities,  a  wise  public  attention 
seems  suddenly  diverted  to  the  long  neg- 
lected subject  of  canals  and  waterways. 
Perhaps  it  is  the  Panama  Canal  that  has 
served  as  the  prompting  agency,  especially 
since  the  President's  trip  to  the  Canal  Zone; 
but  more  likely  it  is  the  upward  impulse 
of  a  natural  objective,  which  has  long  been 
unduly  smothered  both  by  circumstance  and 
bv  device. 


PLAN  FOR  GREAT  SEA  CANAL 


Landlocked  Waterway  from  Savannah  to  Mexi- 
can Border  Proposed. 

One  of  the  most  striking  of  the  canal 
proposals  is  the  following,  as  described  in 
the  Chicago  Tribiuie: 

Philadelphia,  Pa. — Plans  for  a  land-locked  sea 
canal  extending  from  the  mouth  of  the  Rio 
Grande,  at  the  Mexicah '  border,  all  the  way  to 
New  Orleans,  and  then  following  the  coast 
around  to  Savannah,  with  small  interruptions, 
are  being  prepared  by  the  Trades  League  Canal 
Committee,  who  will  present  them  at,  the  coming 
conference  of  the  Rivers  and  Harboi-s  Congress 
in  Washington  soon..  .. 


66 


THE     PANDEX 


It  is  argued  that  by  the  expenditure  of  a  little 
money  in  connecting  the  hundreds  of  arms  of  the 
sea  along  the  southern  coast,  a  still-water  sea  ca- 
nal thousands  of  miles  long  would  be  made  which 
would  reduce  the  cost  of  navigation  immensely, 
as  ordinary  river-going  barges  could  be  trans- 
ported along  the  coast  where  it  is  now  necessary 
to  go  outside  in  the  rough  ocean  in  steamers 
or  sailing  vessels.  A  similar  canal  from  Van- 
couver to  Alaska  has  saved  millions,  it  is  pointed 
out  to  the  navigation  companies. 

Professor  Lewis  M.  Haupt,  chairman  of  the 
Trades  League's  canal  committee,  is  getting  the 
matter  into  shape  for  presentation. 


FIFTY  MILLIONS  FOR  WATERWAYS 


Convention   Inaugurates    Gigantic   Movement   in 
Behalf  of  Rivers  and  Canals. 

The  strength  of  the  canal  movement  is 

well  illustrated  in  the  following  from  the 

New  York  World: 

Washington,  D.  C. — The  appropriation  by  Con- 
gress of  at  least  $50,000,000  annually  for  the  im- 
provement of  the  rivers  and  harbors  of  the  coun- 
try was  the  keynote  of  the  speeches  delivered 
before  the  National  Rivers  and  Harbors  Conven- 
tion which  assembled  here  for  a  two  days'  ses- 
sion. The  convention  was  called  to  order  by 
Harvey  D.  Goulder,  of  Cleveland,  president  of 
the  Congress,  and  was  opened  by  prayer  by  the 
Right  Reverend  Henry  Yates  Satterlee,  Bishop 
of  Washington.  Addresses  were  made  at  the 
morning  session  by  Mr.  Goulder,  Speaker  Can- 
non, and  Theodore  E.  Burton,  chairman  of  the 
House  Committee  on  Rivers  and  Harbors. 

Mr.  Burton  said  the  convention  should  not  ask 
for  appropriations  from  Congress  for  any  par- 
ticular community,  but  for  the  greater  projects 
of  the  country.  He  thought  less  should  be  spent 
on  the  navy  and  more  for  improvement  of  the 
rivers  and  harbors  of  the  country. 

At  the  afternoon  session  speeches  were  made 
by  John  Barrett,  the  American  Minister  to  Co- 
lombia; John  Fitzgerald,  Mayor  of  Boston;  Bird 
S.  Coler,  president  of  the  Borough  of  Brooklyn ; 
es-Senator  Berry,  of  Arkansas,  and  others. 


PRESIDENT   PROMISES   AID. 


Offers  Executive  Encouragement  to  the  Water- 
ways Promoters. 

That  the  canal  and  waterway  movement 

is  appreciated  in  the  highest  circles  of  the 

Government  is  manifested  in  the  following 

from  the  Philadelphia  North  American: 

Washington,  D.  C. — Emphatic  indorsement  of 
the  broad  proposition  that  the  waterways  of  the 
United  States  must  be  developed  and  utilized  to 
their  fullest  transportation  capacity  was  given 
by  President  Roosevelt. 

His  views  upon  this  highly  important  national 


problem  found  expression  in  the  remarks  the 
President  made  in  the  White  House  to  the  dele- 
gates of  the  National  Rivers  and  Harbors  Con- 
gress. 

The  President's  remarks  came  in  response  to 
the  presentation  to  him  of  resolutions  adopted 
by  the  convention  at  its  final  session,  but  were 
also  in  general  recognition  and  encouragement 
of  the  widespread  movement  for  improved  rivers 
and   harbors. 

Speaking  to  the  delegates — business  men  from 
all  parts  of  the  United  States,  here  to  represent 
the  industrial  interests  of  the  nation  in  a  de- 
mand for  adequate  transportation  facilities  and 
reasonable  freight  rates— the  President  struck 
the  heart  of  the  whole  matter  when  he  said  that 
"the  Government  should  concern  itself  with 
the  proper  control  and  utilization"  of  the  water- 
ways "where  they  are  fitted  to  be  the  great 
arteries  of  communication." 

It  Would  Affect  Railway  Rates. 

Further  explaining  why  the  nation  should  be- 
stir itself,  the  President  voiced  the  proposition 
that  "we  need  and  must  have  further  facilities 
for  transportation,  and  one  of  the  effective  meth- 
ods of  affecting  railway  rates  is  to  provide  for  a 
proper  system  of  water  transportation." 


HILL  FAVORS  GULF   CANAL 


Railroad  President  Declares  It  More  Important 
Than  Panama. 

What  adequate  canal  facilities  may  mean 
has  been  reflected  in  no  more  significant  way 
than  by  President  Hill  of  the  Great  North- 
ern Railway,  who  has  always  been  one  of 
the  country's  most  able  students  of  traffic 
affairs.    Said  the  New  York  Times : 

Chicago.— James  J.  Hill  was  the  guest  of  honor 
at  the  banquet  of  the  Merchants'  Club  recently 
and  delivered  an  extended  address  upon  "Chi- 
cago's Interest  in  Reciprocity  with  Canada." 
Charles  D.  Norton,  president  of  the  club,  in  in- 
troducing Mr.  Hill,  said  that  Chicago  had  suf- 
fered two  great  calamities,  the  first  the  great 
fire  and  the  other  the  fact  that  James  J.  Hill 
passed  through  the  city  without  stopping  when 
he  went  to  make  his  home  in  the  Northwest. 

Mr.  Hill,  in  beginning,  gave  attention  to  trans- 
portation problems. 

"To-day  the  entire  country  is  suffering  from 
want  of  transportation  facilities  to  move  its  busi- 
ness without  unreasonable  delay,"  he  said. 
"The  prevailing  idea  with  the  public  is  that  the 
railways  are  short  of  cars,  while  the  fact  is  that 
the  shortage  is  in  tracks  and  terminals  to  pro- 
vide a  greater  opportunity  for  the  movement  of 
the  cars." 

He  declared  that  the  country  to-day  faces  a 
transportation  problem  which  only  time,  patience, 
and  the  expenditure  of  enormous  sums  of  money 
will  remedy.  He  asserted  that  there  is  a  crying 
need  now  for  the  construction  of  a  fifteen-foot 
canal  between  St.  Louis  and  New  Orleans,  and 


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67 


said  that  the  necessity  for  this  would  increase 
with  time.  There  is  no  more  important  general 
work  for  the  Government  to  perform,  he  said, 
than  to  construct  a  canal  capable  of  carrying  ves- 
sels of  fifteen  feet  draught. 

Mr.  Hill  recited  figures  to  show  that  the  trade 
with  the  people  whom  the  United  States  will  be 


TO  DEEPEN  OHIO  RIVER 


Army  Engineers  Favor  Plan  to  Install  Fifty-two 
Locks  and  Dams. 

The  most  extensive  and  costly     of     the 

waterway  plans  which  is  likely  to  secure 


^'-...■;.>.v*#'^«'i 


ON  THE  WAY  TO  PANAMA. 
Daily  Diversions;  the  President  Is   'It.' 


— Chicago  News. 


able  to  reach  by  the  construction  of  the  Panama 
Canal  amounts  to  only  about  $54,500,000  an- 
nually, while  our  trade  with  Canada  is  over 
$200,000,000  per  annum.  He  asserted  that  the 
conservation  and  increase  of  this  latter  trade  is 
of  greater  importance  than  anything  that  will 
accrue  to  the  United  States  because  of  the  con- 
struction of  the  canal. 


immediate   action   is  the   one   described  in 
the  following  from  the  Pittsburg  Dispatch: 

Pittsburg. — The  Board  of  Army  Engineers, 
which  has  supervision  of  all  the  river  and  harbor 
work  done  and  paid  for  by  the  United  States 
Government,  has  completed  a  survey  of  the  Ohio 
River  from  Pittsburg  to  Cairo,  made  with  the 


68 


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STANDARD  OIL  trust 
Maximum  fines^ifassessd 

Witt   REACH 
*  I 81, 960.000.' 


7"e  Approximate: 

THE  PANAMA  CANAL 
WILL  Be  ABOUT 

*  181.960,000. 


WHY    NOT? 


-Chicago  Tribune. 


view  of  establishing  the  feasibility  of  the  'On- 
to-Cairo'  project  inaugurated  by  the  Dispatch. 
The  engineers  will  recommend  to  the  Committee 
on  Rivers  and  Harbors  of  the  House  of  Repre- 
sentatives that  $65,000,000  be  appropriated  by 
Congress  for  the  building  of  fifty-two  locks  and 
dams  between  here  and  Cairo,  which  will  main- 
tain a  boating  stage  of  nine  feet  in  the  Ohio 
River  during  the  whole  year. 

The  officers  believe  that  with  the  river  can- 
alized in  the  way  proposed,  there  will  be  up- 
stream tonnage  in  volume  almost  as  great  as 
that  which  now  passes  down.  If  in  weight  it  is 
not  as  great  as  the  downward  commerce,  in 
value  it  will  be  greater  and  the  income  of  the 
transportation   companies   accordingly   increased. 


DREAM   OF   MARITIME   EMPIRE 


What   the   Mississippi   River,    Lakes,    and   Gulf 
System  of  Waterways  Means. 

Something    of   the    appeal   of   the    whole 

range    of    internal    waterway    development 

to  the  popular  imagination  is  to  be  found 

in  the  following  extended  article  from  the 

St.  Louis  Globe  Democrat: 

The  waters  of  Lake  Michigan  are  already  run- 
ning into  the  Gulf  of  Mexico,  as  they  were  sev- 


eral hundred  thousand  or  million  yeare  ago  be- 
fore something  happened  to  the  poles  of  the 
earth  and  the  ice  age  struck  Missouri  and  Illi- 
nois. It  changed  things  considerably  while  it 
lasted  in  Missouri  and  Illinois,  making  many 
changes  more  lasting  than  the  slight  ridge  which 
has  been  cut  through  since  1890  to  allow  the 
waters  of  the  lakes  to  resume  their  natural 
course.  But  when  that  cut  has  been  followed  by 
all  that  goes  with  it  in  the  natural  course  of 
things,  we  will  have  the  Mississippi  River,  lakes 
and  gulf  system  of  waterways  in  operation  as 
the  most  important  inland  water  system  on  the 
planet. 

As  a  system  it  is  already  an  accomplished  fact. 
Duluth,  at  the  western  head  of  Lake  Superior, 
already  touches  the  New  York  wharves  by  water 
through  Lake  Superior,  the  Sault  Ste.  Marie 
canals.  Lake  Huron,  Lake  Erie,  and  the  Erie 
Canal.  It  already  touches  water  at  the  New 
Orleans  wharf  and  the  Eads  jetties  through  Lake 
Superior,  Lake  Michigan,  the  Chicago  ship  canal, 
the  Illinois  and  Mississippi  Rivers.  If  this  mid- 
continental  water  connection  east  and  west,  north 
and  south  from  tidewater  to  tidewater,  through 
the  heart  of  the  continent,  were  nothing  but  a 
dream,  it  would  still  be  one  of  the  greatest  dreams 
that  ever  entered  the  human  mind.  But  it  is  an 
accomplished  fact  already  in  all  but  certain  Avork 
of  finishing  touches,  and  these  finishing  touches 
are  sure   to   be   made,   regardless   of   arguments 


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69 


AN  ISTHMIAN  MIRAGE. 


— Washington  Post. 


70 


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for  or  against  them.  They  may  cost  certain  large 
figures  in  money  millions  and  in  thousands  of 
men  and  of  days'  work  upon  them  before  'whale- 
backs'  from  Duluth  tie  up  at  the  St.  Louis  levee, 
but  it  will  be  done  as  a  certainty,  and  when  it  is 
done  it  will  then  slowly  dawn  on  the  minds  of 
those  who  have  done  it  that  it  is  one  of  the 
greatest  accomplishments  of  human  mind  and 
muscle  in  the  history  of  civilization. 

Its  magnitude  as  an  accomplishment  at  com- 
paratively small  cost  can  only  be  guessed  at 
now  as  a  result  of  holding  in  mind  something 
like  a  hundred  pages  of  the  statistics  of  results 
already  accomplished  and  waiting  to  unite  with 
its  results  far  greater  things  in  the  future.  This 
can  be  done,  for  the  time  being  at  least,  by  any 
one  who  deliberately  and  systematically  under- 
takes it,  but  the  strain  of  doing  it  is  so  great 
that  we  will  never  know  what  such  an  undertak- 
ing as  this  means  until  it  is  actually  showing 
its  results,  as  it  will  actually  show  them  to  the 
eyes  of  many  now  living  in  Si.  Louis,  in  Chi- 
cago, in  Duluth,  in  Milwaukee,  in  scores  and  hun- 
dreds of  other  towns  along  the  courses  of  the 
rivers  and  the  shores  of  the  lake  which  are  to 
be  connected  and  made  a  'system.' 

An  Idea  That  Demands  Fulfilment. 

The  idea  is  one  of  those  which  can  not  enter 
the  human  mind  with  even  a  suggestion  of  its 
immediate  possibilities  without  compelling  its 
own  accomplishment  as  a  practical  fact.  There 
is  no  real  need  of  argument.  The  facts  of  what 
the  idea  means  have  only  to  be  put  together  and 
the  idea  accomplishes  itself,  compelling  all  the 
resources  of  mind  and  money  that  can  be  brought 
to  bear  on  it. 

If  poets  could  dream  in  scores  of  pages  of 
statistics,  in  thousands  of  men  at  work,  as  farm- 
ers and  factory  operatives,  sailors,  engineers,  and 
stokers  in  the  engine  rooms  of  steamers,  roust- 
abouts, draymen,  shipping  clerks,  and  merchants, 
millers,  bakers,  and  finally  of  millions  in  "pa- 
latial homes  and  dismal  tenements"  in  a  thou- 
sand towns  and  cities  of  this  country  and  Europe, 
expecting  or  getting  without  expecting  it,  their 
daily  supply  of  food,  then  a  poet  might  dream 
something  like  a  realization  of  the  full  and  final 
meaning  of  such  an  accomplishment  as  this  in 
answer  to  the  world-prayer,  "Give  us  this  day 
our  daily  bread." 

As  this  sort  of  dreaming  is  almost  as  difficult 
as  canal  digging,  we  get  ideas  at  less  expense  by 
being  struck  with  a  few  striking  facts.  The  facts 
in  this  connection  have  become  so  striking  in  the 
last  twenty-five  years  or  so  that  it  is  now  hard 
to  stand  up  against  collision  with  them.  But  let 
us  see  what  has  been  happening  just  north  of  us 
on  the  lakes  since  Proctor  Knott  convulsed  the 
country  with  his  famous  speech  showing  the  hu- 
mor of  the  circle  Duluth  had  drawn  around  itself 
to  confine  the  spheres  of  influence  it  expected  to 
exert  in  the  future  of  the  world. 

Last  year,  sailing  and  steam  vessels  entered 
the  ports  of  the  United  States  on  the  Atlantic, 
the  Gulf,  and  the  Pacific  Coasts  from  Belgium, 


France,  Germany,  Italy,  the  Netherlands,  Spain, 
England,  Scotland,  Ireland,  British  America,  the 
Central  America  states,  Argentina,  Brazil,  Co- 
lombia, the  British  East  Indies,  China,  Japan, 
Hawaii,  the  British  possessions  in  Africa  and  the 
adjacent  islands.  These  alone  are  enumerated 
singly,  but  the  total  tonnage  of  the  vessels  from 
these  and  all  other  countries  thus  entering  all 
the  ports  of  the  United  States  through  the  whole 
year  was  24,793,000  tons  as  reported  by  the 
United  States  Bureau  of  Statistics,  the  total 
world  tonnage,  entered  and  cleared,  being  49,819,- 
000  tons. 

During  the  season,  which  does  not  include  the 
whole  year,  the  Sault  Ste.  Marie  or  Saint  Mary's 
Falls  Canals,  between  Lakes  Superior  and  Huron, 
were  passed  by  vessels  with  a  registered  tonnage 
of  36,617,000  tons,  as  reported  by  the  acting  gen- 
eral superintendent,  L.  P.  Morrison,  under  the 
direction  of  Colonel  Charles  E.  L.  B.  Davis  of 
the  United  States  Engineer  Corps. 

Comparing  Tonnages. 

We  put  these  two  totals  together.  We  find  the 
registered  tonnage  of  a  few  miles  of  canal  and 
lake  water  comparing  thus  with  the  tonnage  of 
all  the  countries  of  the  world  in  all  the  ports  of 
the  United  States,  and  the  thing  seems  out  of 
the  question — merely  part  of  the  dream  which 
amused  Proctor  Knott  and  with  which  he 
amused  the  country.  But  finally,  when  we  sea 
that  we  are  awake  and  that  the  totals  will  not 
change,  no  matter  how  often  we  look  at  them,  we 
have  been  struck  by  a  striking  fact  and  com- 
pelled into  something  like  a  realization  of  what 
it  means  when  such  dreams  as  this  come  true. 

The  actual  freight  carried  through  these  canals 
during  the  season  back  and  forth  between  these 
two  lakes  could  not  have  been  loaded  all  at  once 
into  all  the  vessels  of  all  the  world  which  en- 
tered our  ports  during  the  year.  It  greatly  ex- 
ceeded their  carrying  capacity.  As  the  German 
Government  reports  the  total  capacity  of  the 
ocean  vessels  of  the  nineteen  principal  countries 
of  the  world,  including  the  United  States,  it  is 
between  37,000,000  and  38,000,000  tons.  The 
total  freight  passing  through  the  St.  Mary  canals 
in  1905  was  44,275,680  tons.  That  is,  if  the  at- 
tempt had  been  made  to  load  it  all  at  once  on  all 
the  ocean  ships  in  the  world,  it  would  have  sunk 
them  all. 

This  is  a  fact  so  striking  that,  after  collision 
with  it,  we  really  need  nothing  more  in  the  way 
of  statistics.  But  it  is  really  a  small  thing  in 
its  total  connection.  These  millions  of  tons  were 
not  mere  dead  vegetable,  mineral  and  animal 
matter,  but  facts  in  the  lives  of  millions  of  peo- 
ple who  have  been  coming  to  the  territory  of  the 
rivers  and  lakes  since  Proctor  Knott  made  his 
speech  on  the  great  dream  of  Duluth.  They  are 
still  coming  by  millions.  Every  ton  of  this 
freight  stands  for  hundreds  of  other  tons  not 
there  represented,  and  the  grand  total  stands 
for  human  effort,  human  stress  of  mind  and 
muscle,  human  hopes  and  wants,  successes,  suf- 
ferings, failures,  and  renewed  efforts.    It  is  real- 


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71 


"DIG,  YE   TERRIERS,   DIG!" 


— New  York  WorkL 


72 


THE     PANDEX 


ly  the  great  drama  of  human  life  in  one  of  its 
greatest  climaxes  that  is  taking  shape  in  such 
statistics  as  these. 

In  a  generation,  both  on  the  lakes  and  on  the 
rivers  below  them,  there  has  been  a  change  in- 
conceivably great.  The  obscure  village  of  Du- 
luth  has  become  one  of  the  ten  "principal  pri- 
mary grain  markets"  of  the  world;  flush  with 
Chicago  last  year,  and  with  more  millions  and 
tens  of  millions  of  bushels  of  breadstuffs  crowd- 
ing on  it  for  shipment  each  year  and  each 
decade. 

These  ten  primary  markets,  the  greatest  pri- 
mary food  markets  of  the  United  States,  and 
hence  of  the  world,  are  all  on  the  lakes  and  river 
system.  Five  of  them  are  on  the  lakes.  Tive, 
including  St.  Louis,  are  on  the  Mississippi  River 
and  its  tributaries.  The  figures  of  their  growth 
mean  the  increase  of  the  supply  of  food  for  the 
United  States  and  the  woHd.  The  connection 
between  Lake  Michigan  and  the  Gulf  by  a  deep 
waterway  means  that  they  will  all  be  connected 
with  tidewater  in  a  single  enormous  system,  on 
which  their  total  capacity  for  feeding  hungry 
people  will  bear  through  increased  production  of 
food,  lower  prices  of  marketing;  more  food  at 
lower  prices  for  those  who  eat  it,  and  higher 
prices  for  those  who  produce  it.  This  follows  be- 
cause the  higher  price  of  marketing  is  deducted 
in  part  from  what  is  paid  those  who  produce 
the  food  and  is  added  in  part  to  the 
prices  charged  those  who  buy  it. 

When  the  first  drop  of  water  from  Lake  Michi- 
gan passed  the  Eads  jetties  into  the  Gulf  of 
Mexico,  the  "Mississippi  River,  lakes  and  gulf 
system  of  waterways"  became  an  accomplished 
fact  in  everything  except  such  details  as  invest- 
ing the  money  the  United  States  Engineer  Corps 
estimates  it  will  cost  to  make  a  fourteen-foot 
channel  from  the  Chicago  canal  to  St.  Louis.  It 
was  a  serious  matter,  and  not  merely  one  of  the 
greatest  and  most  monumental  developments  of 
the  whole  history  of  humor  that  this  first  drop 
of  Lake  Michigan  water,  passing  St.  Louis  on 
its  way  to  the  gulf  in  1900  was  loaded  with  mi- 
crobes, bacilli,  and  micrococci.  The  number  of 
these  astonishing  names  found  in  subsequent 
drops  under  the  microscope  were  accompanied 
by  something  else  in  this  Lake  Michigan  water 
as  mysterious  as  micrococci.  It  was  a  ."poten- 
tial." A  micrococcus,  as  a  mystery,  is  really  as 
simple  as  a  tadpole,  if  not  more  so.  He  is  in- 
terpreted as  a  potentiality  of  disease  which  may 
involve  a  million  or  more  people  in  epidemic.  The 
potentiality  of  Lake  Michigan  water  on  its  way 
to  the  gulf,  as  it  threatens  to  develop  a  freight 
"potential,"  threatens  in  the  same  way  to  affect 
more  or  less  the  whole  volume  of  a  billion  and 
a  quarter  tons  of  freight.  With  water  transit 
extending  from  Duluth  to  New  York  harbor  by 
lake  and  Erie  Canal  and  river,  this  potentiality 
was  quite  clear  to  some  eyes  without  the  aid  of 
the  miscroscopes  which  found  the  micrococcus. 
The  simple  fact  involved  was  that  the  history  of 
forty  years  told   in   tables   any  one  may  study 


out  in  an  hour,  showed  that  wherever  a  water 
route  is  actually  operating  the  cost  of  carrying 
freight  over  it  fixes  the  highest  rate  that  can  be 
charged  successfully  for  carrying  freight  over  all 
land  routes  within  its  "sphere  of  influence," 
and  after  doing  this,  takes  down  the  highest 
land  rate  with  it  as  it  goes  down  itself. 

This  is  the  fact  that  makes  the  completion 
of  the  lakes  to  the  gulf  a  certainty  of  the  fu- 
ture. The  greatest  thing  in  the  history  of  the 
world  in  the  second  quarter  of  the  nineteenth  cen- 
tury was  what  St.  Louis  was  most  intimately 
concerned  in  doing  through  the  use  of  steam  on 
the  Mississippi  River  and  its  tributaries  in  lay- 
ing the  foundations  of  the  States  and  cities  which 
sprang  up  like  mushrooms  in  the  trans-Missis- 
sippi west  during  the  third  quarter  of  the  cen- 
tury. Then  something  else  which  had  already 
begun,  worked  out  into  the  greatest  single  thing 
in  the  history  of  the  last  quarter  of  the  nine- 
teenth century.  It  was  the  work  of  steam  on 
the  great  lakes,  doing  between  1875  and  1900 
for  population  and  production  in  a  vast  territory 
what  the  rivers  with  St.  Louis  as  their  greatest 
city  had  already  done  for  their  territory  in  the 
preceding  quarters  of  the  century. 

Now,  when  the  fii-st  quarter  of  the  twentieth 
century  is  to  join  these  results  as  two  compo- 
nent totals  of  the  same  sum  total,  it  is  as  much 
a  matter  of  course  as  when  a  bookkeeper  has 
footed  his  long  columns  of  separate  results  into 
the  two  totals  which  must  go  together  to  make 
up  the  grand  total.  The  immense  possibilities 
already  realized  on  the  lakes  can  not  be  kept 
separated  from  those  already  realized  on  the 
rivers  to  make  up  the  grand  total  for  the  begin- 
nings of  the  future,  in  which,  with  immigration 
increasing  at  the  rate  of  over  a  million  a  year  in 
this  country  and  the  immense  wheat  areas  north 
and  west  of  the  lakes  in  Canada  filling  up,  the 
present  is  still  only  a  suggestion  of  what  the  re- 
sults of  the  future  are  likely  to  be. 

Deep  Water  in  Canal. 

Besides  the  Chicago  canal,  already  cut  deep 
enough  for  twenty-eight  miles  for  a  ship  canal, 
it  is  proposed  to  dredge  the  Illinois  and  Des 
Plaines  Rivers  until  there  is  a  depth  of  fourteen 
feet  to  St.  Louis.  The  Chicago  Canal  was  begun 
in  1892,  and  up  to  April,  190G,  something  over 
$50,000,000  had  been  spent  on  it.  The  first 
water  from  the  lakes  was  turned  into  it  on  its 
way  to  the  gulf  on  January  2,  1900.  Chicago 
and  the  State  of  Illinois  then  proposed  to  turn 
the  canal  proper,  twenty-eight  miles  in  length, 
and  fourteen  miles  of  its  Chicago  and  Des  Plaines 
River  connection,  or  forty-two  miles  in  all,  over 
to  the  United  States  Government  on  condition 
that  it  should  establish  the  fourteen-foot  channel 
as  far  as  St.  Louis.  The  most  expensive  part  of 
the  work  will  be  eight  miles  between  Lockport 
and  Joliet,  where  the  cut  will  be  through  rock 
to  the  depth  of  twenty-two  feet.  The  declivity 
from  Lockport   to  St.  Louis  is  171  feet  and  the 


THE    PANDEX 


73 


estimated  cost  of  making  the  channel  is  $27  - 
000,000,  in  addition  to  $3,000,000  that  Chicago 
is  expected  to  spend  on  the  section  beteen  Lock- 
port  and  Joliet.  The  estimate  of  the  United 
States  Engineer  Corps  put  the  total  at  about 
$31,000,000.     • 

It  is  no  more  possible  to  guess  now  how  much 
of  the  enormous  trade  of  the  lakes  will  be  turned 
down  to  St.  Louis  by  such  a  connection  between 
lakes  and  rivers  than  it  is  to  guess  now  what 
the  trade  of  the  lakes  in  another  quarter  of  a 
century  will  be.  Fifty  years  after  the  Dnluth 
speech  of  Proctor  Knott,  the  greatest  effort  of 
humorous  oratory  in  the  history  of  Congress, 
the  contrasts  of  reality  with  the  present  may  be 
as  strong  as  the  contrasts  of  the  present  are  with 
the  realities  of  the  day  when  Proctor  Knott  rose, 
holding  in  his  hand  the  concentric  circles  around 
Duluth  which  prophesied  the  present.  Without 
guessing  at  all,  however,  it  is  easy  to  see  that  if 
it  had  only  half  the  freight  passing  through  it 
to  St.  Louis  which  passes  the  Sault  Ste.  Marie 
canals,  its  influence  would  be  felt  from  lakes  to 
gulf  and  from  the  head  of  navigation  on  the 
Missouri  and  Mississippi  River,  not  only  to  St. 
Loiiis  and  the  gulf,  but  to  St.  Louis  and  the  At- 
lantic across  the  country.  This  is  a  necessary 
result  of  an  open  watei-way's  work,  fixing  rates, 
even  when  the  actual  work  of  moving  freight 
over  it  is  at  the  lowest. 

The  work  of  completing  the  proposed  deep 
watenvay  is  no  such  stupendous  thing  to  the 
imagination  as  the  work  actually  involved  in 
cutting  continents  in  two  at  Suez  or  at  Panama. 
The  possibilities  of  results  which  belong  to  the 
Mississippi  River,  lakes  and  gulf  as  a  system  of 
waterways  soon  pass  from  the  great  realities  of 
existing  facts  to  the  region  where  imagination 
can  not  follow  them.  But  to  the  cautious  judg- 
ment which  ventures  beyond  the  present  only  by 
inches  it  must  become  clear  on  the  evidence  that 
nothing  greater  than  this  has  been  undertaken 
in  the  United  States,  and  that  as  an  accomplished 
fact  it  is  now  inevitable. 


PRESIDENT  AND  PANAMA  CANAL 


Chief  Executive  Won  the  Hearts  of  All  Workers 
in  the  Zone. 

President  Roosevelt's  journey  to  Panama 
served,  of  course,  to  give  life  to  the  entire 
subject  of  canals  as  well  as  renewed  con- 
fidence to  the  general  public  that  the  great 
Transisthmian  waterway  is  to  be  completed 
as  soon  as  engineering  skill  can  accomplish 
it.  Said  the  Associated  Press  concerning 
the  President's  visit. 

New  York. — "President  Roosevelt  took  the 
Panamaians  by  storm,"  said  Theodore  P.  Shonts, 
chaii-man  of  the  Panama  Canal  Commission,  who 


arrived  on  the  steamer  Colon  from  Colon.  Mr. 
Shonts  spoke  enthusiastically  of  the  recent  visit 
of  the  Chief  Executive  and  declared  that  work 
on  the  canal  was  progressing  under  satisfactory 
conditions.  During  his  talk  with  the  newspaper 
men  Mr.  Shonts  took  occasion  to  deny  that  his 
daughter,  Theodora,  had  become  engaged  to  a 
titled  foreigner. 

Discussing  the  President's  visit,  Chairman 
Shonts  said : 

"President  Roosevelt  simply  took  the  people 
of  Panama  by  storm.  The  setting  aside  of  all 
precedents  by  the  President  in  his  visit  to 
Panama  won  the  instant  admiration  and  respect 
of  the  people  of  the  republic.  Mr.  Roosevelt  was 
familiar  with  the  work  theoretically  and  saw  and 
understood  more  during  his  short  stay  than  the 
average  man  would  in  several  months. 

"The  building  of  the  canal  is  to  President 
Roosevelt  as  the  building  of  a  home  would  be 
to  any  other  man.  He  looks  at  it  as  his  own 
personal  work,  having  been  given  carte  blanche 
by  Congress  in  the  work. 

' '  During  the  President 's  trip  through  the  canal 
zone  one  of  the  leading  citizens  asked  Mr.  Roose- 
velt what  he  thought  of  the  criticism  as  written 
by  Poultney  Bigelow.  The  President  answered: 
'  Small  people,  like  small  flies,  despoil  large  things 
and  large  enterprises.' 

* '  In  the  President 's  speech  at  Colon,  the  thing 
that  won  the  hearts  of  the  canal  workers  and  of 
the  people  was  his  statement :  '  The  men  who  are 
now  working  on  the  canal  and  the  citizens  of 
Panama  who  are  assisting  them  will  go  down  to 
posterity  like  the  veterans  of  the  Civil  War. 
When  this  great  work  is  completed  the  men  who 
have  been  instrumental  in  its  success  will  look 
backward  and  say,  ' '  I  was  part  of  it, "  as  do  the 
veterans  of  the  Civil  War  when  they  look  with 
pride  at  the  great  united  nation.' 

"This  did  more  to  endear  the  President  and 
the  United  States  in  general  to  the  people  than 
anything  else  he  could  have  said." 


SHIFTS  THE  CANAL  HEADS 


President  Reorganizes  the  Panama  Administra- 
tion After  His  Visit. 
The   practical    result    of  the   President's 
trip  was  reflected,  in  part,  as  follows  in  the 
Associated  Press  dispatches: 

By  an  executive  order,  signed  by  the  President 
in  Panama  and  cabled  to  the  offices  of  the 
Isthmian  Canal  Commission  here,  the  working 
forces  of  the  Panama  Canal  are  thoroughly  re- 
organized. A  reorganization  of  the  Canal  Com- 
mission itself  is  expected  to  follow  soon. 

The  general  effect  of  the  order  is  to  give 
Chairman  Shonts  more  complete  control  of  the 


74 


THE     PANDEX 


administrative  portion  of  the  canal  construction 
and  to  place  Chief  Engineer  Stevens  in  absolute 
charge  in   Panama. 

There  will  be  no  new  governor  of  the  Canal 
Zone  to  succeed  Governor  Charles  E.  Magoon, 
now  running  things  in  Cuba.  It  is  provided  that 
the  duties  of  the  office  of  Governor  shall  be  ful- 
filled by  the  general  counsel,  who  happens  to 
be  Richard  Reed  Rogers.  Mr.  Rogers  will  con- 
tinue to  maintain  his  office  here.  This  step  will 
leave  no  division  of  authority  on  the  isthmus  be- 
tween the  chief  engineer,  Mr.  Stevens,  and  the 
Governor. 

New  Members  of  Commission. 

The  President  in  reorganizing  the  commis- 
sion will  select  any  new  members  from  the  heads 
of  the  seven  departments  of  work  created  by  the 
new  executive  order.  Mr.  Shonts  and  Mr.  Stev- 
ens, of  course,  will  be  members.  The  commission 
by  law  must  consist  of  seven  members,  but  the 
President  is  not  compelled  to  have  more  than  a 
quorum.  There  are  now  two  vacancies,  one 
caused  by  the  transfer  of  Governor  Magoon  and 
the  other  by  the  failure  of  the  Senate  at  its  last 
session  to  confirm  Joseph  B.  Bishop. 

The  present  commission  was  appointed  in  the 
spring  of  1905.  Then  there  was  on  hand  the 
problem  of  the  type  of  canal  that  should  be  con- 
structed and  the  general  work  of  preparation. 
There  is  nothing  left  except  administrative  and 
executive  detail,  and  the  commission  is  consid- 
ered to  have  outlived  its  real  mission  in  life. 
Consequently  the  reorganization  is  planned.  It 
is  very  likely  that  one  of  the  new  membere  will 
be  Mr.  Rogers,  the  general  counsel,  who,  in  ad- 
dition to  his  work  as  such,  will  perform  the  duties 
of  Governor  of  the  canal  zone,  and  Colonel  Wil- 


liam C.  Gorgas,  head  of  the  sanitation  depart- 
ment.    Colonel   Gorgas   would   be   the   represen- 
tative of  the   army  on  the   commission. 
Seven  Executive  Departments. 

The  order  just  issued  provides  for  the  estab- 
lishment of  seven  executive  departments.  Here- 
tofore there  have  been  but  three,  administrative, 
under  Mr.  Shonts ;  engineering,  in  the  hands  of 
Mr.  Stevens;  and  the  third  having  to  do  with  the 
control  of  the  Canal  Zone,  of  which  Governor 
Magoon  was  the  chief  executive.  These  three 
heads  of  the  departments  comprised  an  executive 
committee.  This  organization  is  abolished  by 
the  executive  order.  The  new  departments  will 
be  administered  by  John  F.  Stevens,  chief  en- 
gineer; Richard  R.  Rogers,  general  counsel; 
Colonel  William  C.  Gorgas,  chief  sanitary  officer; 
D.  W.  Ross,  general  purchasing  officer;  E.  S. 
Benson,  general  auditor;  E.  J.  Williams,  dis- 
bursing officer,  and  Jackson  Smith,  manager  of 
labor  and  quarters. 

"The  chairman,"  says  the  new  order,  "shall 
have  charge  of  all  departments  incident  and 
necessary  to  the  construction  of  the  canal  or  any 
of  its  accessories ;  he  shall  appoint  the  heads  of 
the  various  departments,  subject  to  the  approval 
of  the  commission;  the  head  of  each  department 
shall  report  and  receive  his  instructions  from  the 
chairman;  he  shall  have  charge  of  the  opera- 
tions of  the  Panama  Railroad  and  Steamship 
Line." 

The  chief  engineer  will  have  charge  of  all  en- 
gineering work,  the  construction  of  the  canal, 
and  control  of  the  Panama  Railroad  in  so  far  as 
it  relates  to  construction,  and  the  custody  of  all 
the  supplies  and  plant  of  the  commission  on  the 
isthmus. 


THE    PANDEX 


75 


T«e   iHA.Ot  of    PM?IU6  CaffEtM  : 
'AND  T.e.ALOKHH   WISOTt    F UN Ny  POEM'S 
ABOUT    M£    FOiyy  ^ygAl^fe  ACQ'' 


— Adapted  from  the  New  York  Times. 


AIRSHIP   AS    A    NEW 

FACTOR  IN  THE 

WORLD  OF 

TRAFFIC 


SANTOS-DUMONT.    MAXIM.    BELL,    AND   OTHER    EXPERTS  AGREE 

THAT  THE  FLYING  MACHINES  WILL  SOON  BE  IN  COMMON 

USE.   FRANCE  CREATES  ALARM  BY  A  PROPOSED 

AERIAL  WAR  FLEET 


OP  course,  the  vision  of  such  a  thing  is 
far  away,  but  nevertheless  recent 
events  awake  the  imagination  to  the  thought 
that  the  world  of  invention  is  on  the  eve  of  a 
device  that  will  play  an  utterly  new  part  in 
the  solution  of  traffic  problems  and  create 
an  entirely  new  sphere  of  human  intercourse 
and  law.  The  device  is  the  airship,  which  so 
lately  as  but  five  to  ten  years  ago  was  looked 
upon  as  probable  only  in  the  dreams  of 
fanatics,  but  which  now  is  regarded  by  no 
less  responsible  experimenters  than  Sir 
Hiram  Maxim  and  Santos-Dumont  as  so  far 
perfected  that  it  will  shortly  be  in  as  com- 
mon use  as  the  bicycle  and  the  automobile. 


AIRSHIPS  IN  EVERY  HOME 


Says 


Santos-Dumont,    After   a   Recent   Success, 
All  Will  Be  Flying  Soon. 
Said  the  noted  Brazilian  aeronaut  recent- 


ly, according  to  the  Kansas  City  Star: 

Paris. — Santos-Dumont,  since  tlie  successful 
flight  of  his  aeroplane,  "The  Bird  of  Prey," 
talks  enthusiastically  of  the  early  approach  of 
the  day  when  all  mankind  will  be  navigating 
the  air  and  flying  machines  will  be  more  com- 
mon than  motor  cars.  Indeed,  he  believes  that 
the  flying  machine  will  eventually  become  the 
poor  man's  motor  car  and  be  safer,  faster,  and 
cheaper. 

In  an  interview  he  said : 

Machines  Need  Not  Be  Large. 

"The  machine  I  am  experimenting  with  is 
very  large,  having  a  surface  of  more  than  eighty 
square  yards,  but  the  practical  aeroplane,  which 
will  be  for  the  air  what  the  democratic  bicycle 
is  for  the  earth,  will  be  much  smaller.  With 
ordinary  flying  machines  it  is  necessary  to  in- 
crease the  size  in  order  to  increase  the  power. 

"With  the  aeroplane,  on  the  contrary,  speed 
will  be  increased  in  direct  proportion  to  the 
diminution  of  the  resistance  surface.  My  pres- 
ent aeroplane  was  intentionally  built  large  to 
overcome  main  obstacles  as  to  principles.  But 
with   increased  power,   which   means   speed,  the 


re 


THE     PANDEX 


size  can  be  reduced.  At  the  same  time,  increased 
speed  adds  to  the  safety,  as  a  powerful  motor 
is  more  easily  manipulated.  We  can,  therefore, 
look  forward  to  a  practical  aeroplane  which  can 
be  comfortably  housed  in  every  home. 
Cheaper  Than  Motor  Cars. 

"From  the  standpoint  of  maintenance,  the 
cost  both  of  petroleum  and  repairs,  the  aero- 
plane will  be  much  less  expensive  than  the  motor 
ear.  There  will  be  no  expensive  tires  to  burst 
and  no  bad  roads  to  jolt  them  to  pieces.  There 
will  be  no  collisions.  Next  year  people  will  be 
»ble  to  go  to  the  seashore  on  their  aeroplanes. 
It  will  become  the  fad  and  the  commencement 
of   a   new    industry. 

"The  only  danger  would  be  the  risk  of  a 
broken  rudder,  and  I  can  not  see  that  a  rudder 
could  break  itself.  The  aeroplane  is  immobility 
itself.  The  swerving  which  made  me  descend  on 
October  23  can  be  easily  rectified  by  a  second 
rudder  to  counteract  any  tendency  in  that  direc- 
tion." 


MAXIM  CONFIRMS  THE  HOPE 


Great  British  Expert  Thinks  Problem  of  Aerial 
Flight  Is  Solved. 

Said  the  noted  British  inventor  and  air- 
ship student,  Sir  Hiram  Maxim,  as  quoted 
in  the  Chicago  Tribune: 

London. — The  question  of  a  perfected  navi- 
gable flying  machine  is  now  regarded  by  experts 
here  as  one  of  the  probabilities  of  the  immediate 
future.     Sir  Hiram  Maxim  said  recently: 

"We  shall  not  have  any  balloons  in  the  future. 
We  shall  have  flying  machines.  A  few  years 
ago  the  automobile  was  looked  upon  as  a  sort  of 
monstrosity.  Now  it  is  practically  a  necessity, 
and  I  really  think  that  in  ten  years  at  the  out- 
side we  will  be  navigating  the  air  as  easily  and 
as  surely  as  we  now  are  navigating  the  sea 
or  the  roads. 

"For  a  balloon  to  lift,  it  must  have  a  specific 
gravity  less  than  the  air.  To  attain  this  it  must 
be  exceedingly  fragile.  Therefore,  it  is  useless 
for  all  practical  purposes.  Again,  it  has  to  be 
of  comparatively  enormous  dimensions.  Thus 
you  see  in  a  balloon  you  have  a  combination 
of  size  and  fragility  which  must  tell  against  its 
usefulness,  but  with  the  advent  of  the  true  fly- 
ing machine  these  drawbacks  will  disappear.  So 
I  have  no  hesitation  whatever  in  saying  that 
before  many  more  years  pass  we  shall  do  away 
completely  with  the  balloon. 

"A  solution  of  the  problem  is  coming,  what- 
ever people  think.  I  really  believe  .myself  that 
within  a  year  from  now  there  will  be  a  great 
number  of  machines  in  the  air.  This  is  certain 
to  happen  within  two  years  at  any  rate.  We 
can  not  get  away  from  the  fact  that  a  real  fly- 
ing   machine    has    now    made    its    appearance. 


Santos-Dumont  has  proved  this  in  his  recent 
demonstrations,  and  these  mark  the  beginning 
of  a  totally  new  epoch  in  the  history  of  the 
world. 

"There  are  sure  to  be  startling  developments 
within  the  next  year.  We  are  only  on  the  thresh- 
old at  present  and  the  immediate  future  is  full 
of  possibilities." 


PROFESSOR  BELL  ALSO  OPTIMISTIC 

Declares  American  Firm  of  Wright  Brothers  the 
Leaders  in  Invention. 

Another  specialist  and  inventor,  who  has 
gained  his  distinction  in  the  United  States, 
reviewed  the  subject  at  length  recently. 
Said  the  New  York  World : 

"The  impossible  has  been  passed  in  aerial 
navigation  and  I  am  proud  of  the  fact  that 
America  leads  the  world  in  that  matter,"  said 
Professor  Alexander  Graham  Bell  to  a  World  re- 
porter. Professor  Bell  had  just  returned  from 
Boston,  where  he  had  delivered  an  address  on 
the  subject  of  aeronautics  at  the  semi-annual 
meeting  of  the  National  Academy  of  Sciences  at 
Harvard  College.  "To  the  Wright  brothers, 
of  Ohio,  belongs  the  credit  of  achieving  the  seem- 
ingly impossible,  and  I  believe  Santos  Dumont 
has  incorporated  their  ideas  in  his  machine," 
said  Professor  Bell. 

"The  fact  that  America  leads  is  not  very 
pleasing  to  France.  They  have  been  at  it  for 
years  over  there,  and  as  in  some  other  things 
wanted  to  lead  the  world — to  be  in  the  van  of 
newer  creations.  They  lead  the  world  in  motor- 
ing, you  know.  When  Professor  Langley  was 
successful  in  his  flying  machine  in  1896  the 
Frenchmen  were  startled  and  surprised,  for  they 
had  no  idea  that  experiments  were  being  made. 
They  started  in  then  and  determined  to  take  the 
laurels  away  from  America.  Within  a  year  or 
two  thereafter  France  again  was  in  first  place. 

"Now  it  is  America's  turn,  and  do  what  they 
may  to  claim  the  honor,  or  try  to  discredit  what 
the  Wright  brothers  have  accomplished,  the  fact 
still  remains  plain  to  any  one  who  has  followed 
the  subject  of  aerial  navigation  that  France  is 
again  in  second  place. 

"Santos-Dumont  deserves  a  great  deal  of 
credit  for  what  he  has  achieved  and  for  risking 
his  life  in  numerous  ascents  and  showing  the 
public  that  he  was  really  doing  something.  But 
the  Wright  brothers  have  accomplished  more  by 
working  quietly  and  without  any  flourish  of 
trumpets,  so  that  when  they  are  ready  to  show 
the  public  what  they  really  have  done  their  suc- 
cess will  be  all  the  greater. 

Day  of  Laughter  Has  Gone  By. 

"Naturally  I  am  very  much  interested  in  the 
matter  from  a  scientific  standpoint.  I  have  done 
some  experimenting  myself,  because  I  believe 
that    we   are   approaching   a   progressive    era   of 


UNIVERSITY   ) 
£Airc  THE    PANDEX 


77 


WHEN  "HUMAN  ELECTRICITY"  IS  APPLIED  TO  THE  TRANSPORTATION  PROBLEM. 

"Two  California  scientists  have  succeeded  in  charging  an  electrical  circnit  with  human 
electricity  by  the  application  of  electrodes  to  the  walls  of  the  stomach.  A  drink  of  whisky 
doubled  the  current." — News  Item. 


"Oh,  Auntie,  I'm  so  glad  to  see  you!   And  William  promised  to  take  a  drink  so  he  could 
get  home  quickly.    He's  pretty  fast,  anyway. 


"Watch  at  the  window  while  I  put  away  your  things  and  perhaps  you  can  see  him  coming, 
with  his  skates  on  and  all  lit  up. 


"There  he  comes  now,  with  a  good-sized  package.    I  was  afraid  he'd  forget  to  get  it.    See! 
He's  waving  to  you!    Those  motor  skates  save  so  much  time." 


78 


THE     PANDEX 


aerial  navigation.  It  is  but  a  few  years  ago  that 
talk  of  flying  machines  produced  laughter.  The 
man  who  advocated  such  a  thing  was  considered 
mentally  unbalanced.  But  the  work  went  on 
under  adverse  conditions,  and  so  to-day  we  have 
a  real  practicable  flying  machine  in  this  country. 
"I  have  not  seen  the  Wright  brothers'  ship 
nor  Santos-Dumont's,  but  the  details  of  both 
are  familiar  to  me.  You  see,  the  American  in- 
ventors have  gone  along  conducting  their  experi- 
ments in  secret  as  much  as  possible,  while  San- 
tos-Dumont  has  been  before  the  public  a  great 
deal.  So  the  latter  is  very  well  known,  and  he 
holds  the  center  of  the  stage  as  the  flying  machine 
star.  But  as  a  matter  of  fact  the  Wright 
brothers  could  displace  him  were  they  to  show 
the  world  what  they  can  do. 

Value  in  Time  of  War. 

"It  will  undoubtedly  be  in  war  maneuvers  that 
the  machines  will  be  given  their  first  real  test. 
That  is  where  their  practicability  will  be  thor- 
oughly tried  out.  It  will  mean  a  great  deal  to 
the  country  that  has  a  flying  machine  to  carry 
dispatches  or  make  observations  and  drop  explo- 
sives down  in  the  enemy's  camp.  With  a  ma- 
chine under  control  it  will  be  a  difficult  matter 
for  the  sharpshooters  to  hit  it  and  disable  it, 
for  it  need  never  remain  stationary.  With  a  bal- 
loon the  navigators  were  at  the  mercy  of  the 
air,  and  it  has  always  been  doubtful  whether 
their  use  in  warfare  was  of  any  particular  value. 

"This  Government  recognized  the  value  of  the 
flying  machine  long  ago.  That  was  why  Pro- 
fessor Langley  was  allowed  to  go  ahead  and 
spend  money  in  experiments.  Had  he  been 
allowed  to  work  in  secret  and  do  what  he  wanted 
the  results  would  have  been  different. 

"Ten  years  ago  I  was  given  a  perfect  realiza- 
tion of  the  feasibility  of  the  flying  machine.  At 
that  time  Professor  Langley  had  constructed  his 
first  aeroplane  and  I  was  allowed  to  see  it  in 
operation.  He  had  a  steam  engine  in  it  and  it 
flew  about  from  one  place  to  another,  and  I 
managed  to  get  a  photograph  of  it.  On  two 
different  occasions  he  was  successful  with  it. 
That  demonstrated  that  he  was  on  the  right 
track,  having  a  steam-propelled  airship. 

"Later  on  he  continued  his  studies,  and  the 
public  through  the  newspapers  may  be  blamed 
for  what  happened.  The  writers  camped  on  his 
trail,  and  he  was  unable  to  make  a  move  without 
its  becoming  known.  He  was  a  sensitive  man, 
and  all  this  jarred  upon  him.  Because  his  ma- 
chine did  not  do  wonders,  when  in  fact  a  slight 
mishap  disabled  it,  he  was  held  up  to  ridicule 
and  there  is  no  doubt  in  my  mind  that  it  has- 
tened his  end.  He  died  broken-hearted  when  he 
might  have  been  successful  had  he  been  left 
alone  to  perfect  his  machine. 

More  Encouragement  in  Europe. 

"The  incentive  seems  to  be  greater  on  the 
other  side  of  the  water.  They  take  to  it  more 
over  there  and  big  rewards  are  offered  for  a 
successful  flying  machine.    Over  here  the  country 


is  more  matter  of  fact,  and  after  the  machine 
is  perfected  it  will  be  given  approval.  It  is  this 
sort  of  thing  that  sometimes  retards  the  devel- 
opment of  scientific  inventions.  All  inventors 
are  not  wealthy,  and  their  experiments  are  some- 
times carried  on  at  a  cost  of  lots  of  time  and 
what  little  money  they  have,  and  sometimes  the 
needful  things  are  not  available  because  of  lack 
of  funds. 

' '  No  doubt  Santos-Dumont  could  have  done 
much  better  had  there  been  no  great  crowds 
present  when  he  made  his  ascent.  The  people 
are  not  educated  to  the  fact  that  a  flying  ma- 
chine is  something  heavy  and  substantial,  and 
were  one  to  hit  you  it  would  kill  or  seriously 
injure  you.  But  the  people  regard  them  in  the 
light  of  balloons,  and  so  jeopardize  their  lives 
by  crowding  about,  preventing  a  man  from  pick- 
ing out  a  suitable  landing  place.  Of  course, 
Santos-Dumont  is  a  victim  of  his  own  circum- 
stances, for  if  he  had  not  let  it  be  so  generally 
known  what  he  was  going  to  do,  it  would  have 
been  much  different  and  his  success  would  have 
been  more  pronounced. 

"The  fact  that  the  Wright  brothers  have  been 
able  to  fly  with  a  machine  that  weighs  1925 
pounds  proves  conclusively  that  the  first  stage 
has  been  passed.  Their  engine  alone  weighs 
more  than  two  pounds  and  their  car  embodies 
a  great  many  principles  which  are  in  the  line  of 
progress.  The  fiexibility  of  the  rudders  in  front 
and  rear  is  something  that  seems  to  augur  well 
for  the  future  success.  While  I  have  not  person- 
ally seen  it,  yet  I  can  readily  see  how  such  rud- 
ders may  be  worked  advantageously  in  control- 
ing  the  machine. 

It  Is  the  Old  Story  of  Evolution. 

"Flying  machines  are  simply  coming  into 
vogue  now  as  they  did  many  years  ago.  It  is 
the  same  old  story  of  evolution,  only  we  of  this 
age  are  making  greater  progress.  Years  and 
years  ago  people  were  experimenting  with  all 
sorts  of  devices,  but  many  of  them  sacrificed 
their  lives  in  attempting  to  fly,  so  it  died  out. 
This  present  age,  however,  is  one  that  does  not 
admit  defeat  and  the  people  are  struggling  along 
accomplishing  something  all  the  time.  They  have 
the  advantage  of  more  knowledge  gleaned  from 
scientists  and  this  they  can  turn  to  great  advan- 
tage. ' ' 


SANTOS-DUMONT  RESENTFUL 


Grows  Angry  Over  Statement  That  He  Imitated 
Wright  Brothers. 
The  reflection  contained  in  Professor 
Bell's  interview  naturally  was  resented  by 
the  eminent  Brazilian.  Said  the  New  York 
Herald : 

Paris. — When  seen  yesterday  by  a  Herald  cor- 
respondent concerning  the  criticism  made  upon 
his  performances  by  Professor  Graham  Bell,  M. 


THE    PANDEX 


79 


Santos-Dumont  said  he  was  surprised  to  see  such 
foolish  remarks  in  print.  He  very  much  doubted 
whether  Professor  Bell  ever  uttered  such  words. 

"You  see,"  said  the  young  Brazilian,  "one 
part  of  the  argument  destroys  the  other.  For 
instance,  Professor  Bell  is  reported  to  have  said 
that  he  believes  the  Wright  brothers  have  made 
a  machine  which  has  flown  and  that  naturally 
they  kept  it  perfectly  secret.  Almost  in  the 
same  breath  he  is  reported  as  accusing  me  of 
copying  the   designs  of  the  Wright  brothers. 

"How  could  I  do  such  a  thing  if  the  machine 
had  been  kept  hidden  away  from  every  observer? 
The  thing  is  altogether  too  absurd.  As  I  said 
once  before,  there  is  absolutely  no  evidence  ob- 
tainable here  to  support  the  alleged  statements 
of  the  Wright  brothers.  They  may  have  flown, 
but  there  is  nothing  in  any  reports  of  their  pro- 
ceedings which  inspires  confidence. 

"What  might  very  easily  take  place,  now 
that  I  have  managed  to  construct  a  machine 
which  has  flown  and  of  which  photographs  and 
plans  are  in  everybody's  hands,  is  that  the 
Wright  brothers  might  copy  my  machine,  come 
out  with  it  in  public  and  declare  they  had  con- 
structed it  years  ago  when  the  first  of  their  re- 
markable series  of  letters  began.  There  is  noth- 
ing that  I  can  see  to  prevent  them  doing  this 
and  claiming  to  be  the  first  to  have  flown." 


FRANCE  BUILDS  WAR  FLEET 


Lebaudy's  Dirigible  Balloons  Are  Used  for  Mili- 
tary Purposes. 
For  a  long  time  the  French  militarists  have 
been  viewing  the  airship  with  a  seriousness 
far  greater  than  the  phlegmatic  cynicism  of 
the  Yankee  temperament  has  allowed  itself 
to  cultivate,  with  the  result  shown  in  the 
following  from  the  New  York  American: 

Paris. — France  will  soon  have  a  navy  of  the 
air.  A  fleet  of  aerial  warships  is  to  be  built — 
indeed,  a  squadron  is  already  being  constructed. 

The  dirigible  war  balloon  of  MM.  Lebaudy, 
built  on  the  plans  by  the  celebrated  engineer, 
Julliot,  has  made  an  astonishing  flight,  absolutely 
unattached,  and  has  proved  as  much  under  con- 
trol as  a  first-class  yacht. 

The  scene  of  this  flight  was  at  Moisson, 
near  Mantes,  Department  of  Seine-et-Oise,  and 
the  distance  made  was  sixty  miles.  This  success 
following  that  of  ten  days  ago,  when  the 
machine  stayed  in  the  air  two  hours  and  twenty 
minutes,  has  created  the  greatest  excitement  in 
the  French  War  Department,  which  is  now  con- 
vinced that  the  day  of  a  possible  warfare  in 
the  air  is  at  hand.  This  airship  of  the  Lebaudys 
is  named  La  Patrie,  and  is  driven  by  a  motor 
which  gives  the  propellers  an  average  of  eight 
hundred  and  fifty  revolutions  per  minute.     She 


is  cigar-shaped,  but  much  larger  and  more  pow- 
erful than  that  of  Santos  Dumont. 

The  experiment  was  the  more  brilliant  repe- 
tition of  that  of  November  16.  After  several 
trials  made  when  the  airship  was  but  a  foot  or 
so  above  the  earth  to  see  if  the  motor  was  work- 
ing well,  six  passengers,  including  an  engineer 
from  the  War  Office,  entered  the  ear,  and  at 
9.20  the  motor  was  set  working  and  La  Patrie 
rose  gracefully  from  the  gi-ound  to  a  height 
of  six  hundred  feet.  All  present,  including  the 
specially  appointed  officials  from  the  War  Office, 
expressed  admiration  at  the  rapidity  and  ease 
with  which  she  answered  her  helm.  She  was 
completely  under  the  command  of  her  pilot,  and 
the  officers  declared  that  the  perfect  airship  had 
at  last  been  built. 

Soon  after  rising  the  Patrie  sailed  off  grace- 
fully in  the  direction  of  the  village  of  Lavacourt 
at  a  speed  of  fifteen  miles  per  hour.  She  then 
circled  around  the  village,  turning  to  the  left  or 
right  with  ease,  and  finally  moved  off  to  the  hills 
bordering  the  Seine,  swerved  around  toward 
Moisson,  coming  back  toward  her  shed  at  the 
gait  of  twenty  miles  an  hour.  When  over  the 
shed  and  about  two  hundred  feet  in  the  air  she 
slowly  and  gracefully  settled  down  to  the  ground 
amidst  the  waiting  squad  of  soldiers. 


BRITISH  ARE  ALARMED 


Said  to  Fear  That  Other  Nations  Will  Have  the 
First  Aerial  Warships. 
What  the  French  activity  may  mean  is  re- 
flected in  the  following  from  the  Chicago 
Record-Herald : 

London. — Though  the  English  people  have  been 
slow,  as  they  were  in  the  case  of  automobilism, 
to  take  the  same  interest  in  aerial  navigation  as 
other  European  nations,  the  enthusiasm  which 
they  are  now  displaying  was  manifested  by  a 
large  and  interested  audience  which  assembled 
at  the  Royal  United  Service  Institution  to 
listen  to  a  lecture  on  "recent  progress  in 
aerial  navigation"  by  Colonel  J.  D.  FuUerton 
of  the  Royal  Engineers.  Major  B.  F.  S.  Baden- 
Powell  occupied  the  chair. 

In  the  course  of  the  lecture  Colonel  Fullerton 
said  great  progress  had  recently  been  made 
toward  solving  the  problem  of  aerial  navigation, 
and  it  behooved  Englishmen  to  keep  abreast  of 
the  times. 

Other  countries  were  giving  particular  atten- 
tion to  the  subject  and  England  must  do  the 
same.  The  "soaring"  balloon  was  never  likely 
to  be  of  any  practical  use  and  the  "driving" 
was  a  question  of  the  future. 

Fuel  to  supply  this  driving  force  presented 
a  difficulty  which  no  inventor  so  far  had  over- 
come successfully.  At  present  oil  appeared  best 
for  aeronautical  use,  as  it  was  safe,  had  good 
heat  value  and  could  be  easily  handled.  The 
motor  was  a  machine  devised  to  utilize  the  power 


80 


THE     PANDEX 


of  the  fuel  to  the  best  advantage.    In  conclusion 
the  lecturer  said: 

"There  is  no  doubt  whatever  that  aerial  ships 
will  play  an  important  part  in  future  wars.  It 
is  consequently  most  desirable  that  this  country 
should  at  once  take  steps  to  insure  a  suitable 
aerial  force  being  ready  when  the  time  for  the 
struggle  arrives,  and  I  suggest  that  a  royal  com- 
mission be  appointed  to  report  after  careful  in- 
quiry as  to  whether  there  is  now  a  reasonable 
chance  of  solving  the  problem  of  flight." 


WOMAN  INVENTS  A  SHIP 


Carnegie  Offers  to  Aid  in  Practical   Test  of  a 
New  Air  Vessel. 

New  York. — The  only  woman  in  the  world  who 
has  attempted  to  solve  the  problem  of  aerial 
navigation  is  Miss  E.  L.  Todd,  of  West  Twenty- 
third  Street. 

Since  the  efforts  of  Santos-Dumont  and  Pro- 
fessor Langlfcy  Miss  Todd  has  attempted  to 
profit  by  the  failures  or  successes  of  both  these 
men,  and  believes  she  has  found  the  solution 
of  this  difficult  problem  of  locomotion  in  the  air. 
She  has  invented  a  flying  machine  which  is  now 
attracting  wide  attention  at  the  show  of  the 
Aero  Club  in  Grand  Central  Palace.  Her  ma- 
chine is  an  aeroplane  and  relies  for  success  on 
a  ratchet  arrangement  for  directing  the  course 
of  the  machine  upward  or  downward  at  will.  In 
the  model  on  exhibition  Miss  Todd  has  found  the 
same  difficulty  that  has  confronted  all  aerial 
navigators — that  is,  it  won't  fly.  But  she  con- 
fidently believes  that  she  can  easily  overcome 
this  defect. 

The  invention  of  Miss  Todd  has  attracted  more 
attention  than  any  other  exhibit  at  the  Palace 
show.  Andrew  Carnegie  spends  two  or  three 
hours  every  day  in  going  over  the  details  with 
the  woman  inventor. 

"How  will  you  regulate  the  landing  of  the 
machine?"  asked  Mr.  Carnegie,  as  he  was 
minutely  examining  the  parts  of  the  airship 
one  day. 

"I  think  that  is  one  of  the  easiest  problems  to 
solve,"  replied  Miss  Todd.  "You  see  this  valve 
here?  Well,  by  putting  that  into  play  the  elec- 
tric force  is  so  curtailed  that  the  revolutions 
of  the  fans  decrease.  Without  impetus  the  ma- 
chine will  naturally  discontinue  its  flight.  It  is 
exactly  the  same  principle  as  employed  by  the 
larger  birds, ' '  she  explained  to  Mr.  Carnegie,  who 
was  intensely  interested. 

"But  do  you  think  it  will  rise  at  the  right 
time?"  asked  Mr.  Carnegie. 

"Of  course,  this  model  will  not  rise,"  ex- 
plained Miss  Todd,  "but  in  a  perfect  machine  I 
think  that  will  be  easily  solved." 

Mr.  Carnegie,  it  is  said,  would  be  willing  to 
defray  the  expenses  of  having  a  practical  test. 


THE  OLD  SHEEP  WAGON 

I  have  heard  men  long  for  a  palace,  but  I  want 
no  such  abode. 

For  wealth  is  a  source  of  trouble,  and  a  ieweled 
crown  IS  a  load; 

I'll  take  my  home  in  the  open,  with  a  mixture 
01  sun  and   rain — 

Just  give  me  my  old  sheep  wagon,  on  the  bound- 
less Wyoming  plain. 

With  the  calling  sheep  around  me,  and  my  do- 

with  his  head  on  my  knees, 
I  float  cigarette  smoke  on  the  sage-scented  prairie 

breeze ; 
And  at  night,  when  the  band  is  bedded,  I  ereeo 

like  a  tired  child  ^ 

To  my  tarp  in  the  friendly  wagon,  alone  on  the 

sheep  range  wild. 

I  have  had  my  fill  of  mankind,  and  my  collie's 

my  only  friend. 
And  I'm  waiting  here  in  the  sagebrush  for  the 

judgment  the  Lord  may  send ; 
They'll  find  me  dead  in  my  wagon,  out  here  on 

the  hilltops  brown. 
But  I  reckon  I'll  die  as  easy  as  I  would  in  a 

bed  in  town. 

— Denver  Republican. 


Heartless  Sheila  Shea. 

Shure,  the  parish  is  so  quiet. 

Sheila  Shea. 
All  the  folk  are  saddened  by  it 

In  a  way. 
An'  the  whole  o'  thim  arewaitin' 
Pur  the  joy  o'  celebratin' 

Somethin'  lively;  like  a  weddin',  let  us  say. 
Shure  ye  know  it  is  the  duty 
Of  a  girl  that's  blessed  wid  beauty 

To  be  careful  not  to  let  it  waste  "away. 

Do  ye  hear  me.  Sheila  Shea 
Shure,  how  can  ye  be  so  gay, 
Wid   such   quiet   all   about   ye,   that   ye   sing   the 
livelong  day? 

Has  no  sense  o'  sorrow  found  ye, 

Sheila  Shea? 
Paix,  the  world  revolves  around  ye. 

An'  it's  gray. 
Still,  the  spell  will  soon  be  broken. 
Fur,  although  ye  have  not  spoken 

Sorra  word  o'  what  I've  begged  of  ye  to  say. 
If  ye  will  not  grace  a  weddin', 
'Tis  meself  will  soon  be  dead,  an' 

There's  some  comfort  in  a  funeral,  anyway. 

Do  ye  hear  me.  Sheila  Shea? 
Shure,  how  can  ye  be  so  gay 
Wid  my  breakin'  heart  so  near  ye,  that  ye  sing 
the  livelong  day? 

— Catholic  Standard   and   Times. 


THE     PANDEX 


81 


THE  OLD  AND  THE  NEW  IN  KANSAS.— No.  I. 
More  than  two  thousand  Kansas  farmers  have  bought  automobiles  and  the  horse  is  rapidly 
becoming  a  back  number  in  that  state. — News  Item.     See  Page  83  for  No.  II. 


ON   THE   BASIS   OF  THE  SOIL 


AMERICA    HAS  A    PERIOD    OF    ASTONISHING 
AGRICULTURAL  PROSPERITY 


SECRETARY    WILSON'S    ANNUAL    REPORT    IS    CALLED    THE    EPIC 

OF  THE  FARM.— EXPERIMENTS  IN  CAMPHOR  GROWING 

AS  A  PRECAUTION  AGAINST   WAR.— UTILIZING 

THE  PRICKLY    PEAR 


F'OR  several  years  there  has  been  a  reaction 
in  the  United  States  against  the  passion 
for  industrialism  which  has  gradually  driven 
the  country  into  its  era  of  trusts  and  railroad 
monopolies,  and  the  swing  of  sentiment  has 
been  back  toward  the  farm.  Nothing  has 
stimulated  the  trend  so  much  as  the  remark- 
able breadth  and  inventiveness  of  the  work 
in  the  Department  of  Agriculture.  And 
now,  as  the  country  finds  itself  pinched  for 
money  with  which  to  do  its  business  and 
short  of  facilities  with  which  to  carry  its 
products,  it  is  significant  that  the  main  cause 
of  all  the  trouble  is  found  to  be  the  prolific 
output  of  the  farm. 


FARMERS'   LOAN  BILL   PASSED 


National  Banks  to  be  Allowed  to  Lend  Money  on 
Unencumbered  Farms. 

Probably  nothing  could  more  fully  illus- 
trate the  extent  to  which  the  farm  has  been 
rehabilitated  in  public  esteem  than  the  fol- 
lowing from  the  New  York  Times: 

Washington. — After  years  of  wrangling  the 
House  of  Representatives  passed  recently  by  a 
three-to-one  vote  the  Lewis  bill,  permitting  na- 
tional banks  to  make  twelve  months'  loans  on 
unencumbered  farm  lands  to  an  extent  equal  to 
one-quarter  of  their  capital  stock.  The  debate 
was  spirited,  and  such  men  as  Hepburn,  John 
Sharp  Williams,  Prince,  of  Illinois,  Gillespie,  of 


82 


THE    PANDEX 


Texas,  and  Hill,  of  Connecticut,  engaged  in  the 
arguments. 

It  was  "the  great  West  and  the  farmer"  ver- 
sus Wall  Street  and  the  city  banker  throughout 
the  wrangle.  Mr.  Hepburn  contended  that 
western  surpluses  went  to  New  York  to  supply 
the  sinews  for  speculation  and  then  went  back 
to  western  borrowers  at  exorbitant  rates.  High 
rates  for  call  money,  he  asserted,  were  not 
caused  by  drains  of  money  to  lend  to  the  West, 
but  by  the  demands  on  Wall  Street  to  return 
what  it  had  borrowed  from  the  West.  The 
farmers,  he  continued,  had  little  personal  prop- 
erty, while  their  land  was  their  asset. 

He  urged  that  western  banks  be  given  the 
right  to  make  loans  with  this  asset  as  collateral. 
The  result,  he  said,  would  be  that  the  farmers 
of  the  West  could  borrow  at  home;  the  banks 
there  would  have  a  field  for  surpluses.  Wall 
Street  would  be  stripped  of  this  source  of  specu- 
lative material,  and  the  demand  for  its  return 
would  be  largely  removed.  Thus  feverishness  in 
the  loan  market  would  be  lessened,  and  call  rates 
be  less  subject  to  violent  upward  move- 
ment. He  added  that  the  twenty-five  per 
cent  limit  made  the  transaction  safe  for  banks, 
however  small  their  capital,  and  despite  the  im- 
possibility of  immediate  realization. 


AN  EPIC  OF  FARMING 


Magnitude  of  American  Rural  Output  Exceeds 
All  Past  Records. 

The  ofRcial  Federal  report  of  the  coun- 
try's farming  condition  was  condensed  as 
follows  in  the  Philadelphia  North  American : 

A  veritable  epic  in  figures,  a  triumphant  song 
in  statistics,  is  the  report  of  the  secretary  of 
Agriculture,  which  tells  the  story  of  the  Amer- 
ican farmer's  marvelous  store  of  riches  won 
from  the  soil  in  the  year  just  ended,  reaching  the 
astounding  total  of  $6,794,000,000. 

This  exceeds  the  record-breaking  products  of 
last  year  by  $324,000,000. 

The  value  of  the  farm  products  of  the  nation 
during  the  last  twelve  months  would  duplicate 
the  entire  railroad  system  of  the  United  States, 
rail  for  rail,  tie  for  tie,  ear  for  car.  The  Amer- 
ican farm  products  of  1905  and  1906  pay  for 
every  railroad  in  the  world,  including  the  entire 
equipment. 

Whatever  else  may  be  the  cause  of  the  move- 
ment from  the  country  to  the  cities,  it  isn't  the 
unproductiveness  of  the  farms  nor  the  unprofit- 
ableness of  farming.  Probably  among  no  other 
class  has  there  been  such  an  advance  in  the  ma- 
terial comforts  and  the  general  prosperity  as 
among  the  farmers. 

Farms  Worth  $28,000,000,000. 

The  total  value  of  the  farm  properties  of  the 
United  States  is  estimated  by  Secretary  Wil- 
son's department  at  $28,000,000,000.  This  is  an 
increase  of  $8,000,000,000  since  1900.    It  is  more 


than  twice  the  capitalization  of  all  the  railroads 
of  the  United  States,  and  four  and  a  half  times 
their  real  value.  The  earnings  of  the  farms  for 
the  year  amounted  to  nearly  three  times  the  net 
earnings  of  all  the  railroads. 

Not  only  are  the  American  farms  the  founda- 
tion of  the  domestic  plenty  that  pervades  the 
land,  but  they  are  the  source  of  the  nation's 
credit  abroad.  The  foreign  balance  due  the 
United  States  on  agricultural  products  for  the 
fiscal  year  of  1906  is  $433,000,000,  while  the  bal- 
ance on  all  other  classes  of  exports  is  only  $85,- 
009,000. 

In  the  last  seventeen  years  the  American 
farmer  has  piled  up  the  enormous  credit  of  six 
billions  of  dollars,  while  the  pampered  manu- 
facturer with  all  the  stimulus  of  protective 
tariff  and  other  government  favors  has  a  balance 
against  him  of  $459,000,000. 

During  the  year  1906  the  exports  of  agricul- 
tural products  touched  the  high-water  mark  of 
$970,000,000,  or  $24,000,000  more  than  the  ex- 
ports of  the  previous  record  year,  which  was 
1901. 

Com  the  Banner  Crop. 

Secretary  Wilson  notes  the  fact  that  the  chief 
increase  in  the  value  of  farm  products  during 
the  year  was  in  horses  and  meat  cattle.  The 
crops  about  balanced  with  the  previous  year.  The 
greatest  crop  was  corn,  as  usual,  its  value  being 
$1,100,000,000.  Next  in  line  came  cotton,  with  a 
total  of  $640,000,000,  while  hay,  much  ignored 
by  writers  on  national  wealth,  was  produced  to 
the  value  of  $600,000,000.,  Wheat,  with  a  total 
of  $450,000,000,  showed  a  falling  off  of  about 
$50,000,000. 

An  astonishing  result  is  reported  in  the  beet- 
sugar  industry,  which  amounted  to  $34,000,000, 
against  $7,000,000  seven  years  ago. 

As  showing  the  preponderance  of  the  United 
States  in  cotton,  the  report  points  out  that  the 
product  of  Texas  alone  is  greater  than  that  of 
British  India,  and  three  times  that  of  Egypt, 
while  it  is  half  as  much  again  as  the  entire  crop 
of  the  rest  of  the  world  outside  of  the  United 
States,  India,  and  Egypt. 

There  is  a  curious  note  in  the  fact  that,  despite 
the  furore  over  the  packing-house  disclosures, 
the  exports  of  that  industry  exceeded  those  of 
the  previous  year  by  $37,000,000. 

As  to  how  the  farmer  has  used  his  surplus 
earnings.  Secretary  Wilson  says: 

The  farmer's  standard  of  living  is  rising 
higher  and  higher.  The  common  things  of  his 
farm  go  to  the  city  to  become  luxuries.  He  is 
becoming  a  traveler;  and  he  has  his  telephone 
and  his  daily  mail  and  newspaper.  His  life  is 
healthful  to  body  and  sane  to  mind,  and  the 
noise  and  fever  of  the  city  have  not  become  the 
craving  of  his  nerves,  nor  his  ideal  of  the  every- 
day pleasures  of  life.  A  new  dignity  has  come 
to  agriculture,  along  with  its  economic  strength; 
and  the  farmer  has  a  new  horizon,  far  back  of 
that  of  his  prairie  and  his  mountains,  which  is 
more  promising  than  the  sky-line  of  the  city. 


THE    PANDEX 


83 


THE  NEW  IN  KANSAS— No.  II. 


THEY  MAKE  RAILROADS  RICH 


Farmers  Pay  Half  a  Billion  a  Year  for  Their 
Transportation. 
The  contribution  of  the  farms  to  the  in- 
dustrial world  was  shown,  to  a  small  extent, 
in  the  following  in  the  St.  Louis  Republic: 

New  York. — Revenues  of  the  railroads  of  the 
country  for  carrying  the  agricultural  products 
for  the  year  1906  are  estimated  at  $524,764,025 
by  Captain  G.  J.  Grammer,  vice-president  of  the 
New  York  Central  lines  in  charge  of  traffic,  who 
has  compiled  the  detailed  figures  on  the  subject 
printed  in  an  accompanying  table.  Transporta- 
tion men  who  studied  its  columns  yesterday  said 
they  considered  them  accurate. 

In  figuring  out  the  earnings  which  are  to  come 
to  the  transportation  companies  from  the  prod- 
ucts of  the  soil,  Captain  Grammer  takes  into 
consideration  the  total  crop  production,  its  value 
at  current  market  rates,  the  amount  of  carriage 
which  each  crop  will  entail,  the  average  railroad 
rate,  and  the  earnings  per  car  for  this  service. 
Consideration  is  given  to  the  fact  that  much  of 
the  property  is  transported  several  times  to  and 
from  manufactories  and  the  general  markets,  for 
example. 


A  WEAPON  FOR  WAR  TIME 


Government  Prepares  to  Grow  Camphor  As  Pre- 
caution Against  Emergency. 
Also,  nothing  could  better  illustrate  the 
value  of  the  federal  activity  in  the  agricul- 
tural field  than  the  following  from  the  San 
Francisco  Chronicle: 


Washington. — The  government  is  preparing  to 
raise  its  own  camphor,  so  that  in  case  of  trouble 
with  Japan  it  will  not  be  cut  off  from  one  of  the 
ingredients  necessary  in  the  manufacture  of 
smokeless  powder. 

Beverly  Galloway,  chief  of  the  Bureau  of 
Plant  Industry,  appeared  recently  before  the 
House  Committee  on  Agriculture  and  stated  that 
Japan  controlled  the  camphor  output,  but  he 
said  that  it  had  been  demonstrated  that  cam- 
phor could  be  produced  in  this  country,  and  that 
a  plantation  of  three  thousand  acres  was  to  be 
set  out  in  Florida. 

The  tree  is  grown  successfully  in  California, 
but  only  for  ornament.  Galloway  said  that  in 
Japan  the  trees  are  cut  down  to  extract  the  gum, 
but  the  Bureau  has  learned  that  it  can  be  ex- 
tracted from  the  twigs,  and  the  usefulness  of  the 
tree  is  little  impaired  thereby. 


NEW  VARIETY  OF  ALFALFA 


Secretary  Wilson  Says  it  Will  Grow  Where  the 
Mercury  Goes  Down  to  Forty  Below  Zero. 
Or,  if  the  growing  of  camphor  against  the 
contingency  of  war  is  not  a  suflSicient  exhibit 
of  the  utility  of  the  federal  farming,  the 
following  will  give  further  conviction.  It 
is  from  the  New  York  Sun: 

Washington. — James  Wilson,  secretary  of  agri- 
culture, delivered  an  address  at  the  Thanksgiving 
service  of  the  Mount  Pleasant  Congregational 
Church,  in  which  he  said  that  within  ten  days 
an  agent  of  the  Agricultural  Deoartment  had 
sent  word  that  he  had  found  in  Siberia  an  alfalfa 
which  would  grow  where  the  mercury  went  down 
to  forty  degrees  below  zero. 

"We  wanted  dry-land  crops  and  that  is  what 


84 


THE     PANDEX 


we  have  found,"  said  Mr.  Wilson.  "Tliat  va- 
riety of  alfalfa  is  coming  to  the  United  States. 
That  is  one  of  the  most  interesting  things  that 
has  been  brought  to  my  attention  during  the  last 
year. ' ' 

Among  other  things  that  Mr.  Wilson  told  his 
auditors  were  that  13,500,000  copies  of  reports 
by  special  agricultural  agents  were  being  sent 
out  by  his  Department  for  the  education  of  the 
people ;  that  the  farmers  were  so  prosperous  that 
they  were  putting  money  in  the  banks  and  send- 
ing their  boys  and  girls  to  college,  and  would 
have  to  buy  automobiles  or  find  some  other  way 
of  getting  rid  of  their  wealth,  and  that  through 
modern  machinery  and  methods  one  farm  hand 
in  the  country  could  do  as  much  work  as  four 
hundred  Chinamen,  and  as  a  result  rice  was  be- 
ing produced  so  cheaply  in  the  United  States  that 
700,000,000  pounds  of  it  were  exported  last  year, 
some  of  it  to  rice-growing  countries. 


ARTIFICIAL  VEGETABLES 


Professor    Leduc    Produces    Them    by    Chemical 
Process — ^Act  Like  Living  Plants. 

Something  of  the  intimacy  of  scientific 
interest  elsewhere  than  in  America  in  the 
propagation  of  food  substances  is  reflected 
in  the  following  from  the  New  York  Sun : 

Paris.^ — The  Academy  of  Sciences  heard  Pro- 
fessor d'Ai-sonval  describe  artificial  vegetables, 
which  he  exhibited,  and  which  were  produced  by 
the  methods  of  Professor  Leduc,  of  the  Nantes 
Medical  College.  Professor  d'Arsonval  inter- 
ested his  colleagues  greatly,  but  unfortunately 
for  the  lay  public,  he  did  not  say  whether  the 
so-called  vegetables  are  edible. 

While  they  were  described  as  vegetables,  they 
have  nothing  of  the  vegetable  in  their  makeup, 
but  they  behave  after  their  production  as  do  the 
real  vegetables  they  resemble  under  natural  con- 
ditions. Into  the  composition  of  these  products 
nothing  living  enters.  Professor  Leduc  makes 
seeds  in  pill  form,  one  part  of  sulphate  of  cop- 
per and  two  parts  of  glucose.  These  are  de- 
posited in  bouillon  made  of  gelatine,  to  which 
are  added  three  per  cent  of  ferro-cyanide  of  po- 
tassium and  a  little  sea  salt. 

The  seed  develops  sometimes  on  the  surface  of 
the  liquid  and  sometimes  in  its  depths,  giving 
birth  to  plants  resembling  seaweed  and  other 
marine  plants.  It  was  announced  that  these 
artificial  plants  were  not  merely  scientific  curiosi- 
ties. Professor  Leduc  has  been  able  to  recog- 
nize that  they  have  the  same  properties  as  the 
plants  they  resemble,  and  are  influenced  simi- 
larly by  heat  and  light. 


THE  CANNING  INDUSTRY 


Nearly  Fifty-four  Thousand  Persons  Employed 
and  the  Output  is  Worth  $108,000,000 
Annually. 
The  following  from  the  Kansas  City  Star 


speaks  for  itself,  as  to  one  of  the  by-products 
of  the  farm: 

Washington. — The  canning  and  preserving  in- 
dustries of  the  United  States  employ  53,862  per- 
sons and  their  output  in  1904  was  worth  $108,- 
500,000,  according  to  a  census  bulletin  which  was 
made  public  recently.  The  capital  of  the  2,703 
establishments  engaged  in  the  business  is  $70,- 
000,000. 

The  canned  vegetable  output  was  valued  at 
$45,250,000,  canned  and  dried  fruits  $27,250,000, 
canned  fish  $17,000,000,  smoked  fish  $2,362,000, 
salted  fish  $6,250,000,  canned  oysters  $3,800,000. 
California  leads  the  states  with  a  canned  product 
of  nearly  $25,000,000.  New  York  reports  $13,- 
000,000,  Maryland  $12,750,000,  Iowa  canned 
$2,616,000  worth  of  corn,  which  is  more  than 
any  other  state  reported.  Alaska  leads  in  the 
production  of  canned  salmon,  with  an  output  of 
$7,618,000.  Washington  was  second,  with  $2,500,- 
000. 

Maine  turned  out  $4,291,000  worth  of  canned 
sardines  and  all  the  other  states  less  than  $100,- 
000.  The  Massachusetts  product  of  salted  cod 
was  38,000,000  pounds,  valued  at  $2,500,000,  or 
more  than  three  times  the  combined  output  of  all 
other  states. 

In  the  canning  of  oysters  Mississippi  ranks 
first,  Maryland  second,  South  Carolina  third, 
Louisiana  fourth,  Georgia  fifth. 


WEALTH  IN  THE  PRICKLY  PEAR 


Texas  Ranchmen  Find  They  Can    Convert    the 
Cactus  Into  Denatured  Alcohol, 

Nothing  has  more  continuously  marked 
the  progress  of  systematic  study  of  agricul- 
ture than  the  discovery  from  time  to  time 
of  the  serviceability  of  hitherto  rejected 
substances  and  growth.  An  example  in  point 
is  the  following  from  the  New  York  Herald: 

Fort  Worth. — In  portions  of  West  Texas  and 
over  a  great  deal  of  South  and  Southwest  Texas 
the  prickly  pear  has  long  been  regarded  as  an 
unmitigated  nuisance,  although  during  seasons  of 
drought  the  ranchmen  have  found  it  a  very  good 
cattle  food  after  the  spines  are  removed  by  burn- 
ing. 

Since  the  impetus  given  the  making  of  dena- 
tured alcohol  it  is  claimed  that  there  is  a  bonanza 
to  be  reaped  from  these  cactus  lands  of  Texas  as 
a  material  for  manufacturing  alcohol,  and  at 
several  points  in  West  Texas  arrangements  are 
being  made  to  soon  begin  work  with  portable 
stills,  which  will  be  moved  around  in  the  cactus 
region  as  the  supply  diminishes.  Owners  of  this 
cactus  land  are  figuring  on  some  big  revenue 
when  the  alcohol  making  begins,  and  it  is  an  ex- 
periment that  is  being  watched  with  much  inter- 
est throughout  the  state. 

The  feeding  of  this  prickly  pear  to  stock  has 


THE     PANDEX 


85 


also  been  given  a  new  impetus  in  consequence  of 
some  experiments  that  have  recently  been  made 
and  the  boost  given  the  idea  by  the  federal 
authorities  at  Washington.  As  a  result  of  care- 
ful experiments  it  has  been  shown  that  a  ration 
producing  between  one  and  a  quarter  and  one 
and  a  half  pounds  of  butter  per  day  cost  about 
thirteen  cents  when  pear,  rice,  bran,  and  cotton- 
seed meal  were  fed. 

Although  prickly  pear  is  low  in  nutritive  value 
from  the  chemical  standpoint,  the  steer-feeding 
experiment  shows  also  that  there  is  abundant 
justification  for  the  practices  in  vogue  of  prepar- 
ing cattle  for  market  upon  prickly  pear  and  cot- 
tonseed meal.  A  gain  of  one  and  three-quarter 
pounds  a  day  at  an  expense  of  three  cents  per 
pound  compares  favorably  with  the  feeding  re- 
sults obtained  from  standard  feeds. 


NEW  LAND  OF  CORN  FOUND 


An  Astonishing  Yield  Gathered  This  Year  in  In- 
dian Territory. 

In  connection  with  the  creation  of  a  new 
State  in  the  Southwest,  the  following  as  to 
a  feature  of  the  State  is  imperative.  It  is 
from  the  Kansas  City  Star: 

Muskogee,  I.  T. — Just  now  Indian  Territory  is 
attempting  to  move  the  greatest  corn  crop  that 
has  ever  been  produced  in  the  new  country — and 
every  bushel  of  it  is  worth  thirty  cents.  This  is 
the  first  year  that  Indian  Territory  has  had  a 
chance  to  show  what  it  could  do  in  producing 
corn.  The  result  is  a  revelation.  Every  shipping 
point  is  crowded,  while  elevators  and  corn  cribs 
are  bursting  with  their  loads. 

Not  a  railroad  in  the  territory  can  furnish 
enough  cars  to  move  the  crops,  and  still  the 
farmers  pour  in  with  wagon  loads,  and  each 
wagon  has  the  side  boards  raised.  In  the  towns 
in  the  northern  part  of  the  territory,  where  is 
the  best  corn  land,  there  will  be  long  ricks  of 
corn  piled  out  on  the  ground  like  stacks  of 
straw,  waiting  to  be  moved.  There  is  neither 
crib  nor  elevator  room  and  the  railroads  can  not 
move  the  crop. 

But  the  Price  is  Thirty  Cents. 

In  many  towns  all  the  elevator  men  have  re- 
fused to  buy  another  bushel  of  corn  until  the 
railroads  furnish  sufficient  cars  to  move  it,  but 
still  the  price  is  thirty  cents  whenever  a  bushel 
is  sold,  and  with  corn  making  sixty  and  seventy 
bushels  to  the  acre  this  is  pretty  good  money. 


COTTON  CLOGS  ITS  ROAD 


New  State  of  Oklahoma  Produces  the  Staple  in 
Marvelous  Abundance. 

Still  another  impressive  phase  of  the  same 
section  of  the  country  is  revealed  in  the  fol- 
lowing from  the  same  paper : 

Guthrie,  Ok. — Oklahoma  and  Indian  Territory 


are  bulging  with  cotton.  Throughout  the  cotton 
belt  the  country  is  billowy  with  white.  At  every 
crossroads  is  a  puffing  gin,  and  along  evfery  coun- 
try road  move  wagons  filled  high  with  seed  cot- 
ton. The  streets  of  the  towns  are  blockaded 
with  cotton  wagons,  surrounded  by  cotton  buyers 
in  keen  competition. 

In  towns  where  compresses  are  established 
there  is  even  greater  activity.  A  famine  of  cars 
has  made  it  almost  impossible  to  move  cotton, 
except  to  the  compresses,  and  the  buildings  stand 
isolated  in  a  level  sea  of  bales  packed  as  closely 
together  as  possible.  The  immense  platforms  are 
covered  with  cotton,  and  the  bales  reach  far  un- 
der the  sheds.  Switch  engines  bump  and  rattle 
along  lines  of  loaded  cars  discharging  their 
freight  at  the  compresses,  to  be  squeezed  a  sec- 
ond time  under  powerful  machinery  to  reduce 
their  size  and  consume  less  space  in  the  holds  of 
rusty,  storm-beaten  steamships  at  Galveston  and 
New  Orleans,  which  convey  their  >^argoes  across 
the  Atlantic  to  foreign  countries,  even  as  far 
as  Russia  and  Japan.  The  trackage  is  so  over- 
crowded that  often  passenger  trains  are  delayed 
by  cotton  trains  that  can  not  be  moved  quickly 
from  the  main  line. 

Estimated  at  One  Million  Bales. 

Some  cotton  brokers  estimate  that  Oklahoma 
and  Indian  Territory  will  raise  one  million  bales 
this  year.  This  means  fifty  million  dollars  paid 
in  cash  in  about  one-half  the  geographical  area 
of  the  state,  or  almost  fifty  dollars  per  capita  to 
every  man,  woman,  and  child. 


RAISE  CHICKENS  OR  GO 


Unwritten  Law  of  Montezuma  That  Everybody 
Shall  Breed  Poultry. 

Montezuma,  Iowa. — "Love  me,  love  my  hen," 
is  the  motto  which  could  be  written  with  pro- 
priety over  an  illuminated  gateway  to  this  little 
town.  If  you  do  not  raise  chickens  you  can  not 
live  in  the  town,  enjoy  its  society,  or  send  your  • 
children  to  school. 

A  few  have  tried  to  live  in  Montezuma  with- 
out engaging  in  the  poultry  industry  either  for 
pleasure  or  profit,  but  they  have  always  found 
their  dislike  for  chickens  growing  into  a  sort  of 
barrier  against  friendly  intercourse  with  their 
neighbors,  and  they  came  to  be  almost  social  out- 
casts. Their  children  were  hooted  at  school, 
called  "snobs,"  and  told  that  their  parents  were 
too  lazy  to  work  or  raise  chickens. 

These  unpleasant  conditions  and  real  ostracism 
from  the  society  of  Montezuma  were  endured 
long,  but  at  last  the  victims  yielded.  A  delivery 
man  left  a  jag  of  lumber  and  a  few  rods  of  wire 
netting  and  several  mysterious  boxes,  from  which 
flitted  noisy,  clucking,  and  crowing  chickens.  The 
next  day  the  family  joined  the  chicken  raisers 
and  took  its  place  in  society. 

This  little  town  raises  more  chickens  per  capita 
than  any  other  town  in  America.  Here  every- 
body who  is  "anybody"  raises  poultry.  The 
back  yards  of  every  resident  are  dotted  with 
chicken  houses  and  exercise  pens,  while  the  town 


86 


THE     PANDEX 


is  practically  hedged  in  with  chicken  farms. 
Every  householder,  masculine  or  feminine,  knows 
how  to  fcreed,  hatch,  rear,  feed,  and  care  for 
broilers,  roasters,  layers,  and  exhibition  fowls ; 
how  to  build  sheds,  coops,  brooders,  and  houses 
for  large  and  small  assortments  of  chickens. 
Almost  every  man  or  woman  is  a  specialist  on 
diseases  of  poultry,  knows  how  much  red  pepper 
to  give,  and  when  to  use  real  castor  oil. 

Those  who  believe  that  dead  chickens  are  the 
only  good  variety  to  have  on  the  place  simply 
can  not  live  here.  Gardening  is  mingled  with 
the  lost  arts.  There  is  little  to  do  but  raise 
poultry.  The  industry  has  woven  itself  with  the 
affairs  of  life  here  until  social  evenings,  as  well 
as  the  meetings  of  the  town  council,  are  given 
over  to  discussions  of  the  poultry  industry  and 
the  rights  of  owners.  Montezuma  is  a  big  incu- 
bator and  brooder  for  the  poultry  markets  of 
the  Northwest. 


TO  SAW  THE  PRAIRIE  SOD 


Colorado  Invention  to  Improve  Fertility  and  to 
Save  Irrigation. 
One  of  the  most  sweeping  phases  of  Gov- 
ernmental interest  in  agriculture  is  the 
Reclamation  Service.  Parallel  with  the 
gigantic  efforts  involved  in  this  work  has 
come  recently  the  following  story  of  a  com- 
paratively simple  method  of  conquering  the 
arid  lands.  The  story  is  from  the  Kansas 
City  Star: 

But  for  the  serious  consideration  being  given 
his  unique  propositions  by  leading  men  of 
science  and  affairs,  one  would  be  tempted  to 
think  that  Colonel  Albert  Talmon  Morgan,  of 
Denver,  Col.,  was  a  dreamer,  a  real  Colonel  Sel- 
lers. 

His  hobbies  are  to  saw  the  soil  of  the  West 
with  buzz  saws  on  wheels  and  thus  make  it  laugh 
with  a  bountiful  harvest;  to  fill  the  canyons  and 
gulches  of  the  continental  divide  with  artificial 
glaciers,  and  quench  the  thirst  of  the  plains  in 
summer  time  with  ice  water;  to  abolish  the  arid- 
ity of  the  West  and  the  excessive  humidity  of 
the  South — these  are  the  large  contracts  he  has 
cut  out  for  performance  by  a  queer  looking  ma- 
chine that  stands  in  the  rear  of  a  machine  shop. 
The  irreverent  small  boy  has  dubbed  it  the  "Col- 
orado go-devil,"  but  he  calls  it  the  Morgan  auto 
saw  ditcher. 

To  Make  Arid  Lands  Fertile. 
Here  is  the  philosophy  of  this  epochal  inven- 
tion :  The  auto  saw  ditcher,  hitched  to  a  steam 
traction  engine,  with  gang  saws  placed  a  foot 
apart,  will  buzz-saw  the  plains  instead  of  plow- 
ing them.  Millions  of  little  trenches,  or  grooves, 
or  riffles,  or  saw  cuts,  or  whatever  one  chooses 
to  call  them,  will  be  sawn  in  the  arid  prairie  a 
foot  or  more  in  depth  and  an  inch  or  an  inch  and 
a  half  in  width,  at  right  angles  to  the  line  of 
drainage.    When  a  rain  comes,  or  when  the  snows 


melt,  instead  of  running  off  the  surface  into  the 
water  courses  to  create  disastrous  floods  a  thou- 
sand miles  or  more  away,  the  moisture  will  sink 
into  these  millions  of  saw  cuts.  Gradually  it 
will  percolate  on  down  into  the  subsoil,  soaking 
it  so  that  it,  as  well  as  the  partitions  between 
the  grooves  and  the  sun-baked  prairie  will  be 
filled  with  water  like  a  sponge.  In  these  saw- 
cuts  the  Colonel  will  then  plant  the  seed  of 
whatever  crops  he  wishes  to  harvest.  By  this 
method  he  declares  he  can  grow  sugar  beets  a 
foot  long,  doubling  Colorado's  annual  production 
without  the  planting  of  an  additional  acre. 

Water  Stored  in  Glaciers. 

Next  in  the  scheme  is  the  reintroduetion  of 
the  glacial  age.  At  every  little  pool,  lake,  and 
basin  near  the  bleak  mountain  tops,  the  Colonel 
plans  to  place  siphons.  When  ice  forms  in  win- 
ter time  over  these  pools,  these  siphons  will  be 
put  to  work,  pouring  water  from  the  bottoms 
of  the  pools  out  over  the  surface  of  the  ice  on 
lower  levels.  Hundreds  of  miles  of  glaciers, 
many  feet  in  thickness  might  thus  be  formed 
every  winter  in  the  deep  canyons  and  gulches  of 
the  continental  divide.  Instead  of  going  off  with 
a  rush  on  the  arrival  of  spring,  as  a  greater  por- 
tion of  the  snows  and  thin  ice  of  the  mountains 
now  do,  the  great  glaciers  will  melt  but  slowly, 
distributing  their  moisture  into  the  streams 
through  the  hot  summer  months.  This  moisture 
can  then  be  used  to  supplement  that  stored  in 
the  saw  cuts  on  the  plains  for  irrigation  wher- 
ever needed. 

"The  storing  of  moisture  in  the  soil  and  in 
glacial  formations  in  the  mountains  will  inevit- 
ably reduce  the  drainage  into  the  Mississippi  so 
materially  that  the  floods  that  threaten  the  levees 
and  inundate  the  lowlands  will  never  more  be 
heard  of,"  he  declares.  Was  there  ever  a  more 
beautiful  example  of  killing  two  birds  with  one 
stone?    It  all  sounds  too  good  to  be  true. 

It  is  a  Mechanical  Success. 

Colonel  Morgan  has  advocated  these  ideas  in 
season  and  out  of  season  for  many  years,  but 
never  got  a  hearing  until  this  fall.  He  went  so 
far  as  to  have  an  experimental  buzz  saw  on 
wheels  constructed,  just  to  convince  people  that 
his  auto  saw  would  saw.  It  did  saw,  and  so  many 
people  saw  it  saw  that  doubt  on  that  score  is  no 
longer  possible.  The  way  it  made  the  sawdirt 
fly  was  a  caution.  It  threatened  to  bury  the 
horses,  which  supplied  the  motive  power.  A 
shield  was  then  placed  in  front  of  the  saw  to 
catch  the  dirt  and  place  it  at  one  side  of  the 
saw-cut.  When  gang  saws  are  used,  the  dirt 
will  be  placed  between  the  channels.  The  buzz 
saws,  it  should  be  explained,  revolve  in  a  direc- 
tion contrary  to  that  of  the  wheels  of  the  car- 
riage. Instead  of  cutting  down,  they  cut  up,  lift- 
ing the  particles  of  soil  from  their  positions  and 
throwing  them  out  of  the  way. 

Mechanically,  therefore,  the  buzz  saw  in  the 
soil  is  a  success.  It  does  the  work  expected  of 
it,  requiring  less  power  for  its  operation  than  a 
plow.  An  acre  of  gi'ound,  or  a  thousand  acres 
of  ground  can  be  gang-sawed  by  this  new  imple- 


THE     PANDEX 


87 


Now  That  Fanners  Are  In  the  Labor  Union       If  Horses  Could  Talk. 

— Indianapolis  News. 


88 


THE    PANDEX 


ment  of  husbandry  cheaper  than  it  can  be 
plowed.  Colonel  Morgan  says  that  the  buzz  saw 
will  crowd  the  plow  out  of  business.  It  will  be 
laid  on  the  shelf,  relegated  to  the  scrap  pile,  or 
banished  to  museums  and  collections  of  antiques. 
This,  of  course,  remains  to  be  seen.  The  effects 
of  the  sawing  of  the  soil  for  the  conservation  of 
moisture  in  the  plains  have  not  yet  been  demon- 
strated. 

To  be  Given  a  Trial. 

Many  prominent  people  have  indorsed  Colonel 
Morgan's  plan.  The  Denver  Chamber  of  Com- 
merce has  indorsed  the'  idea  to  the  extent  of 
joining  in  the  effort  to  raise  $10,000  with  which 
to  test  its  practicability  and  efficiency  on  a  scale 
that  will  forever  settle  the  question. 

The  Hon.  E.  T.  Wells,  former  justice  of  the 
Colorado  Supreme  Court,  predicts  that  it  will 
revolutionize  agricultural  conditions  throughout 
the  semi-arid  belt.  Former  State  Senator 
Stranger  says  it  is  the  only  practicable  idea  ever 
advanced  for  the  prevention  of  drainage  from 
the  surface  and  the  reduction  of  evaporation  to 
a  minimum.  He  expects  it  to  accomplish  great 
things — but  doesn't  believe  the  days  of  the  plow 
are  yet  past.  Farmers,  merchants^  bankers,  law- 
yers, statesmen,  scholars,  and  business  men  are 
fascinated  by  the  novelty  and  the  magnificent 
promise  of  the  idea — but  the  necessary  cash  piles 
up  slowly. 

The  path  of  Colonel  Morgan  has  not  been 
strewn  with  roses.  Most  of  his  time  and  all  of 
his  money  have  been  spent  on  the  development 
of  the  great  idea,  and  in  a  vain  endeavor  to  enlist 
the  aid  of  sufficient  capital  to  give  it  a  test.  It 
seems  as  if  the  day  of  the  buzz  saw  had  at  last 
arrived.  It  will,  at  least,  be  given  an  exhaustive 
test  to  decide  whether  the  faith  of  the  inventor 
of  the  auto  saw  is  justified  or  vain.  That  is  all 
he  asks. 


BBEEDING  A  SETLESS  HEN 


Government  Starts  a  Special  Farm  on  Which  to 
Experiment. 

Can  the  great  American  hen  be  thoroughly 
commercialized?  Can  she  be  made  to  forego  her 
ancient  and  honorable  ambition  to  set,  and  in- 
duced to  put  in  all  her  time  and  energy  produc- 
ing eggs? 

The  Agricultural  Department  believes  that 
such  a  thing  is  possible,  and  is  now  endeavoring 
to  produce  a  non-setting  continuous  egg-laying 
fowl  that  will  cheerfully  forego  the  cares  of  the 
nursery  and  lay  at  least  one  egg  a  day  the  year 
round. 

In  order  to  ascertain  just  what  effect  encour- 
agement and  training  will  have  upon  the  hen,  an 
experimental  station  has  been  established  by  the 
Bureau  of  Animal  Industry  of  the  Agricultural 
Department. 

'This  experimental  plant  is  located  at  St.  Denis, 
near  Baltimore,  Md.,  and  is  in  charge  of  Robert 
R.  Slocum,  a  chicken  expert,  who  was  induced 
to  superintend  the  work. 

Efforts  to  induce  the  hen  to  spend  less  time 
setting  and  more  time  laying  are  being  directed 


by   Dr.   George  M.   Rommel,   of   the   Bureau   of 
Animal  Industry. 

Dr.  Rommel  says:  "The  matter  is  all  in  the 
future  as  yet,  but  the  theory  is  that  we  can  in- 
fluence the  hen's  egg  production  by  feeding;  that 
is,  by  what  we  feed  her  and  how  we  feed  her. 

"We  have  made  practically  no  experiments  as 
yet,  but  the  Bureau  of  Animal  Husbandry  has 
secured  the  services  of  R.  R.  Slocum,  who  is  an 
expert  in  that  line,  and  he  will  have  charge  of  the 
new  work. 

"The  first  work  at  the  hen  farm  at  St.  Denis 
will  be  the  study  of  the  moist  and  dry  mash 
systems  of  feeding  and  of  the  use  of  the  self- 
feeding  hoppers.  The  equipment  is  necessarily 
modest,  because  the  available  funds  are  not 
large. 

Experiments  in  Feeding. 

"A  house  divided  into  three  pens,  each  accom- 
modating twenty-five  hens,  with  suitable  yards, 
is  to  be  constructed.  This  house,  together  with 
incubators,  brooders,  etc.,  sufficient  to  raise 
enough  pullets  to  replace  those  used  in  the  ex- 
periments, will  comprise  the  immediate  equip- 
ment. 

"The  two  problems  under  investigation  are  to 
be  combined  by  the  use  of  three  pens  of  fowls. 
The  different  lots  of  fowls  are  to  be  housed  ex- 
actly alike,  and  all  the  conditions  made  equal 
except  the  methods  of  feeding. 

"Fowls  in  pen  No.  1  Will  receive,  morning  and 
night,  a  mixture  of  whole  or  cracked  grains  scat- 
tered in  the  litter,  and  at  noon  a  moistened 
mash. 

"Those  in  pen  No.  2  will  receive,  morning  and 
night,  the  same  grain  mixture,  fed  in  the  litter 
exactly  as  in  pen  No.  1,  and  the  same  mash  at 
noon,  except  that  it  will  be  dry. 

"The  only  difference  between  these  two  pens 
will  be  that  pen  No.  1  receives  the  mash  moist- 
ened, while  pen  No.  2  receives  exactly  the  same 
mash  dry. 

"Fowls  in  pen  No.  3  jwill  be  fed  exactly  as 
those  in  the  other  pens,  but  will  be  fed  from  two 
self-feeding  hoppers,  one  containing  the  grain 
and  the  other  the  mash.  This  mash  will,  of 
course,  be  dry.  The  hopper  containing  the  grain 
will  be  opened  about  4  p.  m.  in  winter  and  5  p.  m. 
in  summer,  and  will  be  left  open  until  the  next 
noon.  It  will  then  be  closed;  and  the  second 
hopper,  containing  the  mash,  will  be  opened,  and 
left  so,  until  the  first  hopper  is  again  opened. 

"In  this  way  the  fowls  will  have  feed  before 
them  at  all  times,  and  can  eat  as  much  or  as 
little  as  they  please.  A  comparison  can  be  made 
with  pen  No.  2,  the  only  difference  being  that 
pen  No.  2  receives  its  food  at  regular  intervals 
and  in  amounts  indicated  by  the  appetite  of  the 
fowls,  while  those  in  pen  No.  3  can  help  them- 
selves at  all  times. 

"White  Plymouth  Rock  fowls  are  to  be  used 
in  the  experiments,  not  because  of  any  special 
preference  for  this  variety,  but  simply  as  a  mat- 
ter of  convenience.  Pullets  are  to  be  raised  from 
the  various  pens,  and  the  test  will  be  repeated 
twice  to  confirm  results  and  note  the  effect  of 
the  different  systems  on  vitality." 


THE     P  A  N  D  E  X 


89 


9(» 


THE     PANDEX 


Points  From  the  Message 


I  T  is  probable  that  only  reckless  speculation 
*  and  disresrard  of  legitimate  business  methods 
on  the  part  of  the  business  world  can  materially 
mar  our  prosperity. 

No  Congress  in  our  time  has  done  more  good 
work  of  importance   than   the  present  Congress. 

I  again  recommend  a  law  prohibiting  all  cor- 
porations from  contributing  to  the  campaign  ex- 
pense of  any  party. 

A  bill  which  has  just  passed  one  house  of  the 
Congress,  and  which  it  is  urgently  necessary 
should  be  enacted  into  law,  is  that  conferring 
u[)on  the  Government  the  right  of  appeal  in 
criminal  cases  on  questions  of  law. 

There  must  be  no  hesitation  in  dealing  with 
disordei-.  But  there  must  likewise  be  no  such 
abuse  of  the  injunction  power  as  is  implied  in 
forbidding  laboring  men  to  strive  for  their  own 
betterment  in  peaceful  and  lawful  ways,  nor 
must  the  injunction  be  used  merely  to  aid  some 
big  corporation  in  carrying  out  schemes  for  its 
own  aggrandizement. 

There  is  but  one  safe  rule  in  dealing  with 
black  men  as  with  white  men;  it  is  the  same  rule 
that  must  be  applied  in  dealing  with  rich  men 
and  poor  men ;  that  is  to  treat  each  man,  what- 
ever his  color,  his  creed,  or  his  social  position, 
with  even-handed  justice  on  his  real  worth  as  a 
man. 

Every  colored  man  should  realize  that  the 
worst  enemy  of  his  race  is  the  negro  criminal. 

Corruption  is  never  so  rife  as  in  communities 
where  the  demagogue  and  the  agitator  bear  full 
sway. 

It  should  be  our  aim  steadily  to  reduce  the 
number  of  hours  of  labor,  with  as  a  goal  the 
general  introduction  of  an  eight-hour  day. 

Let  me  again  urge  that  the  Congress  provide 
for  a  thorough  investigation  of  the  conditions 
of  child  labor  and  of  the  labor  of  women  in  the 
United  States.  The  horrors  incident  to  the  em- 
ployment of  young  children  in  factories  or  at 
work  anywhere  are  a  blot  on  our  civilization. 

Compensation  for  accidents  or  deaths  due  in 
any  line  of  industry  to  the  actual  conditions 
under  which  that  industry  is  carried  on,  should 
be  paid  by  that  portion  of  the  community  for  the 
benefit  of  which  the  industry  is  carried  on — that 
is,  by  those  who  profit  by  the  industry. 


The  e.xercise  of  a  judicial  spirit  by  a  disinter- 
ested body  representing  the  Federal  Government, 
such  as  would  be.  provided  by  a  commission  on 
conciliation  and  arbitration,  would  tend  to  create 
an  atmosphere  of  friendliness  and  conciliation 
between  contending  parties. 

The  coal,  like  the  forests,  should  be  treated 
as  the  property  of  the  public,  and  its  disposal 
should  be  under  conditions  which  would  inure 
to  the  benefit  of  the  public  as  a  whole. 

In  my  judgment,  it  will,  in  the  end,  be  ad- 
visable in  connection  with  the  packing  house  in- 
spection law  to  provide  for  putting  a  date  on 
the  label  and  for  charging  the  cost  of  inspec- 
tion to  the  packers. 

There  will  ultimately  be  need  of  enlarging  the 
powers  of  the  Interstate  Commerce  Commission 
along  several  different  lines,  so  as  to  give  it 
larger  and  more  efficient  control  over  the  rail- 
roads. 

In  some  method,  whether  by  a  national  license 
law  or  in  other  fashion,  we  must  exercise,  aild 
tliat  at  an  early  date,  a  far  more  competent  con- 
trol than  at  present  over  the  great  corporations. 

Our  efforts  should  be  not  so  much  to  prevent 
consolidation  as  such,  but  so  to  supervise  and 
control  it  as  to  see  that  it  results  in  no  harm  to 
the  people. 

The  best  way  to  avert  the  very  undesirable 
move  for  the  Government  ownership  of  railways 
is  to  secure  by  the  Government  on  behalf  of  tlie 
people,  as  a  whole,  such  adequate  control  and 
regulation  of  the  great  interstate  common  car- 
riers as  will  do  away  with  the  evils  which  give 
rise  to  the  agitation  against  them. 

What  we  need  is  not  vainly  to  try  to  prevent 
all  combination,  but  to  secure  such  rigorous  and 
adequate  control  and  supervision  of  the  combina- 
tions as  to  prevent  t.heir  injuring  the  public,  or 
existing  in  such  form  as  inevitably  to  threaten 
injury. 

It  is  unfortunate  that  our  present  laws  should 
forbid  all  combinations,  instead  of  sharply  dis- 
criminating between  those  combinations  which 
do  gootl  and  those  combinations  which  do  evil. 

There  is  every  reason  why,  when  next  our  sys- 
tem of  taxation  is  revised,  the  national  Govern- 
ment should  impose  a  graduated  inheritance  tax, 
and,  if  possible,  a  graduated  income  tax. 


THE     PANDEX 


91 


It  should  be  our  prime  object  as  a  nation,  so 
far  as  feasible,  constantly  to  work  toward  put- 
ting the  mechanic,  the  wage-worker  who  works 
with  his  hands,  on  a  higher  plane  of  efficiency 
and  reward,  so  as  to  increase  his  effectiveness 
in  the  economic  world. 

The  only  other  person  whose  welfare  is  as 
vital  to  the  welfare  of  the  country  as  is  the  wel- 
fare of  the  wage-workers  are  the  tillers  of  the 
soil,   the   farmers. 

In  my  judgment,  the  whole  question  of  mar- 
riage and  divorce  should  be  relegated  to  the  au- 
thority of  the  national  Congress. 

If  it  prove  impracticable  to  enact  a  law  for  the 
encouragement  of  shipping  generally,  then  at 
least  provision  should  be  made  for  better  com- 
munication with  South  America,  notably  for  fast 
mail  lines  to  the  chief  South  American  ports. 

The  recurrence  of  each  crop  season  emphasizes 
the  defects  of  the  present  currency  laws.  There 
must  soon  be  a  revision  of  them,  because  to  leave 
them  as  they  are  means  to  incur  liability  of 
business  disaster. 

I  most  earnestly  hope  that  the  bill  to  provide 
a  lower  tariff  for  or  else  absolute  free  trade  in 
Philippine  products  will  become  a  law. 

American  citizenship  should  be  conferred  on  all 
the  citizens  of  Porto  Rico. 

Not  only  must  we  treat  all  nations  fairly,  but 
we  must  treat  with  justice  and  good-will  all  im- 
migrants who  come  here  under  the  law.  Whether 
they  are  Catholic  or  Protestant,  Jew  or  Gentile; 
whether  they  come  from  England  or  Germany, 
Russia,  Japan  or  Italy,  matters  nothing.  All  we 
have  a  right  to  question  is  the  man's  conduct. 

The  friendship  between  the  United  States  and 
Japan  has  been  continuous  since  the  time,  over 
half  a  century  ago,  when  Commodore  Perry,  by 
his  expedition  to  Japan,  first  opened  the  island 
to  Western  civilization.  Since  then  the  growth 
of  Japan  has  been  literally  astounding.  There 
is  not  only  nothing  to  parallel  it,  but  nothing  to 
approach  it  in  the  history  of  civilized  mankind. 


To  shut  the  Japanese  out  from  the  public  schools 
is  a  wicked  absurdity.  We  have  as  much  to  leara 
from  Japan  as  Japan  has  to  learn  from  us. 

I  recommend  to  Congress  that  an  act  be  passed 
specifically  providing  for  the  naturalization  of 
Japanese  who  come  here  intending  to  become 
American  citizens. 

The  United  States  wishes  nothing  of  Cuba 
except  that  it  shall  prosper  morally  and  ma- 
terially, and  wishes  nothing  of  the  Cubans  save 
that  they  shall  be  able  to  preserve  order- among 
themselves,  and,  therefore,  to  preserve  their  in- 
dependence. 

If  the  elections  become  a  farce,  and  if  the  in- 
surrectionary habit  becomes  confirmed  in  the 
island,  it  is  absolutely  out  of  the  question  that 
the  island  should  continue  independent. 

In  many  parts  of  South  America  there  has 
been  much  misunderstanding  of  the  attitude  and 
purpose  of  the  United  States  toward  the  other 
American  republics.  An  idea  has  become  preva- 
lent that  our  assertion  of  the  Monroe  Doctrine 
implied,  or  carried  with  it,  an  assumption  of  su- 
periority, and  of  a  right  to  exercise  some  kind 
of  protectorate  over  the  country  to  whose  ter- 
ritory that  doctrine  applies.  Nothing  could  be 
farther  from  the  truth. 

I  have  just  returned  from  a  trip  to  Panama 
and  shall  report  to  you  at  length  later  on  the 
whole  subject  of  the  Panama  canal. 

It  must  ever  be  kept  in  mind  that  war  is  not 
merely  justifiable,  but  imperative,  upon  honor- 
able men,  ujlon  an  honorable  nation,  where  peace 
can  only  be  obtained  by  the  sacrifice  of  con- 
scientious conviction  or  of  national  welfare. 

We  should,  as  a  nation,  do  everything  in  our 
power  for  the  cause  of  honorable  peace. 

The  United  States  navy  is  the  surest  guarantor 
of  peace  which   the  cffimtry  possesses. 

In  both  the  army  and  navy  there  is  urgent  need 
that  everything  possible  should  be  done  to  main- 
tain the  highest  standard  for  the  personnel,  alike 
as  regards  the  officers  and  enlisted  men. 


92 


THE     PANDEX 


-H-H-H!" 


-Detroit    Journal. 


THE  PRESIDENT'S  MESSAGE 


FULL  TEXT  OF  THE  ADDRESS  OF  THEODORE  ROOSEVELT  TO  THE 

LAST  SESSION  OF  THE  FIFTY-NINTH  CONGRESS.  WITH 

SOME  OF  THE  LEADING  CARTOONS. 


To  the  LSeniite  unil  HoiiMe  of  Reprenentativen: 

AS  a  nation  we  still  continue  to  enjoy  a  literally 
unprecedented  prosperity,  and  it  is  probable 
that  only  reckless  speculation  and  disregard 
of  legitimate  business  methods  on  the  part  of  the 
business  world  can  materially  mar  this  prosperity. 
No  Congress  in  our  time  has  aone  more  good 
Work  of  importance  than  the  present  Congress. 
There  were  several  matters  left  unfinlslied  at  your 
last  session,  however,  which  I  most  earnestly  hope 
you  will   complete  before   your  adjournment. 

Again      I      recommend      a      law 
prohibiting        all        corporations 
<  ninpnifcn  from    contributing    to    the    cam- 

ContrtbiitlonH       paign     expenses     of     any     party. 
Such  a-  bill   has  already  past  one 
House     of     Congress,     l^et     indi- 
viduals  contribute   as    they   desire,    but    let    us    pro- 


hibit in  effective  fashion  all  corporations  from 
making  contributions  for  any  political  purpose, 
directly  or  indirectly. 


(rovernnieiil*M 

Ki^lit 

of  AppenI 


criminal 


Another  bill  which  has  just 
past  one  House  of  the  Congress 
and  which  it  is  urgently  neces- 
sary should  be  enacted  into  law 
is  that  conferring  upon  the  Gov- 
ernment the  right  of  appeal  in 
cases  on  questions  of  law.  This  right 
exists  in  many  of  the  states;  it  exists  in  the  Dis- 
trict of  Columbia  by  act  of  the  Congress.  It  is,  of 
course,  not  proposed  that  in  any  case  a  verdict 
for  the  defendant  on  the  merits  should  be  set 
aside.  Recently  in  one  district  where  the  Govern- 
ment had  indicted  certain  persons  for  conspiracy 
in  connection  with  rebates,  the  Court  sustained  the 
defendant's  demurrer;  while  in  another  jurisdic- 
tion an  indictment  for  conspiracy  to  obtain  rebates 


THE     PANDEX 


93 


has  been  sustained  by  the  Court,  convictions  ob- 
tained under  it.  and  two  defendants  sentenced  to 
Imprisonment. 

Tlie  two  cases  referred  to  may  not  be  In  real 
conflict  with  each  other,  but  it  is  unfortunate  that 
there  should  even  be  an  apparent  conflict  At 
present  there  Is  no  way  by  which  the  Government 
can  cause  such  a  conflict,  when  it  occurs  to  be 
solved  by  an  appeal  to  a  hlg-her  court,  and  the 
wheels  of  justice  are  blocked  without  any  real 
decision  of  the  question.  I  cannot  too  stronelv 
urg-e  the  passage  of  the  bill  in  question.  A  failure 
to  pass  it  win  result  in  seriously  hampering  the 
Government  in  its  efforts  to  obtain  justice  espe- 
cially against  wealthy  individuals  or  corporations 
who  do  wrong,  and  may  also  prevent  the  Govern- 
ment from  obtaining  justice  for  wageworkers  who 
are  not  themselves  able  effectively  to  contest  a 
case  where  the  judgment  of  an  Inferior  court  has 
been   against    them. 


One   Unsafe 
Precedent 


I  have  speclflcally  in  view  a 
recent  decision  by  a  district 
judge  leaving  railway  em- 
ployees without  remedy  for  vio- 
lation of  a  certain  so-called 
labor  statute.  It  seems  an 
absurdity  to  permit  a  single  district  judge,  against 
what  may  be  the  judgment  of  the  immense  major- 
ity of  his  colleagues  on  the  bench,  to  declare  a 
law  solemnly  enacted  by  the  Congress  to  be  "un- 
constitutional." and  then  to  deny  to  the  Govern- 
ment the  right  to  have  the  Supreme  Court  defin- 
itely  decide    the    question. 

It  Is  well  to  recollect  that  the  real  efficiency  of 
the  law  often  depends  not  upon  the  passage  of 
acts  as  to  which  there  Is  great  public  excitement, 
but  upon  the  passage  of  acts  of  this  nature  as  to 
which  there  is  not  much  public  excitement,  because 
there  is  little  public  understanding  of  their  im- 
portance, while  the  interested  parties  are  keenly 
alive  to  the  desirability  of  defeating  them.  The 
Importance  of  enacting  into  law  the  particular 
bill  in  question  is  further  increased  by  the  fact 
that  the  Government  has  now  definitely  begun  a 
policy  of  resorting  to  the  criminal  law  in  those 
trust  and  interstate  commerce  cases  where  such  a 
course  offers  a  reasonable  chance  of  success. 

At  first,  as  was  proper,  every  effort  was  made  to 
enforce  these  laws  by  civil  proceedings;  but  It 
has  become  increasingly  evident  that  the  action 
of  the  Government  in  finally  deciding,  in  certain 
cases,  to  undertake  criminal  proceedings  was  justi- 
fiable; and  tho  there  have  been  some  conspic- 
uous failures  in  these  cases,  we  have  had  many 
successes,  which  have  undoubtedly  had  a  deterrent 
effect  upon  evil-doers,  whether  the  penalty  In- 
flicted was  In  the  shape  of  fine  or  Imprisonment — 
and  penalties  of  both  kinds  have  already  been  In- 
flicted by  the  courts.  Of  course,  where  the  judge 
can  see  his  way  to  Inflict  the  penalty  of  imprison- 
ment the  deterrent  effect  of  the  punishment  on 
other  offenders  is  increased,  but  sufficiently  heavy 
fines  accomplish  much.  Judge  Holt,  of  the  New 
York  District  Court,  in  a  recent  decision  admirably 
stated  the  need  for  treating  with  just  severity 
offenders  of  this  kind.  His  opinion  runs  In  part 
as  follcws; 


Punishment 

for  a 

Rebater 


"The  Gov.;rnment's  evidence 
to  establish  the  defendant's 
guilt  was  clear,  conclusive,  and 
undisputed.  The  case  was  a 
flagrant  one.  The  transactions 
which  took  place  under  this 
illegal  contract  were  very  large;  the  amounts  of 
rebates  returned  were  considerable;  and  the 
amount  of  the  rebate  itself  was  large,  amounting 
to  more  than  one-fifth  of  the  entire  tariff  charge 
for  the  transportation  of  merchandise  from  this 
city  to  Detroit.  It  Is  not  too  much  to  say.  In  my 
opinion,  that  If  this  business  was  carried  on  for  a 
considerable  time  on  that  basis — that  Is.  if  this  dis- 
crimination in  favor  of  this  particular  shipper  was 
made  with  an  18  Instead  of  a  23-cent  rate  and  the 
t*rlff  rate  was  maintained  as  against  their  com- 
petitors— the  result  might  be  and  not  improbably 
would  be  that  their  competitors  would  be  driven 
out  of  business. 

"This  crime  is  one  which  in  its  nature  is  delib- 
erate and  premeditated.  I  think  over  a  fortnight 
elapsed  between  the  date  of  Palmer's  letter  re- 
questing the  reduced  rate  and  the  answer  of  the 
railway  company  deciding  to  grant  it.  and  then 
for    months    afterwards    this    business    was    carried 


on  and  these  claims  for  rebates  submitted  month 
after  month  and  checks  in  payment  of  them  drawn 
month  after  month.  Such  a  violation  of  the  law, 
in  my  opinion,  in  its  essential  nature,  is  a  very 
much  more  heinous  act  than  the  ordinary  common, 
vulgar  crimes  which  come  before  criminal  courts 
constantly  for  punishment  and  which  arise  from 
sudden  pa.sslon  or  temptation.  This  crime  in  this 
case  was  committed  by  men  of  education  and  of 
large  business  experience,  whose  standing  in  the 
community  was  such  that  they  might  have  been 
expected  to  set  an  example  of  obedience  to  law, 
upon  the  maintenance  of  which  alone  in  this  coun- 
try  the  security  of  their  property  depends. 

"It  was  committed  on  behalf  of  a  great  railroad 
corporation,  which,  like  other  railroad  corpora- 
tions, has  received  gratuitously  from  the  state 
large  and  valuable  privileges  for  the  public's  con- 
venience and  its  own.  which  performs  quasi-public 
functions,  and  which  is  charged  with  the  highest 
obligation  in  the  transaction  of  its  business  to 
treat  the  citizens  of  this  country  alike,  and  not 
to  carry  on  Its  business  with  unjust  discrimina- 
tions between  different  citizens  or  different  classes 
of  citizens.  This  crime  In  its  nature  Is  one  usually 
done  with  secrecy  and  proof  of  which  it  Is  very 
difficult  to  obtain.  The  Interstate  Commerce  Act 
was  past  In  1887.  nearly  twenty  years  ago.  Ever 
since  that  time  complaints  of  the  granting  of  re- 
bates by  railroads  have  been  common,  urgent,  and 
insistent.  and  altho  the  Congress  has  repeat- 
edly past  legislation  endeavoring  to  put  a  stop 
to  this  evil,  the  difficulty  of  obtaining  proof  upon 
which  to  bring  prosecution  in  these  cases  is  so 
great  that  this  is  the  first  case  that  has  ever 
been  brought  In  this  Court,  and,  as  I  am  informed, 
this  case  and  one  recently  brought  in  Philadel- 
phia are  the  only  cases  that  have  ever  been 
brought  in  the  eastern  part  of  this  country.  In 
fact,  but  few  cases  of  this  kind  have  ever  been 
brought  In  this  country.  East  or' West.  Now.  under 
these  circumstances,  I  am  forced  to  the  conclu- 
sion. In  a  case  In  which  the  proof  is  so  clear  and 
the  facts  are  so  flagrant.  It  is  the  duty  of  the 
Court  to  flx  a  penalty  which  shall  In  some  degree 
be  commensurate  with  the  gravity  of  the  offense. 
As  between  the  two  defendants,  in  my  opinion,  the 
principal  penalty  should  be  imposed  on  the  cor- 
poration. The  traffic  manager  in  this  case  pre- 
sumably acted  without  any  advantage  to  himself 
and  without  any  Interest  in  the  transaction,  eifher 
by  the  direct  authority  or  In  accordance  with  what 
he  understood  to  be  the  policy  or  the  wishes  of 
his  employer. 

"The  sentence  of  this  Court  in  this  case  is  that 
the  defendant.  Pomeroy,  for  each  of  the  six  offenses 
upon    which    he    has    been    convicted,    be    fined    the 


He  Wm  Be  a  Good  Boy. 

— St.   Louis   Globe-Demoerat. 


94 


THE     PANDEX 


sum  of  $1000,  making  six  fines,  amounting  in  all 
to  the  sum  of  $6000;  and  the  defendant,  the  New 
York  Central  &  Hudson  River  Railroad  Company, 
for  each  of  the  six  crimes  of  which  it  has  been 
convicted,  be  fined  the  sum  of  $18,000,  making  six 
fines,  amounting  in  the  aggregate  to  the  sum  of 
$108,000,  and  Judgment  to  that  effect  will  be  en- 
tered in  this  case." 


In     connection     with     this     mat- 
SettlnK  ter,    I    would    like    to    call    atten- 

Aolde  tion    to    the    very    unsatisfactory 

state  of  our  criminal  law,  re- 
of  Judgments  suiting  in  large  part  from  the 
habit  of  setting  aside  the  Judg- 
ments of  inferior  courts  on  technicalities  abso- 
lutely unconnected  with  the  merits  of  the  case, 
and  where  there  is  no  attempt  to  sho'w  that  there 
has  been  any  failure  of  substantial  Justice.  It 
would  be  well  to  enact  a  law  providing  something 
to  the  effect  that: 

No  Judgment  shall  be  set  aside  or  new  trial 
granted  in  any  cause,  civil  or  criminal,  on  the 
ground  of  misdirection  of  the  jury  or  the  improper 
admission  or  rejection  of  evidence,  or  for  error  as 
to  any  matter  of  pleading  or  procedure  unless,  in 
the  opinion  of  the  Court  to  which  the  application 
is  made,  after  an  examination  o*f  the  entire  cause, 
it  shall  affirmatively  appear  that  the  error  com- 
plained of  has  resulted  in  a  miscarriage  of  Justice. 


In      my     last      message     I     sug- 
Injnnctlons  gested    the    enactment    of    a    law 

Are  '"   connection   with    the   issuance 

.j^  of   injunctions,    attention    having 

necessary  .  been  sharply  drawn  to  the  mat- 
ter by  the  demand  that  the 
right  of  applying  ijijunctlons  in  labor  cases  should 
be  wholly  abolished.  It  is  at  least  doubtful 
whether  a  law  abolishing  altogether  the  use  of 
injunctions  in  such  cases  would  stand  the  test 
of  the  courts,  in  which  case,  of  course,  the  legis- 
lation would  be  ineffective.  Moreover,  I  believe 
it  would  be  wrong  altogether  to  prohibit  the  use 
of  injunctions.  It  is  criminal  to  permit  sympathy 
for  criminals  to  weaken  our  hands  in  upholding 
the  law;  and  if  men  seek  to  destroy  life  or  property 
by  mob  violence  there  should  be  no  Impairment 
of  the  power  of  the  courts  to  deal  with  them  in 
the  most  summary  and  effective  way  possible.  But 
so  far  as  possible  the  abuse  of  the  power  should 
be  provided  against  by  some  such  law  as  I  advo- 
cated last  year. 

In  this  matter  of  injunctions  there  is  lodged  in 
the  hands  of  the  judiciary  a  necessary  power, 
which  is,  nevertheless,  subject  to  the  possitjility 
of  grave  abuse.  It  is  a  power  that  should  be  exer- 
cised with  extreme  care  and  should  be  subject  to 
the  jealous  scrutiny  of  all  men,  and  condemnation 
should  be  meted  out  as  much  to  the  Judge  who 
fails  to  use  it  boldly  when  necessary  as  to  the 
Judge  who  uses  it  wantonly  or  oppressively.  Of 
course  a  judge  strong  enough  to  be  fit  for  his 
office  will  enjoin  any  resort  to  violence  or  intimi- 
dation, especially  by  conspiracy,  no  matter  what 
his  opinion  may  be  of  the  rights  of  the  original 
quarrel. 


There     must     be     no     hesitation 

Dlxorder  in    dealing    with    disorder.      But 

Requires  Prompt  'here    must   likewise   he  no   such 

abuse    of    the    Injunctive    power 
Action  as      is      implied      in      forbidding 

laboring  men  to  strive  for  their 
own  betterment  in  peaceful  and  lawful  ways;  nor 
must  the  injunction  be  used  merely  to  aid  some  big 
corporation  in  carrying  out  schemes  for  its  own 
aggrandizement.  It  must  be  remembered  that  a 
preliminary  injunction  in  a  labor  case,  if  granted 
■without  adequate  proof  (even  when  authority  can 
be  found  to  support  the  conclusions  of  law  on 
which  it  is  founded),  may  often  settle  the  dispute 
between  the  parties,  and,  therefore,  if  Improperly 
granted,  may' do  irreparable  wrong. 

Yet  there  are  many  Judges  who  assume  a  matter- 
of-course  granting  of  a  preliminary  injunction  to 
be  the  ordinary  and  proper  Judicial  disposition  of 
such  cases;  and  there  have  undoubtedly  been 
flagrant  wrongs  committed  by  judges  in  connec- 
tion with  labor  disputes  even  within  the  last  few 
years,  altho  I  think  much  less  often  than  in 
former  years.  Such  judges  by  their  unwise  action 
immensely  strengthen    the   hands  of  tho.'ie  "who   are 


striving  entirely  to  do  away  with  the  power  of 
injunction;  and  therefore  such  careless  use  of  the 
injunctive  process  tends  to  threaten  its  very  exist- 
ence, for  If  the  American  people  ever  become  con- 
vinced that  this  process  is  habitually  abused, 
whether  in  matters  affecting  labor  or  in  matters 
affecting  corporations,  it  will  be  well  nigh  im- 
possible to  prevent  its  abolition. 

It     may     be     the      highest      duty 
The  Judiciarj'       of  a  judge  at  any  given  moment 
and  to     disregard,     not     merely     the 

«i.»  i>..Kii„  wishes    of    individuals    of    great 

iiie  •  none  political       or       financial       power, 

but  the  overwhelming  tide  of 
public  sentiment,  and  the  judge  who  does  thus  dis- 
regard public  sentiment  when  it  is  wrong,  who 
brushes  aside  the  plea  of  any  special  interest 
when  the  pleading  is  not  founded  on  righteous- 
ness, performs  the  highest  service  to  the  country. 
Such  a  Judge  is  deserving  of  all  honor;  and  all 
honor  can  not  be  paid  to  this  wise  and  fearless 
judge  if  we  permit  the  growth  of  an  absurd  con- 
vention which  would  forbid  any  criticism  of  the 
Judge  of  another  type  who  shows  himself  timid 
in  the  presence  of  arrogant  disorder,  or  who,  on 
insulficient  grounds,  grants  an  injunction  that  does 
grave  injustice,  or  who,  in  his  capacity  as  a  con- 
struer,  and  therefore  in  part  a  maker  of  the  law, 
in  flagrant  fashion  thwarts  the  cause  of  decent 
government.  The  Judge  has  a  power  over  which 
no  review  can  be  exercised;  he  himself  sits  in 
review  upon  the  acts  of  both  the  executive  and 
legislative  branches  of  the  goernment;  save  in  the 
most  extraordinary  cases  he  is  amenable  only  at 
the  bar  of  public  opinion;  and  it  is  unwise  to  main- 
tain that  public  opinion  in  reference  to  a  man 
with  such  power  shall   neither  be  exprest  nor  led. 


The  best  judges  have  ever 
Crltiolsm  been    foremost    to    disclaim    any 

I'ltefnl  t«  the  immunity  from  criticism.  This 
„.  ,„.  has   been   true   since   the  days   of 

nencn  jj,g     great    English    Lord    Chan- 

cellor Parker,  who  said:  "Let 
all  people  be  at  liberty  to  know  what  I  found  my 
Judgment  upon,  that,  so  when  I  have  given  it  in 
any  cause,  others  may  be  at  liberty  to  judge  of 
me."  The  proprieties  of  the  case  were  set  forth 
with  singular  clearness  and  good  temper  by  Judge 
W.  H.  Taft,  when  a  United  States  circuit  Judge 
eleven  years  ago,  in   1895: 

"The  opportunity  freely  and  publicly  to  criticize 
Judicial  action  is  of  vastly  more  importance  to  the 
body  politic  than  the,  immunity  of  courts  and 
judges  from  unjust  aspersions  and  attack.  Noth- 
ing tends  more  to  render  judges  careful  in  their 
decisions  and  anxiously  solicitous  to  do  exact  jus- 
tice than  the  consciousness  that  every  act  of  theirs 
is  to  be  subjected  to  the  intelligent  scrutiny  and 
candid  criticism  of  their  fellow  men.  Such  criti- 
cism is  beneficial  in  proportion  as  it  is  fair,  dis- 
passionate, discriminating,  and  based  on  a  knowl- 
edge of  sound  legal  principles.  The  comments 
made  by  learned  text  writers  and  by  the  acute 
editors  of  the  various  law  reviews  upon  judicial 
decisions  are  therefore  highly  useful.  Such  critics 
constitute  more  or  less  impartial  tribunals  of  pro- 
fessional opinion  before  wliich  each  judgment  is 
made  to  stand  or  fall  on  its  merits,  and  thus  exert 
a  strong  influence  to  secure  uniformity  of  decision. 
But  non-professional  criticism  also  is  by  no  means 
without  its  uses,  even  if  accompanied,  as  it  often 
is,  by  a  direct  attack  upon  tlie  judicial  fairness 
and  motives  of  the  occupants  of  the  bench;  for  if 
the  law  is  but  tiie  essence  of  common  sense,  the 
protest  of  many  average  men  may  evidence  a 
defect  in  a  Judicial  conclusion,  tho  based  on 
the  nicest  legal  reasoning  and  profoundest  learn- 
ing. 

"The  two  important  elements  of  moral  character 
in  a  Judge  are  an  earnest  desire  to  reach  a  just 
conclusion  and  courage  to  enforce  it.  In  so  far 
as  fear  of  public  comment  does  not  alfect  the 
courage  of  a  judge,  but  only  spurs  him  on  to 
search  his  conscience  and  to  reach  the  result  "which 
approves  Itself  to  his  inmost  heart,  such  comment 
serves  a  useful  purpose.  There  are  few  men, 
whether  they  are  judges  for  life  or  for  a  shorter 
term,  who  do  not  prefer  to  earn  and  hold  the 
respect  of  all.  and  who  can  not  be  reached  and 
made  to  pause  and  deliberate  by  hostile  public 
criticism.  In  the  case  of  Judges  having  a  life 
tenure,  indeed,  their  very  independence  makes  the 
right  freely  to  comment  on  their  decisions  of 
greater  importance,  because  it  is  the  only  practical 


THE • PANDEX 


95 


AN  EARLY   SCENE  IN  THE  HOUSE. 


— St.  Louis  Republic. 


96 


THE     P  A  N-D  E  X 


and  available  instrument  in  the  hands  of  a  tree 
people  to  keep  such  judges  alive  to  the  reasonable 
demands  of  those  they  serve. 

"On  the  other  hand,  the  danger  of  destroying  the 
proper  influence  of  judicial  decisions  by  creating 
unfounded  prejudices  against  the  courts  justifies 
and  requires  that  unjust  attacks  shall  be  met  and 
answered.  Courts  must  ultimately  rest  their  de- 
fense upon  the  inherent  strength  of  the  opinions 
they  deliver  as  the  ground  for  their  conclusions 
and  must  trust  to  the  calm  and  deliberate  judg- 
ment   of   all    the    people   as    their   best    vindication." 

There  is  one  consideration  which  should  be  taken 
Into  account  by  the  good  people  who  carry  a  sound 
proposition  to  an  excess  in  objecting  to  any  criti- 
cism of  a  judge's  decision.  The  instinct  of  the 
American  people  as  a  whole  is  sound  in  this  matter. 
They  will  not  subscribe  to  the  doctrine  that  any 
public  servant  is  to  be  above  all  criticism.  If  the 
best  citizens,  those  most  competent  to  express  their 
judgments  in  such  matters,  and  above  all  those 
belonging  to  the  great  and  honorable  profession 
of  the  bar.  so  profoundly  influential  in  American 
Vfe.  take  the  position  that  there  shall  be  no  criti- 
cism of  a  judge  under  any  circumstances,  their 
view  will  not  be  accepted  by  the  American  people 
as  a  whole. 

In  such  event  the  people  will  turn  to  and  tend 
to  accept  as  justifiable  the  intemperate  and  im- 
proper criticism  uttered  by  unworthy  agitators. 
Surely  it  is  a  misfortune  to  leave  to  such  critics 
a  function,  right  in  itself,  which  they  are  certain 
to  abuse.  Just  and  temperate  criticism,  when 
ne.cessary,  is  a  safeguard  against  the  acceptance 
by  the  people  as  a  whole  of  that  Intemperate 
antagonism  towards  the  judiciary  which  must  be 
combated  by  every  right-thinking  man.  and  which, 
if  It  became  widespread  among  the  people  at  large, 
would  constitute  a  dire  menace  to  the  republic. 

In    connection    with    the    delays 

,  of  the  law.   I  call   your  attention 

Kexirnint  ^^^   jj^^   attention    of    the    nation 

"'  to      the      prevalence      of      crime 

l^yncDiDK  among   us.    and  above   all    to   the 

epidemic  of  lynching  and  mob 
violence  that  springs  up,  now  In  one  part  of  our 
country,  now  in  another.  Each  section — North, 
South,  East,  or  West — has  Its  own  faults;  no  section 
can  with  wisdom  spend  its  time  jeering  at  the 
faults  of  another  section;  it  should  be  busy  trying 
to  amend  its  own  shortcomings.  To  deal  with  the 
crime  of  corruption  it  Is  necessary  to  have  an 
awakened  public  conscience,  and  to  supplement 
this  by  whatever  legislation  will  add  speed  and 
certainty  in   the  execution  of  the   law. 

When  we  deal  with  lynching  even  more  is  neces- 
sary. A  great  many  white  men  are  lynched,  but 
the  crime  is  peculiarly  frequent  In  respect  to 
black  men.  The  greatest  existing  cause  of  lynch- 
ing is  the  perpetration,  especially  by  black  men. 
of  a  hideous  crime — the  most  abominable  in  all 
the  category  of  crimes,  even  worse  than  murder. 
Mobs  frequently  avenge  the  commission  of  this 
crime  by  themselves  torturing  to  death  the  man 
committing  it,  thus  avenging  in  a  bestial  fashion 
a  bestial  deed,  and  reducing  themselves  to  a  level 
with  the  criminal. 

Lawlessness  grows  by  what  it  feeds  upon;  and 
when  mobs  begin  to  lynch  for  one  crime  they 
speedily  extend  the  sphere  of  their  operations  and 
lynch  for  many  other  kinds  of  crimes,  so  that 
two-thirds  of  the  lynchings  are  not  for  the  un- 
namable  crime  at  all,  while  a  considerable  propor- 
tion of  the  individuals  lynched  are  Innocent  of  all 
crime.  Governor  Candler  of  Georgia  stated  on  one 
occasion  some  years  ago:  "I  can  say  of  a  verity 
that  I  have,  within  the  last  month,  saved  the  lives 
of  half  a  dozen  innocent  negroes  who  were  pur- 
sued by  the  mob  and  brought  them  to  trial  in  a 
court  of  law  in  which  they  were  acquitted."  As 
Bishop  Galloway  of  Mississippi  has  finely  said: 
"When  the  rule  of  a  mob  obtains,  that  which  dis- 
tinguishes a  high  civilization  is  surrendered.  The 
.  mob  which  lynches  a  negro  will  in  a  little  while 
lynch  a  white  man  suspected  of  crime.  Every 
Christian  patriot  in  America  needs  to  lift  up  his 
voice  In  loud  and  eternal  protest  against  the  mob 
spirit  that  Is  threatening  the  integrity  of  this 
republic." 

Governor  Jelks  of'Alabama  has  recently  spoken 
as  follows:  "The  lynching  of  any  person  for  what- 
ever crime  is  inexcusable  anywhere — it  is  a  defi- 
ance of  orderly  government;  but  the  killing  of 
innocent  people  under  any  provocation  is  infinitely 
more  horrible;  and  yet  Innocent  people  arc  likely 
to  die  when  a   mob's  terrible  lust  is  once   aroused. 


The  lesson  is  this;  No  good  citizen  can  afford  to 
countenance  a  defiance  of  the  statutes,  no  matter 
what  the  provocation.  The  innocent  frequently 
suffer,  and,  it  is  my  observation,  more  usually  suffer 
than  the  guilty.  The  white  people  of  the  South 
Indict  the  whole  colored  race  on  the  ground  that 
even  the  better  elements  lend  no  assistance  what- 
ever in  ferreting  out  criminals  of  their  own  color. 
The  respectable  colored  people  must  learn  not  to 
harbor  their  criminals,  but  to  assist  the  officers 
in  bringing  them  to  justice.  This  is  the  larger 
crime,  and  It  provokes  such  atrocious  offenses  as 
the  one  at  Atlanta.  The  two  races  can  never  get 
on  until  there  is  an  understanding  on  the  part  of 
both  to  make  common  cause  with  the  law-abiding 
against  criminals  of  any  color." 

Moreover,       where      any      crime 
committed    by    a   member   of   one 
Real  iHHue  race    against    a    member    of    an- 

iu  Ijynchlng:  other  race  is  avenged  in  such 
fashion  that  it  seems  as  if  not 
the  Individual  criminal,  but  the 
whole  race,  is  attacked,  the  result  is  to  exasperate 
to  the  highest  degree  race  feeling.  There  is  but 
one  safe  rule  in  dealing  Tvith  black  men  as  with 
white  men;  It  Is  the  same  rule  that  must  be  ap- 
plied in  dealing  with  rich  men  .vnd  poor  men;  that 
is;  to  treat  each  man,  whatever  his  color,  his  creed, 
or  his  social  position,  with  even-handed  justice 
on  his  real  -worth   as   a   man. 

White  people  owe  It  quite  as  much  to  themselves 
as  to  the  colored  race  to  treat  well  the  colored 
man  who  shows  by  his  life  that  he  deserves  such 
treatment:  for  It  is  surely  the  highest  wisdom  to 
encourage  in  the  colored  race  all  those  individuals 
who  are  honest,  industrious,  law-abiding,  and  who 
therefore  make  good  and  safe  neighbors  and  citi- 
zens. Reward  or  punish  the  individual  on  his 
merits  as  an  Individual.  Evil  will  surely  come  in 
the  end  to  both  races  if  we  substitute  for  this 
just  rule  the  habit  of  treating  all  the  members  of 
the  race,  good  and  bad,  alike.  There  is  no  ques- 
tion of  "social  ecjuality"  or  "negro  domination" 
Involved;  only  the  question  of  relentlessly  punish- 
ing bad  men.  and  of  securing  to  the  good  man  the 
right  to  his  life,  his  liberty,  and  the  pursuit  of  his 
happiness  as  his  own  qualities  of  heart,  head,  and 
hand    enable   him    to   achieve   it. 

Every  colored  man  should  realize  that  the  worst 
enemy  of  his  race  is  the  negro  criminal,  and  above 
all  the  negro  criminal  who  commits  the  dreadful 
crime;  and  it  should  be  felt  as  In  the  highest  de- 
gree an  offense  against  the  whole  country,  and 
against  the  colored  race  in  particular,  for  a  col- 
ored man  to  fall  to  help  the  officers  of  the  law 
in  hunting  down  with  all  possible  earnestness  and 
zeal  every  such  infamous  offender.  Moreover,  in 
my  judgment,  the  crime  of  attack  on  a  woman 
should  always  be  punished  with  death,  as  in  the 
case  with  murder;  assault  should  be  made  a  capi- 
tal crime,  at  least  in  the  discretion  of  the  court, 
and  provision  should  be  made  by  which  the  pun- 
ishment may  follow  immediately  upon  the  heels 
of  the  offense;  while  the  trial  should  be  so  con- 
ducted that  the  victim  need  not  be  wantonly 
shamed  while  giving  testimony,  and  that  the  least 
possible  publicity   shall   be   given   to  the  details. 

The   members   of   the  white   race 
on  the  other  hand  should  under- 
MeanM  stand    that    every    lynching    rep- 

Mornl  resents   by  just  so   much   a  loos- 

Deterlorntion  ening  of  the  bands  of  civilization; 
that  the  spirit  of  lynching  Inev- 
itably throws  into  prominence  In  the  community 
all  the  foul  and  evil  creatures  who  dwell  therein. 
No  man  can  take  part  in  the  torture  of  a  human 
being  without  having  his  own  moral  nature  per- 
manently lowered.  Every  lynching  means  just  so 
much  moral  deterioration  In  all  the  children  who 
have  any  knowledge  of  It.  and  therefore  just  so 
much  additional  trouble  for  the  next  generation  of 
Americans. 

Let  justice  be  both  sure  and  swift,  but  let  it  be 
justice  under  the  law,  and  not  the  wild  and 
crooked    savagery    of    a    mob. 

There  Is  another  matter  which  has  a  direct 
bearing  upon  this  matter  of  lynching  and  of  the 
brutal  crime  which  sometimes  calls  It  forth  and  at 
other  times  merely  furnishes  the  excuse  for  its 
existence.  It  is  oul  of  the  question  for  our  people 
as  a  whole  permanently  to  rise  by  treading  down 
any  of  their  own  number.  Even  those  who.  them- 
selves for  the  moment  profit  by  such  maltreatment 
of  their  fellows  will  In  the  long  run  also  suffer. 
No  more  shortsighted  policy  can  be  imagined   than. 


THE    PANDEX 


97 


in  the  fancied  Interest  of  one  class,  to  prevent  the 
education  of  another  class.  The  free  public  school 
the  chance  for  each  boy  or  girl  to  get  a  good  ele- 
mentary education,  lies  at  the  foundation  of  our 
whole   political    situation. 

In  every  community  the  poorest  citizens,  those 
who  need  the  schools  most,  would  be  deprived  of 
them  If  they  only  received  school  facilities  propor- 
tioned to  the  taxes  they  paid.  This  Is  as  true  of 
one  portion  of  our  country  as  of  another.  It  is  as 
true  for  the  negro  as  for  the  white  man  The 
white  man,  if  he  Is  wise,  will  decline  to  allow  the 
negroes  In   a   mass   to   grow  to   manhood   and    wom- 


become  criminals,  while  what  little  criminality 
there  is  never  takes  the  form  of  that  brutal  vio- 
lence which  Invites  lynch  law.  Every  graduate 
of  these  schools — and  for  the  matter  of  that  every 
other  colored  man  or  woman — who  leads  a  life 
so  useful  and  honorable  as  to  win  the  good  will 
and  respect  of  those  whites  whose  neighbor  he  or 
she  Is,  thereby  helps  the  whole  colored  race  as  it 
can  be  helped  In  no  other  way;  for  next  to  the 
negro  himself,  the  man  who  can  do  most  to  help 
the  negro  Is  his  white  neighbor  who  lives  near 
him;  and  our  steady  effort  should  be  to  better  the 
relations    between    the    two.      Great    tho    the    ben- 


WORRIED! 


-St.  Louis  Republic. 


anhood  without  education.  Unquestionably,  edu- 
cation such  as  Is  obtained  in  our  public  schools 
does  not  do  everything  towards  making  a  man  a 
good  citizen;  but  it  does  much.  T|ie  lowest  and 
most  brutal  criminals,  those  for  instance  who  com- 
mlfthe  crime  of  assault,  are  in  the  great  majority 
m*5Tr  ■^hb  have  had  either  no  education  or  very  lit- 
tle; Just  as  they  are  almost  Invariably  men  who 
(rWn  no  property;  for  the  man  who  puts  money  by 
out  of  his  earnings,  like  the  man  who  acquires  edu- 
cation, is  usually  lifted  above  mere  brutal  crimi- 
nality. 

Of  course,  the  best  type  of  education  for  the 
colored  man,  taken  as  a  whole.  Is  such  education 
as  Is  conferred  In  schools  like  Hampton  and  Tus- 
kegee;  wliere  the  boys  and  girls,  the  young  men 
and  young  women,  are  trained  Industrially  as  well 
as  in  the  ordinary  public  school  branches.  The 
graduates  of  these  schools  turn  out  well  In  the 
great    majority    of   cases,    and    hardly    any    of    them 


eflt  of  these  schools  has  been  to  their  colored  pupils 
and  to  the  colored  people.  It  may  be  questioned 
whether  the  benefit  has  not  been  at  least  as  great 
to  the  wirite  people  among  whom  these  colored 
pupils   live  after   they   graduate.' 

Be  It  remembered,  furthermore,  that  the  indi- 
viduals who,  whether  from  folly,  from  evil  tem- 
per, from  greed  for  office,  or  in  a  spirit  of  mere 
base  demagogy.  Indulge  in  the  Inflammatory  and 
incendiary  speeches  and  writings  which  tend  to 
arouse  mobs  and  to  bring  about  lynching,  not  only 
thus  excite  the  mob.  but  also  tend  by  what  crim- 
inologists call  "suggestion,"  greatly  to  Increase  the 
likelihood  of  a  repetition  of  the  very  crime  against 
which  they  are  inveighing. 

When  the  mob  Is  composed  of  the  people  of  one 
race  and  the  man  lynched  is  of  another  race  the 
men  who  In  their  speeches  and  writings  either  ex- 
cite or  justify  the  action  tend,  of  course,  to  excite 
a  bitter  race  feeling  and  to  cause  the  people  of  the 


98 


THE     PANDEX 


Influiiiing: 
Class   Hatred 


opposite  race  to  lose  sigrht  of  the  abominable  act 
of  the  criminal  himself;  and  in  addition,  by  the 
prominence  they  give  to  the  hideous  deed  they  un- 
doubtedly tend  to  excite  in  other  brutal  and  de- 
praved natures  thoughts  of  committing  it.  Swift, 
relentless  and  orderly  punishment  under  the  law  Is 
the  only  way  by  which  criminality  of  this  type  can 
permanently   be   supprest. 

In  dealing  with  both  labor  and 
capital,  with  the  questions 
affecting  both  corporations  and 
trades  unions,  there  is  one  mat- 
ter more  important  to  remember 
than  aught  else,  and  that  is  the 
infinite  harm  done  by  preachers  of  mere  discontent. 
These  are  the  men  who  seek  to  excite  a  violent 
class  hatred  against  all  men  of  wealth.  They  seek 
to  turn  wise  and  proper  movements  for  the  better 
control  of  corporations  and  for  doing  away  with 
the  abuses  connected  with  wealth,  into  a  campaign 
of  hysterical  excitement  and  falsehood  in  which 
the  aim  is  to  inflame  to  madness  the  brutal  pas- 
sions   of    mankind. 

The  sinister  demagogs  and  foolish  visionaries 
who  are  always  eager  to  undertake  such  a  cam- 
paign of  destruction  sometimes  seek  to  associate 
themselves  with  those  working  for  a  genuine  re- 
form in  governmental  and  social  methods,  and 
sometimes  masquerade  as  such  reformers.  In 
reality  they  are  the  worst  enemies  of  the  cause 
they  profess  to  advocate,  just  as  the  purveyors  of 
sensational  slander  in  newspaper  or  mag.azine  are 
the  worst  enemies  of  all  men  who  are  engaged  in 
an  honest  effort  to  better  what  is  bad  In  our  social 
and   governmental    conditions. 

To  preach  hatred  of  the  rich  man  as  such,  to 
carry  on  a  campaign  of  slander  and  invective 
against  him,  to  seek  to  mislead  and  inflame  to 
madness  honest  men  whose  lives  are  hard  and 
who  have  not  the  kind  of  mental  training  which 
will  permit  them  to  appreciate  the  danger  In  the 
doctrines  preach<;d — all  this  is  to  commit  a  crime 
against  the  body  politic  and  to  be  false  to  every 
worthy  principle  and  tradition  of  American  na- 
tional life.  Moreover,  while  such  preaching  and 
such  agitation  may  give  a  livelihood  and  a  cer- 
tain notoriety  to  some  of  those  who  take  part  In 
it,  and  may  result  in  the  temporary  political  suc- 
cess of  others,  in  the  long  run  every  such  move- 
ment will  either  fall  or  else  will  provoke  a  violent 
reaction,  which  will  itself  result  not  merely  in 
undoing  the  mischief  wrought  by  the  demagog 
and  the  agitator,  but  also  in  undoing  the  good 
that  the  honest  reformer,  the  true  upholder  of 
popular  rights,  has  painfully  and  laboriously 
achieved. 

Corruption  is  never  so  rife  as  In  communities 
where  the  demagog  and  the  agitator  bear  full 
sway,  because  in  such  communities  all  moral  bands 
become  loosened,  and  hysteria  and  sensationalism 
replace  the  spirit  of  sound  judgment  and  fair  deal- 
ing as  between  man  and  man.  In  sheer  revolt 
against  the  squalid  anarchy  thus  produced  men  are 
sure  in  the  end  to  turn  toward  any  leader  who  can 
restore  order  and  then  their  relief  at  being  free 
from  the  intolerable  burdens  of  class  hatred,  vio- 
lence and  demagogy  is  such  that  they  cannot  for 
some  time  be  aroused  to  indignation  against  mis- 
deeds by  men  of  wealth;  so  that  they  permit  a  new 
growth  of  the  very  abuses  which  were  In  part  re- 
sponsible for  the  original   outbreak. 

The  one  hope  for  success  for  our  people  lies  In 
a  resolute  and  fearless,  but  sane  and  cool-headed, 
advance  along  the  path  marked  out  last  year  by 
this  very  Congress.  There  must  be  a  stern  refusal 
to  be  misled  Into  following  either  that  base  crea- 
ture who  appeals  and  panders  to  the  lowest  in- 
stincts and  passions  In  order  to  arouse  one  set  of 
Americans  against  their  fellows,  or  that  other 
creature,  equally  base  but  no  baser,  who  in  a 
spirit  of  greed,  or  to  accumulate  or  add  to  an  al- 
ready huge  fortune,  seeks  to  exploit  his  fellow 
Americans  with  callous  disregard  to  their  welfare 
of  soul  and  body.  The  man  who  debauches  others 
in  order  to  obtain  a  high  office  stands  on  an  evil 
equality  of  corruption  with  the  man  who  debauches 
others  for  financial  profit;  and  when  hatred  is  sown 
the   crop  which   springs   up   can   only  be   evil. 

The  plain  people  who  think — the 

Dimmer  mechanics,     farmers,     merchants, 

j„  workers  with  head  or  hand,  the 

men    to    "whom    American    tradi- 

AKitntors  tlons    are    dear,    who    love    their 

country  and  try  to  act  decently 

by  their  neighbors — owe  It  to  themselves  to  remem- 


^ 


ber  that  the  most  damaging  blow  that  can  be  given 
popular  government  Is  to  elect  an  unworthy  and  sin- 
ister agitator  on  a  platform  of  violence  and  hypoc- 
risy. Whenever  such  an  issue  Is  raised  in  this  coun- 
try nothing  can  be  gained  by  flinching  from  it,  for 
in  such  case  democracy  is  Itself  on  trial,  popular 
self-government  under  republican  forms  Is  itself  on 
trial.  The  triumph  of  the  mob  is  just  as  evil  a 
thing  as  the  triumph  of  the  plutocracy,  and  to 
have  escaped  one  danger  avails  nothing  whatever  if 
we   succumb   to    the   other. 

In  the  end  the  honest  man,  whether  rich  or  poor, 
who  earns  his  own  living  and  tries  to  deal  justly 
by  his  fellows,  has  as  much  to  fear  from  the  in- 
sincere and  unwortliy  demagog,  promising  much 
and  performing  nothing,  or  else  performing  noth- 
ing but  evil,  who  would  set  on  the  mob  to  plunder 
the  rich,  as  from  the  crafty  corruptionlst,  who, 
for  his  own  ends,  would  permit  the  common  people 
to  be  exploited  by  the  very  wealthy.  If  we  ever 
let  this  government  fall  into  the  hands  of  men 
of  eitlier  of  these  two  classes,  we  shall  show  our- 
selves false  to  America's  past.  Moreover,  the  dem- 
agog and  the  corruptionlst  often  work  hand  in 
hand.  There  are  at  this  moment  wealthy  reaction- 
aries of  such  obtuse  morality  that  they  regard  the 
public  servant  who  prosecutes  them  when  they 
violate  the  la^v,  or  who  seeks  to  make  them  bear 
their  proper  share  of  the  public  burdens,  as  being 
even  more  objectionable  than  the  violent  agitator 
^vho  hounds  on  the  mob  to  plunder  the  rich.  There 
is  nothing  to  choose  between  such  a  reactionary 
and  such  an  agitator;  fundamentally  they  are  alike 
in  their  selfish  disregard  of  the  rights  of  others; 
and  it  is  natural  that  they  should  join  in  opposi- 
tion to  any  movement  of  which  the  aim  is  fearlessly 
to  do  exact  and  even  justice  to  all. 

I  call  your  attention  to  the  need    ' 
Rnilroad  Employ-  of   passing   the   bill    limiting   the     \ 
ees'   Hours    and     number  of  hours- of  employment 
vt    iti  n  1  °^      railroad      employees.         The 

I<<lgtit-ilour  L.aw  measure  is  a  very  moderate  one  . 
and  I  can  conceive  of  no  serious 
objection  to  It.  Indeed,  so  far  as  it  is  In  our  power. 
It  should  be  our  aim  steadily  to  reduce  the  number 
of  hours  of  labor,  with  as  a  goal  the  general  in- 
troduction of  an  eight-hour  day.  There  are  Indus- 
tries In  which  it  is  not  possible  that  the  hours  of 
labor  should  be  reduced;  just  as  there  are  commun- 
ities not  far  enough  advanced  for  such  a  movement 
to  be  for  their  good,  or,  if  in  the  tropics,  so  sit- 
uated that  there  is  no  analogy  between  their  needs 
and    ours   in    this   matter. 

On  the  Isthmus  of  Panama,  for  instance,  the  con- 
ditions are  in  every  way  so  different  from  what 
they  are  here  that  an  eight-hour  day  would  be 
absurd;  just  as  it  is  absurd,  so  far  as  the  istlTmus  is 
concerned,  where  white  labor  cannot  be  employed, 
to  bother  as  to  whether  the  necessary  work  is  done 
by  alien  black  men  or  by  alien  yellow  men.  But 
the  wageworkers  of  the  United  States  are  of  so 
high  a  grade  that  alike  from  the  merely  industrial 
standpoint  and  from  the  civic  standpoint  It  should 
be  our  object  to  do  what  "we  can  In  the  direction 
of  securing  the  general  observance  of  an  eight-" 
hour  day.  Until  recently  the  eight-hour  law  on 
our  federal  statute  books  has  been  very  scantily 
observed.  Now,  however,  largely  thru  the  in- 
strumentality of  the  Bureau  of  Labor,  It  Is  being 
rigidly  enforced,  and  I  shall  speedily  be  able  to  say 
whether  or  not  there  is  need  of  further  legislation 
in  reference  thereto;  for  our  purpose  Is  to  see  it 
obeyed  in  spirit  no  less  than  In  letter.  Half  holi- 
days during  the  summer  should  be  established  for 
government  employees;  it  is  as  desirable  for  wage- 
■workers  who  toil  with  their  hands  as  for  salaried 
officials  whose  labor  is  mental  that  there  should  be 
a  reasonable  amount  of  holiday. 

The  Congress  at  its  last  session 
Labor  of   Woinen  wisely    provided     for      a      truant 
„„j  court    for    the    District    of    Co- 

lumbia;    a    marked    step    in    ad- 
Children  vance    on    the    path    of    properly 

caring  for  the  children.  Let  me 
again  urge  that  the  Congress  provide  for  a  thoro 
investigation  of  the  conditions  of  child  labor 
and  of  the  labor  of  women  in  the  United  States. 
More  and  more  our  people  are  growing  to  recog- 
nize the  fact  that  the  questions  which  are  not 
merely  of  industrial  but  of  social  importance  out- 
weigh all  others;  and  these  two  questions  most 
emphatically  come  in  the  category  of  those  which 
affect  in  the  most  far-reaching  way  the  home  life 
of  the   nation. 

The  horrors  incident  to  the  employment  of  young 


THE     PANDEX 


99 


i- 


children  In  factories  or  at  work  anywhere  are  a 
blot  on  our  civilization.  It  is  true  that  each  state 
must  ultimately  settle  tb«  Question  in  its  own  way; 
but  a  thoro  offlctal  Investigation  of  the  matter, 
with  the  results  published  broadcast,  would  greatly 
help  toward  arousing  the  public  conscience  and 
securing  unity  of  state  action  in  the  matter.  There 
Is,  however,  one  law  on  the  subject  which  should 
be  enacted  immediately,  because  there  Is  no  need 
for  an  investigation  In  reference  thereto,  and  the 
failure  to  enact  it  Is  discreditable  to  the  national 
government.  A  drastic  and  thorogoing  child-labor 
law  should  be  enacted  for  the  District  of  Columbia 
and   the   territories. 


evitable  sacrifice  of  life  may  be  reduced  to  a  mini- 
mum, but  it  cannot  be  completely  eliminated.  It 
is  a  great  social  injustice  to  compel  the  employee, 
or  rather  the  family  of  the  killed  or  disabled  vic- 
tim, to  bear  the  entire  burden  of  such  an  inevitable 
sacrifice. 

In  other  words,  society  shirks  its  duty  by  lay- 
ing the  whole  cost  on  the  victim,  whereas  the  In- 
jury comes  from  what  may  be  called  the  legiti- 
mate risks  of  the  trade.  Compensation  for  acci- 
dents or  deaths  due  in  any  line  of  Industry  to  the 
actual  conditions  under  which  that  Industry  is 
carried  on,  should  be  paid  by  that  portion  of  the 
community    for   the   benefit   of   which   the   industry 


PUZZLE: 
Find  the  Man  Who  Doesn't  Want  the  Tariff  Revised. 


E^mployerM* 
Liability 


Among  the  excellent  laws  which 
the  Congress  passed  at  the  last 
session  was  an  employers' 
liability  law.  It  was  a  marked 
step  in  advance  to  get  the 
recognition  of  employers'  lia- 
bility on  the  statute  books,  but  the  law  did  not  go 
far  enough.  In  spite  of  all  precautions  exercised 
by  employers  there  are  unavoidable  accidents  and 
even  deaths  Involved  In  nearly  every  line  of  busi- 
ness connected   with   the   mechanic   arts.     This   In- 


— Chicago   Tribune. 


Is  carried   on — that  Is,   by   those   who  profit  by   the 
Industry. 

If  the  entire  trade  risk  is  placed  upon  the  em- 
ployer he  win  promptly  and  properly  add  It  to  the 
legitimate  cost  of  production  and  assess  it  pro- 
portionately upon  the  consumers  of  his  commodity. 
It  is  therefore  clear  to  my  mind  that  the  law 
should  place  this  entire  "risk  of  a  trade"  upon  the 
employer.  Neither  the  federal  law,  nor,  as  far 
as  I  am  Informed,  the  State  laws  dealing  with  the 
question  of  employers'  liability,  are  sufllciently 
thorogoing.  The  federal  law  stiould,  of  course, 
include  employees  in  navy  yards,  arsenals  and  the 
like. 


100 


THE     PANDEX 


The     commission     appointed     by 
Inveatlg;atloii  of    the    President    October    16,    1902, 
Dispute*  BetTreen  at    the    request    of    both    the    an- 
thracite      coal       operators       and 


Capital  und  Labor 


miners   to   inquire    into,    consider 


and  pass  upon  the  questions  in 
controversy  in  connection  with  the  strike  in  the 
anthracite  regions  of  Pennsylvania  and  the  causes 
out  of  which  the  controversy  arose,  in  their  re- 
port, findings  and  award,  exprest  the  belief  "that 
the  State  and  Federal  governments  should  provide 
the  machinery  for  what  may  be  called  the  compul- 
sory Investigation  of  controversies  between  em- 
ployers and  employees  when  they  arise."  This 
expression  of  belief  is  deserving  of  the  favorable 
consideration  of  the  Congress  and  the  enactment 
of  its  provisions  Into  law.  A  bill  has  already  been 
introduced  to  this  end. 

Records  show  that  during  the  twenty  years  from 
January  1,  1881,  to  December  31,  1900,  there  were 
strikes  affecting  117,509  establishments,  and  6,105,- 
694  employees  were  thrown  out  of  employment. 
During  the  same  period  there  were  1,005  lockouts, 
involving  nearly  10,000  establishments,  throwing 
over  one  million  people  out  of  employment.  Those 
strikes  and  lockouts  involved  an  estimated  loss  to 
employees  of  307  million  dollars,  and  to  employers 
143  million  dollars,  a  total  of  450  million  dollars. 
The  public  suffered  directly  and  indirectly,  prob- 
ably as  great  additional  loss.  But  the  money  loss, 
great  as  it  was,  did  not  measure  the  anguish  and 
suffering  endured  by  the  wives  and  children  of  em- 
ployees whose  pay  stopt  when  their  work 
stopt,  or  the  disastrous  effect  of  the  strike  or 
lockout  upon  the  business  of  employers,  or  the  in- 
crease in  the  cost  of  products  and  the  inconven- 
ience and  loss  to  the  public. 

Many  of  these  strikes  and  lockouts  would  not 
have  occurred  had  the  parties  to  the  dispute  been 
required  to  appear  before  an  unprejudiced  body  rep- 
resenting the  nation  and,  face  to  face,  state  the  rea- 
sons for  their  contention.  In  most  instances  the 
dispute  ■would  doubtless  be  found  to  be  due  to  a 
misunderstanding  by  each  of  the  other's  rights, 
aggravated  by  an  unwillingness  of  either  party  to 
accept  as  true  the  statements  of  the  other  as  to  the 
justice  or  Injustice  of  the  matters  In  dispute. 

The  exercise  of  a  judicial  spirit  by  a  disinterested 
body  representing  the  federal  government,  such  as 
would  be  provided  by  a  commission  on  conciliation 
and  arbitration  would  tend  to  create  an  atmosphere 
of  friendliness  and  conciliation  between  contending 
parties;  and  the  giving  each  side  an  equal  oppor- 
tunity to  present  fully  its  case  in  the  presence  of 
the  other  would  prevent  many  disputes  from  devel- 
oping Into  serious  strikes  or  lockouts,  and,  in  other 
cases,  would  enable  the  commission  to  persuade 
the  opposing  parties  to  come  to  terms. 

In  this  age  of  great  corporate  and  labor  combi- 
nations, neither  employers  nor  employees  should 
be  left  completely  at  the  mercy  of  the  stronger 
party  to  a  dispute,  regardless  of  the  righteousness 
of  their  respective  claims.  The  proposed  measure 
would  be  in  the  line  of  securing  recognition  of  the 
fact  that  in  many  strikes  the  public  has  itself  an 
interest  which  can  not  wisely  be  disregarded;  an 
interest  not  merely  of  general  convenience,  for  the 
I  question  of  a  just  and  proper  public  policy  must 
'  also  be  considered.  In  all  legislation  of  this  kind  it 
Is  well  to  advance  cautiously,  testing  each  step  by 
the  actual  results;  the  step  proposed  can  surely  be 
safely  taken,  for  the  decisions  of  the  commission 
would  not  bind  the  parties  in  legal  fashion  and  yet 
would  give  a  chance  for  public  opinion  to  crystallze 
and  thus  to  exert  Its  full  force  for  the  right. 

It    is    not    wise    that    the    nation 
^Vlthdranal        should     alienate     Its     remaining 
f  coal    lands.      I    have    temporarily 

withdrawn    from    settlement    all 
Coal   Lands  tj,g   lands   which    the    geological 

survey  has  Indicated  as  contain- 
ing   or    in    all    probability    containing,    coal.       The 
question,    however,    can    be    properly    settled    only 
|by   legislation,   which   In   my  judgment   should    pro- 
U  vide    for    the   withdrawal    of   these   lands   from    sale 
lor    from    entry,    save    In    certain    especial    circum- 
I  stances.       The    ownership    would     then    remain     In 
the   United   States,    which    should    not,   however,   at- 
tempt to  work  them,  but  permit  them  to  be  worked 
by  private  individuals   under  a  hoyalty  system,   the 
government     keeping    such     control     as     to     permit 
it  to  see  that  no  excessive  price  was  charged  con- 
sumers. 

It  would,  of  course,  be  as  necessary  to  super- 
vise the  rates  charged  by  the  common  carriers 
to  transport  the  product  as  the  rates  charged  by 
those    who   mine   it;    and    the   supervision    must    ex- 


tend to  the  conduct  of  the  common  carriers,  so 
that  they  shall  in  no  way  favor  one  competitor 
at  the  expense  of  another.  The  withdrawal  of 
these  coal  lands  would  constitute  a  policy  anal- 
ogous to  that  which  has  been  followed  in  with- 
drawing the  forest  lands  from  ordinary  settle- 
ment. The  coal,  like  the  forests,  should  be  treated 
as  the  property  of  the  public  and  its  disposal 
should  be  under  conditions  which  would  inure 
the    benefit    of    the    public    as    a    whole. 


■X 


Corporations 

In    Interstate 

Business 

atlons  of  any 
state  business, 
rate  bill,  and 
passage     of    the 


The  present  Congress  has  take 
long  strides  in  the  direction  of 
securing  proper  supervision  and 
control  by  the  national  govern- 
ment over  corporations  engaged 
in  interstate  business — and  the 
enormous  majority  of  corpor- 
size  are  engaged  in  inter- 
The  passage  of  the  railway 
only  to  a  less  degree  the 
pure  food  bill,  and  the  provision 
for  increasing  and  rendering  more  effective  na- 
tional control  over  the  beef-packing  industry. 
mark  an  important  advance  in  the  proper  direc- 
tion. In  the  short  session  it  will  perhaps  be  dirfl- 
cult  to  do  much  further  along  this  line;  and  it 
may  be  best  to  wait  until  the  laws  have  been  In 
operation  for  a  number  of  months  before  endeav- 
oring to  increase  their  scope,  because  only  opera- 
tion will  show  with  exactness  their  merits  and 
their  shortcomings  and  thus  give  opportunity  to 
define  what  further  remedial  legislation  is  needed. 
Yet  in  my  judgment  it  will  in  the  end  be  advis- 
able in  connection  with  the  packing  house  Inspec- 
tion law  to  provide  for  putting  a  date  on  the  label 
and  for  charging  the  cost  of  inspection  to  the 
packers. 

All  these  laws  have  already  justified  their  en- 
actment. The  interstate  commerce  law,  for  in- 
stance, has  rather  amusingly  falsified  the  predic- 
tions, both  of  those  who  asserted  that  it  would 
ruin  the  railroads  and  of  those  who  asserted  that 
it  did  not  go  far  enough  and  would  accomplish 
nothing.  During  the  last  five  months  the  railroads 
have  shown  increased  earnings  and  some  of  them 
unusual  dividends;  while  during  the  same  period 
the  mere  taking  effect  of  the  law  has  produced  an 
unprecedented,  a  hitherto  unheard  of,  number  of 
voluntary  reductions  in  freights  and  fares  by 
the  railroads.  Since  the  founding  of  the  commis- 
sion there  has  never  been  a  time  of  equal  length 
in  which  anything  like  so  many  reduced  tariffs 
have  been  put  into  effect.  On  August  27,  for  in- 
stance, two  days  before  the  new  law  went  into 
effect,  the  commission  received  notices  of  over  five 
thousand  separate  tariffs  which  represented  re- 
ductions from  previous  rates. 

It  must  not  be  silpposed,  however,  that  with  the 
passage  of  these  laws  it  will  be  possible  to  stop 
progress  along  the  line  of  increasing  the  power 
of  the  national  government  over  the  use  of  capital 
in  interstate  commerce.  For  example,  there  will 
ultimately  be  need  of  enlarging  the  powers  of  the 
interstate  commerce  commission  along  several  dif- 
ferent lines,  so  as  to  give  it  a  larger  and  more 
efficient    control    over    the    railroads. 

It  cannot  be  too  often  repeated  that  experience 
has  conclusively  shown  the  Impossibility  of  se- 
curing by  the  actions  of  nearly  half  a  hundred 
different  state  legislatures  anything  but  Ineffective 
chaos  in  the  way  of  dealing  within  the  limits  of 
any  one  state.  In  some  method,  whether  by  a 
national  license  law  or  In  other  fashion,  we  must 
exercise,  and  that  at  an  early  date,  a  far  more 
complete  control  than  at  present  over  these  great 
corporations — a  control  that  will  among  other 
things  prevent  the  evils  of  excessive  overcapital- 
ization, and  that  will  compel  the  disclosure  by 
each  big  corporation  of  its  stockholders  and  of 
its  properties  and  business,  whether  owned  di- 
rectly or  thru  subsidiary  affiliated  corporations. 
This  "will  tend  to  put  a  stop  to  the  securing  of  in- 
ordinate profits  by  favored  individuals  at  the 
expense  whether  of  the  general  public,  the  stock- 
holders or  the  wageworkers.  Our  effort  should 
be  not  so  much  to  prevent  consolidation  as  such, 
but  so  to  supervise  and  control  It  as  to  see  to  it 
that  it  results  in  no  harm  to  the  people. 


n  ) 


The  reactionary  or  ultracon- 
servative  apologists  for  the  mis- 
use of  wealth  assail  the  effort 
to  secure  such  control  as  a  step 
toward  Socialism.  As  a  mat- 
ter of  fact.  It  is  these  reaction- 
aries   and    ultraconservatives    who    are    themselves 


Not  Soclullsm 
Nor  a  Step 
Toward  It 


THE     PANDEX 


101 


OWINC)  TO  THE  NEW  RESTRICTIONS 

WE  CANNOT  COLLECT  CftMPAlCN 
FUNDS  mow  COHP0JJATI0N6. 

CONTRIBUTIONS  OF  *!.••  WIU, 
BE  OlADUY  ACCEPTED  FROM 
INDIVIDUALS. 

TLEASE  HELP. 

-WXCAMRMCNCdHHnTEES. 


v«*^^ 


TAl'T'H  iJllDtR- 


THE  DOLLAR  CONTRIBUTION  PLAN. 
Must  Have  Been  a  Great  Success,  Judging  by  New  York's  $3,000,000  Election. 

— Chicago  Record-Herald. 


102 


THE     P  A  N  D  E  X 


ft 


most  potent  in  increasing  Socialistic  feeling.  One 
of  the  most  efficient  methods  of  averting  the  con- 
sequences of  a  dangerous  agitation,  which  Is  80 
per  cent  wrong,  is  to  remedy  the  20  per  cent 
of  evil  as  to  which  the  agitation  is  well  founded. 
The  best  way  to  avert  the  very  undesirable  move 
for  the  governmental  ownership  of  railways  Is  to 
secure  by  the  government  on  behalf  of  the  people 
as  a  whole  such  adequate  control  and  regulation  of 
the  great  Interstate  common  carriers  as  will  do 
away  with  the  evils  which  give  rise  to  the  agitation 
against  them.  So  the  proper  antidote  to  the  dan- 
gerous and  wicked  agitation  against  the  men  of 
wealth  as  such  is  to  secure  by  proper  legislation 
and  executive  action  the  abolition  of  the  grave 
abuses  which  actually  do  obtain  In  connection  with 
the  business  use  of  wealth  under  our  present  sys- 
'  tem — or  rather  no  system  of  failure  to  exercise 
any  adequate  control  at  all. 

Some    persons    speak    as    If    the    exercise    of   such 
governmental     control     would     do     away     with     the 
freedom    of    individual    Initiative    and    dwarf    Indi- 
vidual   effort.      This   is   not    a    fact.      It    would    be    a 
veritable   calamity   to    fail    to    put   a   premium    upon 
individual       Initiative.       individual       capacity       and 
effort;    upon    the    energy,    character    and    foresight 
which   It  Is  so  Important  to  encourage  In   the   indi- 
vidual.    But  as  a  matter  of  fact  the  deadening  and 
degrading   effect   of   pure    Socialism,    and    especially 
of  Its  extreme  form,  communism,  and  the  destruc- 
tion    of     Individual    character     which     they     would 
I    bring    about,    are    in    part    achieved    by    the    wholly 
f    unregulated    competition   which   results   In    a   single 
I    Individual     or    corporation    rising    at     the    expense 

I  of  all  others  until  his  or  its  rise  effectually  checks 

II  all     competition     and     reduces     former    competitors 
'    to  a  position  of  utter  Inferiority  and  subordination. 

In  enacting  and  enforcing  such 
The  legislation    as    this    Congress    al- 

Middle  Ground  ready  has  to  Its  credit,  we  are 
„      _  '    working     on     a     coherent    plan, 

Me    saya  with     the     steady      endeavor      to 

secure  the  needed  reform  by  the 
joint  action  of  the  moderate  men,  the  plain  men 
who  do  not  wish  anything  hysterical  or  dangerous, 
but  who  do  Intend  to  deal  in  resolute  common- 
sense  fashion  with  the  real  and  great 
evils  of  the  present  system.  The  reactiona- 
ries and  the  violent  extremists  show  symptoms 
of  joining  hands  against  us.  Both  assert,  for 
Instance,  that  if  logical,  we  should  go  to  gov- 
ernment ownership  of  railroads  and  the  like;  the 
reactionaries,  because  on  such  an  issue  they  think 
the  people  would  stand  with  them,  while  the  ex- 
tremists care  rather  to  preach  discontent  and  agi- 
tation than  to  achieve  solid  results.  As  a  matter 
of  fact,  our  position  Is  as  remote  from  that  of  the 
Bourbon  reactionary  as  from  that  of  the  imprac- 
ticable or  sinister  visionary.  We  hold  that  the 
government  should  not  conduct  the  business  of  the 
nation,  but  that  It  should  exercise  such  supervis- 
ion as  will  insure  Its  being  conducted  In  the  inter- 
est of  the  nation.  Our  aim  is,  so  far  as  may  be, 
to  secure,  for  all  decent,  hardworking  men,  equal- 
ity of  opportunity  and   equality  of  burden. 

The  actual  working  of  our  laws  has  shown  that 
the  effort  to  prohibit  all  combination,  good  or  bad. 
Is  noxious  where  It  is  not  ineffective.  Combina- 
"^tion  ot  capital  like  combination  of  labor  is  a  n'ec- 
"ement  of  our  present  industrial  system. 
possible  completely  to  prevent  it;  and 
if  it  were  possible,  such  complete  prevention  would 
do  damage  to  the  body  politic.  What  we  need  is 
not  vainly  to  try  to  prevent  all  combination,  but  to 
secure  such  rigorous  and  adequate  control  and 
supervision  of  the  combinations  as  to  prevent  their 
Injuring  the  public,  or  existing  In  such  form  as 
inevitably  to  threaten  injury — for  the  mere  fact 
that  a  combination  has  secured  practically  com- 
plete control  of  a  necessary  of  life  would  under 
any  circumstances  sho'w  that  such  combination 
was  to  be  presumed  to  be  adverse  to  the  public  in- 
terest. 

It  is  unfortunate  that  our  present  laws  should 
forbid  all  combinations.  Instead  of  sharply  dis- 
criminating between  those  comljinatlons  which  do 
good  and  those  combinations  which  do  evil.  Re- 
bates, for  instance,  are  as  often  due  to  the  pres- 
sure of  big  shippers  (as  was  shown  in  the  inves- 
tigation of  the  Standard  Oil  Company  and  as  has 
been  shown  since  by  the  investigation  of  the  To- 
bacco and  Sugar  trusts)  as  to  the  initiative  of  big 
railroads.  Often  railroads  would  like  to  combine 
for  the  purpose  of  preventing  a  big  shipper  from 
maintaining  improper  advantages  at  the  expense  of 
small    shippers   and    of  the   general   public.      Such   a 


rfy     It   is    not 


combination.  Instead  of  being  forbidden  by  law, 
should  be  favored.  In  other  words,  it  should  be 
permitted  to  railroads  to  make  agreements,  pro- 
vided these  agreements  were  sanctioned  by  the 
Interstate  commerce  commission  and  were  pub- 
lished. 


With    tliese   two  conditions   com- 

Non-  piled  with  It  Is  impossible  to  see 

Enforcement         what    harm    such    a    combination 

,    ,  could   do    to   the   public   at    large. 

oi    i-ans  n    jg    jj    puijiij,    ^.^ji    (q    ),ave    on 

tlie  statute  books  a  law  inca- 
pable of  full  enforcement  because  both  Judges 
and  Juries  realize  that  its  full  enforcement  would 
destroy  the  business  of  the  country;  for  the  re- 
sult is  to  make  decent  railroad  men  violators  of 
the  law  against  their  will,  and  to  put  a  premium 
on  the  behavior  of  the  wilful  wrongdoers.  Such  a 
result  In  turn  tends  to  throw  the  decent  man  and 
the  wilful  wrongdoer  in  close  association,  and  in  the 
end  to  drag  down  the  former  to  the  latter's  level; 
for  the  man  who  becomes  a  lawbreaker  in  one  way 
unhappily  tends  to  lose  all  respect  for  law  and 
to  be  willing  to  break  it  in  many  ways.  No  more 
scathing  condemnation  could  be  visited  upon  a 
law  than  is  contained  In  the  words  of  the  Inter- 
state Commerce  Commission  when.  In  commenting 
upon  the  fact  that  the  numerous  Joint  traffic  asso- 
ciations do  technically  violate  the  law,  they  say: 
"The  decision  of  the  United  States  Supreme  Court  ] 
In  the  Trans-Missouri  case  and  the  Joint  Traffic  | 
Association  case  has  produced  no  practical  effect 
upon  the  railway  operations  of  the  country.  Such 
associations,  in  fact,  exist  now  as  they  did  before 
these  decisions,  and  with  the  same  general  effect. 
In  Justice  to  all  parties,  we  ought  probably  to  add 
that  It  is  difficult  to  see  how  our  Interstate  rail- 
ways could  be  operated  with  due  regard  to  the 
Interest  of  the  shipper  and  the  railway  without 
concerted  action  of  the  kind  afforded  thru  these 
associations." 

This  means  that  the  law  as  construed  by  the 
Supreme  Court  is  such  that  the  business  of  the 
country  can  not  be  conducted  without  breaking  it. 
I  recommend  that  you  give  careful  and  early  con- 
sideration to  this  subject,  and  If  you  find  the 
opinion  of  the  Interstate  Commerce  Commission 
justified,  tiiat  you  amend  the  law  so  as  to  obviate 
the  evil  disclosed. 


Inheritance 

and 
Income   Tax 


The  question  of  taxation  Is  dif- 
ficult In  any  country,  but  It  is 
especially  difficult  in  ours  with 
its  federal  system  of  govern- 
ment. Some  taxes  should  on 
every  ground  be  levied  in  a 
small  district  for  use  In  that  district.  Thus,  the 
taxation  of  real  estate  is  peculiarly  one  for  the 
Immediate  locality  in  which  the  real  estate  Is 
found.  Again,  there  is  no  more  legitimate  tax  for 
any  state  than  a  tax  on  the  franchises  conferred 
by  the  state  upon  street  railroads  and  similar  cor- 
porations which  operate  wholly  within  the  state 
boundaries,  sometimes  in  one  and  sometimes  In 
several  municipalities  or  other  minor  divisions  of 
the  state.  But  there  are  many  kinds  of  taxes 
which  can  only  be  levied  by  the  general  govern- 
ment so  as  to  produce  the  best  results,  because 
among  other  reasons,  the  attempt  to  impose  them 
in  one  particular  state  too  often  results  merely  In 
driving  the  corporation  or  individual  affected  to 
some  other  locality  or  other  state. 

The  national  government  has  long  derived  its 
chief  revenue  from  a  tariff  on  imports  and  from 
an  Internal  or  excise  tax.  In  addition  to  these, 
there  is  every  reason  why,  when  next  our  system 
of  taxation  is  revised,  the  national  government 
should  Impose  a  graduated  inheritance  tax,  and,  if 
possible,  a  graduated  Income  tax.  The  man  of 
great  wealth  owes  a  peculiar  obligation  to  the 
state,  because  he  derives  special  advantages  from 
the  mere  existence  of  government.  Not  only 
should  he  recognize  this  obligation  in  tlie  way  he 
leads  his  dally  life  and  In  th.e  way  he  earns  and  ■ 
spends  his  money,  but  It  should  also  be  recognized 
by  the  way  in  which  he  pays  for  the  protection 
the   state   gives   him. 

On  the  one  liand,  it  is  desirable  that  he  should 
assume  his  full  and  proper  share  of  the  burden  of 
taxation;  on  the  other  hand,  it  Is  quite  as  neces- 
sary that  In  this  kind  of  taxation,  where  the  men 
who  vote  the  tax  pay  but  little  of  it,  there  should 
be  clear  recognition  of  the  danger  of  Inaugurating 
any  such  system   save  in  a  spirit  of  entire  justice 


THE     PANDEX 


103 


and  moderation.  Whenever  we,  as  a  people,  under- 
take to  remodel  our  taxation  system  along  the 
lines  suggested  we  must  make  it  clear  beyond 
peradventure  that  our  aim  is  to  distribute  the 
burden  of  supporting  the  government  more  equi- 
tably than  at  present;  that  we  intend  to  treat  rich 
man  and  poor  man  on  a  basis  of  absolute  equality, 
and  that  we  regard  it  as  equally  fataJ  to  true 
democracy  to  do  or  permit  injustice  to  the  one  as 
to  do  or  permit  injustice  to  the  other. 

I  am  well  aware  that  such  a  subject  as  this 
needs  long  and  careful  study  in  order  that  the 
people  may  become  familiar  with  what  is  proposed 
to  be  done,  may  clearly  see  the  necessity  of  pro- 
ceeding with  wisdom  and  self-restraint,  and  may 
make  up  their  minds  just  how  far  they  are  willing 
to  go  in  the  matter,  while  only  trained  legislators 
can  work  out  the  project  in  necessary  detail.  But 
I  feel  that  in  the  near  future  our  national  legis- 
lators should  enact  a  law  providing  for  a  gradu- 
ated Inheritance  tax  by  which  a  steadily  increas- 
ing rate  of  duty  should  be  put  upon  all  moneys  or 
other  valuables  coming  by  gift,  bequest,  or  devise 
to    any    individual    or    corporation. 

It  may  be  well  to  make  the  tax  heavy  in  pro- 
portion as  the  individual  benefited  is  remote  of  kin. 
In  any  event,  in  my  judgment,  the  pro  rata  of  the 
tax  should  increase  very  heavily  with  the  increase 
of  the  amount  left  to  any  one  individual  after  a  cer- 
tain point  has  been  reached.  It  is  most  desirable 
to  encourage  thrift  and  ambition,  and  a  potent 
source  of  thrift  and  ambition  is  the  desire  on  the 
part  of  the  breadwinner  to  leave  his  children  well 
off.  This  object  can  be  attained  by  making  the 
tax  very  small  on  moderate  amounts  of  property 
left,  because  the  prime  object  should  be  to  put  a 
constantly  increasing  burden  on  the  inheritance 
of  those  swolIenfarIun,e5_.-Khicl}_it_is  certajnlx-of 
noTSSllHIIFToTTiTscountry  to  p«r-{>etuate. 
— TK?rB"  can  be  no  question  of  the  ethical  pro- 
priety of  the  Government  thus  determining  the 
conditions  upon  which  any  gift  or  inheritance 
should  be  received.  Exactly  how  far  the  inherit- 
ance tax  would,  as  an  incident,  have  the  effect  of 
limiting  the  transmission  by  devise  or  gift  of  the 
enormous  fortunes  in  question  it  is  not  necessary 
at  present  to  discuss.  It  is  wise  that  progress  in 
this  direction  should  be  gradual.  At  first  a  per- 
manent national  inheritance  tax.  while  it  might  be 
more  substantial  than  any  such  tax  lias  hitherto 
been,  need  not  approximate,  either  in  amount  or 
in  the  extent  of  the  increase  by  graduation,  to 
what  such  a  tax  should  ultimately  be. 

This  species  of  tax  has  again  and  again  been  im- 
posed, altho  only  temporarily,  by  the  national  gov- 
ernment. It  was  first  imposed  by  the  act  of  July 
6.  1797,  when  the  makers  of  the  Constitution  were 
alive  and  at  the  head  of  affairs.  It  was  a  gradu- 
ated tax;  tho  small  in  amount,  the  rate  was  in- 
creased with  the  amount  left  to  any  individual, 
exceptions  being  made  in  the  case  of  certain  close 
kin.  A  similar  tax  was  again  imposed  by  the 
act  of  July  1,  1862,  a  minimum  sum  of  $1000  In 
personal  property  being  excepted  from  taxation, 
the  tax  then  becoming  progressive  according  to 
the  remoteness  of  kin.  The  War  Revenue  Act  of 
June  13,  1898,  provided  for  an  inheritance  tax  on 
any  sum  exceeding  the  value  of  $10,000,  the  rate 
of  the  tax  increasing  botli  in  accordance  with  the 
amounts  left  and  In  accordance  with  the  legatee's 
remoteness  of  kin.  The  Supreme  Court  has  held 
that  the  succession  tax  Imposed  at  the  time  of  the 
Civil  War  was  not  a  direct  tax,  but  an  impost  or 
excise  which  was  both  constitutional  and  valid. 
More  recently  the  Court.  In  an  opinion  delivered 
by  Mr.  Justice  White,  which  contained  an  exceed- 
ingly able  and  elaborate  discussion  of  the.  powers 
of  the  Congress  to  impose  death  duties,  sustained 
the  constitutionality  of  the  inheritance  tax  feature 
of  the  War  Revenue  Act  of  1898. 

In  Its  incidents,  and  apart  from  the  main  purpose 
of  raising  revenue,  an  income  tax  stands  on  an 
entirely  different  footing  from  an  inheritance  tax, 
because  it  involves  no  question  of  the  perpetuation 
of  fortunes  swollen  to  an  unhealthy  size.  The 
question  is  in  its  essence  a  question  of  the  proper 
adjustment  of  burdens  to  benefits.  As  the  law  now 
stands,  It  is  undoubtedly  difhcult  to  devise  a  na- 
tional income  tax  which  shall  be  constitutional. 
But  whether  it  is  absolutely  impossible  is  another 
question,  and  if  possible  it  is  most  certainly  desir- 
able. The  first  purely  income  tax  law  was  past 
by  the  Congress  In  1861,  but  the  most  Important 
law  dealing  with  the  subject  was  that  of  1894. 
This  the  Court  held  to  be  unconstitutional. 

The  question  Is  undoubtedly  very  intricate,  deli- 
cate,  and   troublesome.     The  decision   of  the  Court 


was  only  reached  by  one  majority.  It  is  the  law  . 
of  the  land,  and,  of  course,  is  accepted  as  such, 
and  loyally  obeyed  by  all  good  citizens.  Never- 
theless, the  hesitation  evidently  felt  by  the  Court 
as  a  whole  in  coming  to  a  conclusion,  when  con- 
sidered together  with  the  previous  decisions 
on  the  subject,  may  perhaps  indicate  the  pos- 
sibility of  devising  a  constitutional  Income  tax  law 
which  shall  substantially  accomplish  the  results 
aimed  at.  The  difflculty  of  amending  the  constitu- 
tion is  so  great  that  only  real  necessity  can  justify 
a  resort  thereto.  Every  efro^->°]]nnlrt  hr  mndr  In 
d£aUn£_jatllli,  this   subject,   as~wTth_the   subjecr  of 

th£ CJCQjier^^'nTrBr-  by    the   ■national  "government 

oiCfiC-tJifiUise  pfTrorporate  wealth  in  Interstate  busi- 
ness^_  to  devise  legislation  which  without  such 
atrtioM  shall  attain  the  desired  end;  but  if  this  fails, 
there  will  ultimately  be  no  .alternative  to  a  con- 
stitutidiiitl  amendment." 


Techuli-nl 

anil   IniliiMtrlal 

Training; 


It  would  be  impossible  to  over- 
state (tho  it  Is,  of  course,  diffl- 
cult  quantitatively  to  measure) 
the  effect  upon  a  nation's 
growth  to  greatness  of  what 
may  be  called  organized  patriot- 
ism, which  necessarily  Includes  the  substitution  of 
a  national  feeling  for  mere  local  pride,  with,  as  a 
resultant,  a  high  ambition  for  the  whole  country. 
No  country  can  develop  its  full  strength  so  long 
as  the  parts  which  make  up  the  whole  each  put 
a  feeling  of  loyalty  to  the  part  above  the  feeling 
of  loyalty  to  the  whole.  This  is  true  of  sections 
and  it  is  just  as  true  of  classes. 

The  Industrial  and  agricultural  classes  must 
work  together,  capitalists  and  wageworkers  must 
work  together,  if  the  best  work  of  which  the 
country  Is  capable  is  to  be  done.  It  is  probable 
that  a  thoroly  efficient  system  of  education  comes 
next  to  the  influence  of  patriotism  In  bringing 
about  national  success  of  this  kind.  Our  federal 
form  of  government,  so  fruitful  of  advantage  to 
our  people  in  certain  ways.  In  other  ways  undoubt- 
edly limits  our  national  effectiveness.  It  Is  not 
possible,  for  instance,  for  the  national  government 
to  take  the  lead  In  technical  industrial  education, 
to  see  that  the  public  school  system  of  this  country 
develops  on  all  its  technical,  industrial,  scientific, 
and  commercial  sides.  TJii8-j»ual_tiS.  left  jprlmarjly 
tct,,tlie  several_  ^ates.  Nevertlieless.  the  national 
govern ihenFTras  control  of  the  schools  of  the  Dis- 
trict of  Columbia,  and  it  should  see  that  these 
schools  promote  and  encourage  tlie  fullest  develop- 
ment of  the  scholars  In  both  commercial  and  in- 
dustrial training. 

The  commercial  training  should  in  one  of  its 
branches  deal  with  foreign  trade.  The  industrial 
training  is  even  more  important.  It  should  be  one 
of  our  prime  objects  as  a  nation,  so  far  as  feasible, 
constantly  to  work  toward  putting  the  mechanic, 
the  wageworker  who  works  with  his  hands,  on  a 
higlier  plane  of  efficacy  and  reward,  so  as  to  In- 
crease his  effectiveness  in  the  economic  world,  and 
the  dignity,  the  remuneration,  and  the  power  of  his 
position  in  the  social  world.  Unfortunately,  at 
present  the  effect  of  some  of  the  work  in  the 
public  schools  Is  in  the  exactly  opposite  direction. 
If  boys  and  girls  are  trained  merely  in  literary 
accomplishments,  to  the  total  exclusion  of  indus- 
trial, manual,  and  technical  training,  the  tendency 
is  to  unfit  them  tor  Industrial  work  and  to  make 
them  reluctant  to  go  into  it,  or  unfitted  to  do  well 
if  they  do  go  into  it.  This  is  a  tendency  which 
should  be.  strenuously  combated. 

Our  industrial  development  depends  largely  upon 
technical  education,  including  in  this  term  all  In- 
dustrial education,  from  that  which  fits  a  man  to 
be  a  good  mechanic,  a  good  carpenter,  or  black- 
smith, to  that  which  fits  a  man  to  do  the  greatest 
engineering  feat.  The  skilled  mechanic,  the  skilled 
workman  can  best  become  such  by  technical  indus- 
trial education.  The  far-reaching  usefulness  of  In- 
stitutes of  technology  and  schools  of  mines  or  of 
engineering  is  no'W  universally  acknowledged,  and 
no  less  far  reaching  Is  the  effect  of  a  good  build- 
ing or  mechanical  trades  school,  a  textile,  or 
watchmaking,  or  engraving  school.  All  such  train- 
ing must  develop  not  only  manual  dexterity  but 
industrial  Intelligence.  In  international  rivalry 
this  country  does  not  have  to  fear  the  competition 
of  pauper  labor  so  much  as  It  has  to  fear  the 
educated  labor  of  specially  trained  competitors; 
and  we  should  have  the  education  of  the  hand, 
eye,  and  brain  which  will  fit  us  to  meet  such  com- 
petition. 

In  every  possible  way  we  should  help  the  wage- 


104 


THE     PANDEX 


worker  who  toils  with  his  hands  and  who  must 
(we  hope  in  a  constantly  increasing  measure.)  also 
toil  with  his  brain.  Under  the  constitution  the 
national  legislature  can  do  but  little  of  direct  im- 
portance for  his  welfare  save  where  he  is  engaged 
in  work  which  permits  it  to  act  under  the  inter- 
state commerce  clause  of  the  constitution:  and  this 
is  one  reason  why  I  so  earnestly  hope  tliat  both 
the  legislative  and  judicial  branches  of  the  Gov- 
ernment will  construe  this  clause  of  the  constitu- 
tion in  the  broadest  possible  manner.  We  can. 
however,  in  such  a  matter  as  industrial  training, 
in  such  a  matter  as  child  labor  and  factory  laws, 
set  an  example  to  the  states  by  enacting  the  most 
advanced  legislation  that  can  wisely  be  enacted 
for    the    District    of   Columbia, 


The    only    other    persons    whose 
Welfare  of         welfare    is    as    vital    to    the    wel- 
f;n-e   of   the   whole  country   as   is 
*"^  the  welfare  of  the  wageworkers 

AKrlcuItiiriitt  are  the  tillers  of  the  soil,  the 
farmers.  It  is  a  mere  truism  to 
say  that  no  growth  of  cities,  no  wealth,  no  indus- 
trial development  can  atone  for  any  falling  oft  In 
the  character  and  standing  of  the  farming  popu- 
lation. During  the  last  few  decades  this  fact  has 
been   recognized   with   ever-increasing  clearness. 

There  is  no  longer  any  failure  to  realize  that 
farming,  at  least  in  certain  branches,  must  become 
a  technical  and  scientific  profession.  This  means 
that  there  must  be  open  to  farmers  the  chance  for 
technical  and  scientific  training,  not  theoretical 
merely,  but  of  the  most  severely  practical  type. 
The  farmer  represents  a  peculiarly  high  type  of 
American  citizenship,  and  he  must  have  the  same 
chance  to  rise  and  develop  as  other  American 
citizens  have.  Moreover,  it  is  exactly  as  true  of 
the  farmer  as  it  is  of  the  business  man  and  the 
wageworker,  that  the  ultimate  success  of  the 
nation  of  which  he  forms  a  part  must  be  founded 
not  alone  on  material  prosperity,  but  upon  high 
moral,  mental,  and  physical  development.  Tills 
education  of  the  farmer — self-educated  by  prefer- 
ence, but  also  education  from  the  outside,  as  with 
all  other  men — Is  peculiarly  necessary  here  In  the 
United  States  where  the  frontier  conditions  even  in 
tlie  newest  states  have  now  nearly  vanished,  where 
there  must  l>e  a  substitution  of  a  more  intensive 
system  of  cultivation  for  the  old  wasteful  farm 
management,  and  where  there  must  be  a  better 
business  organization  among  the  farmers  them- 
selves. 

Several  factors  must  co-operate  in  the  improve- 
ment of  the  farmer's  condition.  He  must  have  the 
chance  to  be  educated  in  the  widest  possible  sense 
■ — in  the  sense  whicli  keeps  ever  in  view  the  inti- 
mate relationship  between  the  theory  of  education 
and  the  facts  of  life.  In  all  education  we  should 
widen  our  alms.  It  is  a  good  thing  to  produce  a 
certain  number  of  trained  scholars  and  students; 
but  the  education  superintended  by  the  state  must 
seek  rather  to  produce  a  hundred  good  citizens 
than  merely  one  scholar,  and  It  must  be  turned 
now  and  then  from  the  class  book  to  the  study  of 
the  great  book  of  Nature  itself.  This  is  especially 
true  of  the  farmer,  as  has  been  pointed  out  again 
and  again  by  all  observers  most  competent  to  pass 
practical  judgment  on  the  problems  of  our  country 
life. 

All  students  now  realize  that  education  must 
seek  to  train  the  executive  powers  of  young  people 
and  to  confer  more  real  significance  upon  the 
phrase,  "dignity  of  labor,"  and  to  prepare  the 
pupils  so  that  in  addition  to  each  developing  in 
the  highest  degree  his  individual  capacity  for  work 
they  may  together  help  create  a  right  public  opin- 
ion and  show  in  many  ways  social  and  co-operative 
spirit.  Organization  has  become  necessary  in  the 
business  worla,  and  it  has  accomplished  much  for 
good  in  the  world  of  labor.  It  is  no  less  necessary 
for  farmers.  Such  a  movement  as  the  Grange 
movement  is  good  in  itself  and  is  capable  of  a 
well-nigh  infinite  further  extension  for  good  so 
long  as  it  is  kept  to  its  own  legitimate  business. 
The  benefits  to  be  derived  by  the  association  of 
farmers  for  mutual  advantage  are  partly  economic 
and   partly   sociological. 

Moreover,  while  in  the  long  run  voluntary  effort 
will  prove  more  efficacious  than  government  assist- 
ance, while  the  farmers  must  primarily  do  most 
for  themselves,  yet  the  Government  can  also  do 
much.  The  Department  of  Agriculture  has  broken 
new  ground  in  many  directions,  and  year  by  year 
it  finds  how  it  can  improve  its  methods  and  de- 
velop fresh   usefulness. 


Its  constant  effort  is  to  give  the  governmental 
assistance  In  the  most  effective  way;  that  is, 
through  associations  of  farmers.  It  is  also  striv- 
ing to  co-ordinate  Its  work  witl^  the  agricultural 
departments  of  the  several  states,  and  so  far  as  its 
own  work  is  educational,  to  co-ordinate  it  with  the 
work  of  other  educational  authorities.  Agricul- 
tural education  is  necessarily  based  upon  general 
education,  but  our  agricultural  educational  insti- 
tutions are  wisely  specializing  themselves,  making 
tlieir  courses  relate  to  the  actual  teaching  of  the 
agricultural  and  kindred  sciences  to  young  country 
people  or  young  city  people  who  wish  to  live  in 
the  country. 

Great  progress  has  already  been  made  among 
farmers  by  the  creation  of  farmers'  institutes,  of 
dairy  associations,  of  breeders'  associations,  horti- 
cultural associations  and  the  like.  A  striking  ex- 
ample of  how  the  Government  and  the  farmers  can 
co-operate  is  shown  in  connection  with  the  menace 
offered  to  the  cotton  growers  of  the  Southern 
states  by  the  advance  of  the  boll  weevil.  The 
Department  is  doing  all  it  can  to  organize  the 
farmers  in  the  threatened  districts,  just  as  it  has 
been  doing  all  it  can  to  organize  them  in  aid  of  its 
work  to  eradicate  the  cattle  fever  tick  in  the 
South.  The  Department  can  and  will  co-operate 
with  all  such  associations,  and  it  must  have  their^ 
help  if  its  own  work  is  to  be  done  in  the  most 
efficient  style. 


Much   is  now  being  done   for  the 

I»ri.«erviifl.>ii        -"'ates    of    the    Rocky    Mountains 
PreHeriiiti.m        .^^^       ^^^^^      plains       thru      the 

of  the  development      of      the      national 

Kori'Mts  policy    of    irrigation    and    forest 

preservation.  No  government 
policy  for  the  betterment  of  our  internal  conditions 
has  been  more  fruitful  of  good  than  this.  The 
forests  of  the  White  Mountains  and  southern  Ap- 
palachian regions  should  also  be  preserved;  and 
they  can  not  be  unless  the  people  of  the  states  in 
which  they  lie,  thru  their  representatives  in  the 
Congress,  secure  vigorous  action  by  the  national 
government. 

I  invite  the  attention  of  the  Congress  to  the  esti- 
mate of  the  Secretary  of  War  for  an  appropriation 
to  enable  him  to  begin  the  preliminary  work  for 
the  constructon  of  a  memorial  amphitheater  at  Ar- 
lington. The  Grand  Army  of  the  Republic  in  its 
national  encampment  has  urged  the  erection  of 
such  an  amphitheater  as  necessary  for  the  proper 
observance  of  Memorial  Day  and  as  a  fitting  monu- 
ment to  the  soldier  and  sailor  dead  buried  there. 
In  this  I  heartily  concur  and  commend  the  matter 
to  the  favorable  consideration  of  the  Congress. 


Marriage 

and 
Dlvoree 


I  am  well  aware  of  how  diffi- 
cult it  is  to  pass  a  constitu- 
tional amendment.  Neverthe- 
less, in  my  Judgment  the  whole 
question  of  marriage  and  di- 
vorce should  be  relegated  to 
the  authority  of  the  National  Congress.  At  present 
the  wide  differences  in  the  laws  of  the  different 
states  on  this  subject  result  in  scandals  and  abuses, 
and  surely  there  is  nothing  so  vitally  essential  to 
the  welfare  of  the  nation,  nothing  around  which 
the  nation  should  so  bend  Itself  to  throw  every 
safeguard,  as  the  home  life  of  the  average  citizen. 
The  change  would  be  good  from  every  stand- 
point. In  particular  It  would  be  good  because  it 
would  confer  on  the  Congress  the  power  at  once 
to  deal  radically  and  efficiently  with  polygamy, 
and  this  should  be  done  whether  or  not  marriage 
and  divorce  are  dealt  with. 

It  is  neither  safe  nor  proper  to  leave  the  ques- 
tion of  polygamy  to  be  dealt  with  by  the  several 
states.  Power  to  deal  with  it  should  be  conferred 
on  the  national  government. 


Evil   In 

Race 

Suicide 


When  home  ties  are  loosened, 
when  men  and  women  cease  to 
regard  a  worthy  family  life, 
with  all  its  duties  fully  per- 
formed and  all  Its  responsibil- 
ities lived  up  to,  as  the  life  best 
worth  living,  then  evil  days  for  the  commonwealth 
are  at   hand. 

There  are  regions  in  our  land  and  classes  of  our 
population  where  tile  birth  rate  has  sunk  below 
the  death  rate.  Surely  it  should  need  no  demon- 
stration to  show  that  wilful  sterility  is,  from  the 
standpoint    of    the    nation,    from    the    standpoint    of 


THE     P  A  N  D  E  X 


105 


AWAITING    THE   PUBLIC   VERDICT. 


— Indianapolis  News. 


106 


THE     PANDEX 


the  human  race,  the  one  sin  for  which  the  penaity 
is  national  death,  race  death,  a  sin  for  which  there 
Is  no  atonement,  a  sin  which  is  the  more  dreadful 
exactly  in  proportion  as  the  men  and  women  guilty 
thereof  are  in  other  respects,  in  character  and 
bodily  and  mental  powers,  those  whom  for  the 
sake  of  the  state  it  would  be  well  to  see  the 
fathers  and  mothers  of  many  healthy  children,  well 
brought  up  in  homes  made  happy  by  their  presence. 
No  man,  no  woman  can  shirk  the  primary  duties 
of  life,  whether  for  love  of  ease  and  pleasure  or 
for  any  other  cause,  and  retain  his  or  her  self- 
respect. 

Let  me  once  again  call  the  at- 
Govemuient         tentlon    of    the    Congress    to    two 

subjects      concerning      which      I 

Ala  to  have      frequently      before      com- 

Shlpiiine  municated    with    them.      One    is 

the  question  of  developing 
American  shipping.  I  trust  that  a  law  embodying 
in  substance  tlie  views,  or  a  major  part  of  the 
views,  expressed  in  the  report  on  this  subject  laid 
before  the  House  at  its  last  session  will  be  past. 
I  am  well  aware  that  in  former  years  objection- 
able measures  have  been  proposed  in  reference  to 
the  encouragement  of  American  shipping;  but  it 
seems  to  me  that  the  proposed  measure  is  as  nearly 
unobjectionable  as  any  can  be.  It  will,  of  course, 
benefit  primarily  our  seaboard  states,  such  as 
Maine,  Louisiana,  and  Washington;  but  what  bene- 
fits part  of  our  people  in  the  end  benefits  all,  just 
as  government  aid  to  irrigation  and  forestry  in  the 
West  is  really  of  benefit,  not  only  to  the  Rocky 
Mountain  states,  but  to  all  our  country.  If  it  prove 
impracticable  to  enact  a  law  for  the  encourage- 
ment of  shipping  generally,  then  at  least  provision 
should  be  made  for  better  communication  with 
South  America,  notably  for  fast  mail  lines  to  the 
chief  South  American  ports.  It  is  discreditable 
to  us  that  our  business  people,  for  lack  of  direct 
communication  in  the  shape  of  lines  of  steamers 
with  South  America,  should  in  that  great  sister  con- 
tinent be  at  a  disadvantage  compared  to  the  busi- 
ness people  of  Europe. 


Currency 
Reform 

PlllUfI 


I  especially  call  your  attention 
to  the  second  subject,  the  condi- 
tion of  our  currency  laws.  The 
National  Bank  Act  has  ably 
served  a  great  purpose  in  aid- 
ing the  enormous  business 
development  of  the  country;  and  within  ten  years 
there  has  been  an  increase  in  circulation- per  capita 
from  $21.41  to  $33.08.  For  several  years  evidence 
has  been  accumulating  that  additional  legislation 
is  needed.  The  recurrence  of  each  crop  season 
emphasizes  the  defects  of  the  present  laws.  There 
must  soon  be  a  revision  of  them,  because  to  leave 
them  as  they  are  means  to  incur  liability  of  busi- 
ness disaster.  Since  your  body  adjourned  there  has 
been  a  fluctuation  in  the  interest  on  call  money 
from  2  per  cent  to  30  per  cent,  and  the  fluctuation 
"was  even  greater  during  the  preceding  six  months. 
The  Secretary  of  the  Treasury  had  to  step  in  and 
by  wise  action  put  a  stop  to  the  most  violent  period 
of  oscillation.  Even  worse  than  such  fluctuation 
is  the  advance  In  commercial  rates  and  the  uncer- 
tainty felt  in  the  sufficiency  of  credit  even  at  high 
rates.  All  commercial  interests  suffer  during  each 
crop  period.  Excessive  rates  for  call  money  in 
New  York  attract  money  from  the  interior  banks 
into  the  speculative  field;  this  depletes  the  fund 
that  would  otherwise  be  available  for  commercial 
uses,  and  the  commercial  borrowers  are  forced  to 
pay  abnormal  rates,  so  that  each  fall  a  tax.  In 
the  shape  of  increased  interest  charges,  is  placed 
on  the  whole  commerce  of  the  country. 

The  mere  statement  of  these  facts  shows  that 
our  present  sy.stem  is  seriously  defective.  There  is 
need  of  a  change.  Unfortunately,  however,  many 
of  the  proposed  changes  must  be  ruled  from  con- 
sideration because  they  are  complicated,  are  not 
easy  of  comprehension,  and  tend  to  disturb  exist- 
ing rights  and  interests.  We  must  also  rule  out 
any  plan  which  would  materially  impair  the  value 
of  the  United  States  two  per  cent  bonds  now 
pledged  to  secure  circulation,  the  issue  of  which 
was  made  under  conditions  peculiarly  creditable 
to  the  Treasury.  I  do  not  press  any.  especial  plan. 
Various  plans  have  recently  been  proposed  by  ex- 
pert committees  of  bankers.  Among  the  plans 
which  are  possibly  feasible  and  which  certainly 
should  receive  your  consideration  is  that  repeat- 
edly brought  to  your  attention  by  the  present  Sec- 
retary   of    the    Treasury,    the    essential    features    of 


which  have  been  approved  by  many  prominent 
bankers  and  business  men.  According  to  this  plan, 
national  banks  should  be  permitted  to  issue  a  speci- 
fied proportion  of  their  capital  in  notes  of  a 
given  kind,  the  issue  to  be  taxed  at  so  high  a  rate 
as  to  drive  the  notes  back  when  not  wanted  in 
legitimate  trade.  This  plan  would  not  permit  the 
issue  of  currency  to  give  banks  additional  profits, 
but  to  meet  the  emergency  presented  by  times  of 
stringency. 

I  do  not  say  that  this  is  the  right  system.  I  only 
advance  it  to  emphasize  my  belief  that  there  is 
need  for  the  adoption  of  some  system  which  shall 
be  automatic  and  open  to  all  sound  banks,  so  as 
to  avoid  all  possibility  of  discrimination  and  favor- 
itism. Such  a  plan  would  tend  to  prevent  the 
spasms  of  high  money  and  speculation  which  now 
obtain  in  the  New  York  market;  for  at  present 
there  is  too  much  currency  at  certain  seasons  of 
the  year,  and  its  accumulation  at  New  York  tempts 
bankers  to  lend  it  at  low  rates  for  speculative 
purposes,  whereas  at  other  times  when  the  crops 
are  being  moved  there  is  urgent  need  for  a  large 
but  temporary  increase  in  the  currency  supply.  It 
must  never  be  forgotten  that  this  question  con- 
cerns business  men  generally  quite  as  much  as 
bankers.  Especially  is  this  true  of  stockmen, 
farmers,  and  business  men  in  the  West,  for  at  pres- 
ent at  certain  seasons  of  the  year  the  difference  in 
interest  rates  between  the  East  and  the  West  is 
from  six  to  ten  per  cent,  whereas  in  Canada  the 
corresponding  difference  is  V>ut  two  per  cent.  Any 
plan  must,  of  course,  guard  the  interests  of  West- 
ern and  Southern  bankers  as  carefully  as  it  guards 
the  interests  of  New  York  or  Chicago  bankers,  and 
must  be  drawn  from  the  standpoints  of  the  f.armer 
and  the  merchant  no  less  than  from  the  sttnd- 
points   of  the   city  banker  and   the  country  banker. 

The  law  should  be  amended  so  as  specifically  to 
provide  that  the  funds  derived  from  customs  d'lties 
may  be  treated  by  the  Secretary  of  the  Trc  isury 
as  he  treats  funds  obtained  under  the  InternEtl  rev- 
enue laws.  There  should  be  a  considerable  in- 
crease in  bills  of  small  denominations.  Permission 
should  be  given  banks,  if  necessary  under  settled 
restrictions,  to  retire  their  circuiatioij  to  a  larger 
amount  than   $3,000,000  a  month. 


I    most    earnestly    hope    that    the 
Low  Tariff         '^'"     '°    provide     a     lower    tariff 

for    or    else    absolute    free    trade 

'****  in    Philippine    products    v^rlll    be- 

PhilippineH       come  a  law.     No  harm  will  come 

to  any  American  industry,  and, 
while  there  will  he  some  small  but  real  material 
benefit  to  the  Filipinos,  the  main  benefit  will  come 
by  the  showing  made  as  to  pur  purpose  to  do  all 
in  our  power  for  their  welfare.  So  far  our  action  in 
the  Philippines  has  been  abundantly  Justified,  not 
mainly  and.  indeed,  not  primarily  because  of  the 
added  dignity  it  has  given  us  as  a  nation  by  prov- 
ing that  we  are  capable  honorably  and  efficiently 
to  bear  the  international  burdens  which  a  mighty 
people  should  bear,  but  even  more  because  of  the 
immense  benefit  that  has  come  to  the  people  of  the 
Philippine   Islands. 

In  these  islands  we  are  steadily  introducing  both 
liberty  and  order  to  a  greater  degree  than  their 
people  have  ever  before  known.  We  have  secured 
justice.  We  have  provided  an  efficient  police 
force  and  have  put  down  ladronism.  Only  in  the 
islands  of  Leyte  and  Samar  is  the  authority  of 
our  government  resisted,  and  this  by  wild  moun- 
tain tribes  under  the  superstitious  inspiration  of 
fakirs  and  pseudo-religious  leaders.  We  are  con- 
stantly increasing  the  measure  of  liberty  accorded 
the  islanders,  and  next  spring,  if  the  conditions 
warrant,  we  shall  take  a  great  stride  forward  in 
testing  their  capacity  for  self-government  by  sum- 
moning the  first  Filipino  legislative  assembly;  and 
the  way  in  which  they  stand  this  test  will  largely 
determine  whether  the  self-government  thus 
granted  will  be  increased  or  decreased;  for  if  we 
liave  erred  at  all  in  the  Philippines  it  has  been  in 
proceeding  too  rapidly  in  the  direction  of  granting 
a  large  measure  of  self-government.  We  are  build- 
ing roads.  We  have,  for  the  immeasurable  good 
of  the  people,  arranged  for  the  building  of  rail- 
roads. Let  us  also  see  to  it  that  they  are  given 
free  access  to  our  markets.  This  nation  owes  no 
more  imperative  duty  to  itself  and  mankind  than 
the  duty  of  managing  the  affairs  of  all  the  islands 
under  the  American  flag — the  Philippines,  Porto 
Rico,  and  Hawaii — so  as  to  make  it  evident  that 
it  is  in  every  way  to  their  advantage  that  the 
flag  should  fly  over  them. 


THE    PANDEX 


107 


American    citizenship    should    be 
KeforniH  conferred      on      the     citizens      of 

j^p  Porto    Rico.    The    harbor   of   San 

Juan  in  Porto  Rico  should  be 
Other  Islands  dredged  and  improved.  The  ex- 
penses of  the  Federal  court  of 
Porto  Rico  should  be  met  from  the  Federal  treas- 
ury. The  administration  of  the  affairs  of  Porto 
Rico,  together  with  those  of  the  Philippines. 
Hawaii,  and  our  other  insular  posse.ssions,  should 
all  be  directed  under  one  executive  department,  by 
preference  the  Department  of  State  or  the  Depart- 
ment of  War. 

The  needs  of  Hawaii  are  peculiar.  Every  aid 
should  be  given  the  islands,  and  our  efforts  should 
be  unceasing  to  develop  them  along  the  lines  of  a 
community  of  small  freeholders,  not  of  great  plant- 
ers with  coolie-tilled  estates.  Situated  as  this  ter- 
ritory Is,  in  the  middle  of  the  Pacific,  there  are 
duties  imposed  upon  this  small  community  which 
do  not  fall  in  like  degree  or  manner  upon  any 
other  American  community.  This  warrants  our 
treating  it  differently  from  the  way  in  which  we 
treat  territories  contiguous  to  or  surrounded  by 
sister  territories  or  other  states,  and  Justifies  the 
setting  aside  of  a  portion  of  our  revenues  to  be 
expended  for  educational  and  Internal  improve- 
ments therein.  Hawaii  is  now  making  an  effort 
to  secure  immigration  fit  in  the  end  to  assume  the 
duties  and  burdens  of  full  American  citizenship, 
and  whenever  the  leaders  in  the  various  Industries 
of  those  islands  finally  adopt  our  Ideals  and  hear- 
tily join  our  administration  in  endeavoring  to  de- 
velop a  middle  class  of  substantial  citizens,  a  way 
will  then  be  found  to  deal  with  the  commercial 
and  industrial  problems  which  now  appear  to  them 
so  serious.  The  best  Americanism  is  that  which 
aims  for  stability  and  permanency  of  prosperous 
citizenship,  rather  than  immediate  returns  on  large 
masses  of  capital. 

Alaska's    needs    have    been    par- 
tially  met,    but   there   must   be  a 
Booms  Alaska       complete    reorganization    of    the 
Rxposltion  goverrfmental   system,   as  I   have 

before  Indicated  to  you.  I  ask 
your  special  attention  to  this. 
Our  fellow  citizens  who  dwell  on  the  shores  of 
Puget  Sound  with  characteristic  energy  are  ar- 
ranging to  hold  in  Seattle  the  Alaskan-Yukon  Pa- 
cific Exposition.  Its  special  aims  Include  the  up- 
building of  Alaska  and  the  development  of 
American  commerce  on  the  Pacific  Ocean.  This 
exposition.  In  its  purposes  and  scope,  should  appeal 
not  only  to  the  people  of  the  Pacific  Slope,  but  to 
the  people  of  the  United  States  at  large.  Alaska 
since  It  was  bought  has  yielded  to  the  Government 
eleven  millions  of  dollars  of  revenue,  and  has  pro- 
duced nearly  three  hundred  millions  of  dollars  in 
gold,  furs,  and  fish.  When  properly  developed.  It 
will  become  in  large  degree  a  land  of  homes.  The 
countries  bordering  the  Pacific  Ocean  have  a  popu- 
lation more  numerous  than  that  of  all  the  coun- 
tries of  Europe;  their  annual  foreign  commerce 
amounts  to  over  three  billions  of  dollars,  of  which 
the  share  of  the  United  States  is  some  seven  hun- 
dred millions  of  dollars.  If  this  trade  were  thor- 
oly  understood  and  pushed  by  our  manufactur- 
ers and  producers,  the  industries  not  only  of  the 
Pacific  Slope  but  of  all  our  country,  and  partic- 
ularly of  our  cotton-growing  states,  would  be 
greatly  benefited.  Of  course.  In  order  to  get  these 
benefits  we  must  treat  fairly  the  countries  with 
which     "we     trade. 

It   Is   a   mistake,   and   It   betrays 
a    spirit    of    foolish    cynicism,    to 
International       maintain    that    all    International 
Morality  governmental      action      is,      and 

must  ever  be,  based  upon  mere 
selfishness,  and  that  to  advance 
ethical  reasons  for  such  action  Is  always  a  sign  of 
hypocrisy.  This  Is  no  more  necessarily  true  of  the 
action  of  governments  than  of  the  actions  of  indi- 
viduals. It  Is  a  sure  sign  of  a  base  nature  always 
to  ascribe  base  motives  for  the  action  of  others. 
Unquestionably  no  nation  can  afford  to  disregard 
proper  considerations  of  self-interest,  any  more 
than  a  private  individual  can  do  so.  But  it  is 
equally  true  that  the  average  private  Individual  in 
any  really  decent  community  does  many  actions 
with  reference  to  other  men  in  which  he  is  guided 
not  by  self-interest  but  by  public  spirit,  by  regard 
for  the  rights  of  others,  by  a  disinterested  pur- 
pose  to   do   good    to   others,   and   to   raise   the   tone 


of  the  community  as  a  whole.  Similarly  a  really 
great  nation  must  often  act,  and  as  a  matter  of 
fact  often  does  act,  toward  other  nations  in  a  spirit 
not  in  the  least  of  mere  self-interest,  but  paying 
heed  chiefly  to  ethical  reasons;  and  as  the  cen- 
turies go  by  this  disinterestedness  in  international 
action,  this  tendency  of  the  individuals  comprising 
a  nation  to  require  that  nation  to  act  with  Justice 
toward  Its  neighbors  steadily  grows  and 
strengthens. 

It  is  neither  wise  nor  right  for  a  nation  to  dis- 
regard its  own  needs,  and  it  is  foolish — and  maybe 
wicked — to  think  that  other  nations  will  disregard 
theirs.  But  It  Is  wicked  for  a  nation  only  to  regard 
its  own  Interest,  and  foolish  to  believe  that  such 
is  the  sole  motive  that  actuates  any  other  nation. 
It_  should  be  our  steady  aim  to  raise  the  ethical 
standard  of  national  action  Just  as  we  strive  to 
raise  the  ethical  standard  of  individual  action. 

Not  only  must  we  treat  all  nations  fairly,  but 
we  must  treat  with  Justice  and  good  will  all  im- 
migrants who  come  here  under  the  law.  Whether 
they  are  Catholic  or  Protestant,  Jew  or  Gentile; 
whether  they  come  from  England  or  Germany, 
Russia,  Japan,  or  Italy,  matters  nothing.  All  we 
have  a  right  to  question  is  the  man's  conduct.  If 
he  Is  honest  and  upright  In  his  dealings  with  his 
neighbor  and  with  the  state,  then  he  Is  entitled 
to  respect  and  good  treatment.  Especially  do  we 
need  to  remember  our  duty  to  the  stranger  within 
our  gates.  It  is  the  sure  mark  of  a  low  civilization, 
a  low  morality,  to  abuse  or  discriminate  against 
or  In  any  way  humiliate  such  stranger  who  has 
come  here  lawfully  and  who  is  conducting  himself 
properly.  To  remember  this  Is  incumbent  on  every 
American  citizen,  and  it  is,  of  course,  peculiarly 
incumbent  on  every  government  ofHcial,  whether 
of  the  nation  or  of  the  several  states. 


Good  W^ords 

for 

Japanese 


I  am  prompted  to  say  this  by 
the  attitude  of  hostility  here 
and  there  assumed  toward  the 
Japanese  in  this  country.  This 
hostility  is  sporadic  and  Is  lim- 
ited to  a  very  few  places.  Never- 
theless, it  is  most  discreditable  to  us  as  a  people, 
and  it  may  be  fraught  "with  the  gravest  conse- 
quences to  the  nation.  The  friendship  between 
the  United  States  and  Japan  has  been  continuous 
since  the  time,  over  half  a  century  ago,  when  Com- 
modore Perry,  by  his  expedition  to  Japan,  first 
opened  the  Islands  to  western  civilization.  Since 
then  the  growth  of  Japan  has  been  literally  as- 
tounding. There  is  not  only  nothing  to  parallel 
It.  but  nothing  to  approach  It  in  the  history  of 
civilized  mankind.  Japan  has  a  glorious  and  an- 
cient past.  Her  civilization  Is  older  than  that  of 
the  nations  of  northern  Europe — the  nations  from 
whom  the  people  of  the  United  States  have  chiefly 
sprung.  But  fifty  years  ago  Japan's  development 
was  still  that  of  the  Middle  Ages.  During  that 
fifty  years  the  progress  of  the  country  in  every 
■walk  of  life  has  been  a  marvel  to  mankind,  and 
she  now  stands  as  one  of  the  greatest  of  civilized 
nations:  great  in  the  arts  of  war  and  in  the  arts 
of  peace;  great  in  military.  In  Industrial,  in  artistic 
development  and  achievement. 

Japanese  soldiers  and  sailors  have  shoTvn  them- 
selves equal  in  combat  to  any  of  whom  history 
makes  note.  She  has  produced  great  generals  and 
mighty  admirals;  her  fighting  men,  afloat  and 
ashore,  show  all  the  heroic  courage,  the  unques- 
tioning, unfaltering  loyalty,  the  splendid  Indiffer- 
ence to  hardship  and  death,  which  marked  the 
Loyal  Ronins;  and  they  show  also  that  they  possess 
the  highest  Ideal  of  patriotism.  Japanese  artists 
of  every  kind  see  their  products  eagerly  sought  for 
in  all  lands. 

The  Industrial  and  commercial  development  of 
Japan  has  been  phenomenal — greater  than  that  of 
any  other  country  during  the  same  period.  At 
the  same  time  the  advance  In  science  and  phil- 
osophy is  no  less  marked.  The  admirable  manage- 
ment of  the  Japanese  Red  Cross  during  the  late 
war,  the  efficiency  and  humanity  of  the  Japanese 
officials,  nurses,  and  doctors  won  the  respectful 
admiration  of  all  acquainted  with  the  facts. 
Through  the  Red  Cross  the  Japanese  people  sent 
over  $100,000  to  the  sufferers  of  San  Francisco, 
and  the  gift  was  accepted  with  gratitude  by  our 
people. 

The  courtesy  of  the  Japanese,  nationally  and  in- 
dividually, has  become  proverbial.  To  no  other 
country  has  there  been  such  an  increasing  num- 
ber of  visitors  from  this  land  as  to  Japan.  In 
return,  Japanese  have  come  here  In  great  numbers. 


108 


THE     PANDEX 


( 


They  are  welcome,  socially  and  intellectually,  in  all 
our  colleges  and  institutions  o£  higher  learning,  in 
all  our  professional  and  social  bodies.  The  Japan- 
ese have  won  in  a  single  generation  the  right  to 
stand  abreast  of  the  foremost  and  most  enlight- 
ened peoples  of  Europe  and  America;  they  have 
won  on  their  own  merits  and  by  their  own  exer- 
tions the  right  to  treatment  on  a  basis  of  full  and 
frank  equality.  The  overwhelming  mass  of  our 
people  cherish  a  lively  regard  and  respect  for  the 
people  of  Japan,  and  in  almost  every  quarter  of 
the  Union  the  stranger  from  Japan  is  treated  as  he 
deserves;  that  is,  he  is  treated  as  the  stranger 
from  any  part  of  civilized  Europe  is  and  deserves 
to  be  treated.  But  here  and  there  a  most  unworthy 
feeling  has  manifested  itself  toward  the  Japanese 
• — the  feeling  that  has  been  shown  in  shutting  them 
out  from  the  common  schools  in  San  Francisco,  and 
in  mutterings  against  them  in  one  or  two  other 
places,  because  of  their  efficiency  as  workers.  To 
shut  them  out  from  the  public  schools  is  a  wicked 
absurdity,  when  there  are  no  first-class  colleges  in 
the  land,  including  the  universities  and  colleges 
of  California,  which  do  not  gladly  welcome  Japan- 
ese students  and  on  which  Japanese  students  do 
not  reflect  credit, 

"We  have  as  much  to  learn   from 

Asks  for  Japan     as     Japan     has     to     learn 

„  ,_  from   us,   and   no   nation   is   fit   to 

teach    unless    it    is    also    willing 
Treatment  tg       learn.         Thruout         Japan 

Americans  are  well  treated,  and 
any  failure  on  the  part  of  Americans  at  home  to 
treat  the  Japanese  with  a  like  courtesy  and  con- 
sideration is  by  just  so  much  a  confession  of  in- 
feriority in  our  civilization. 

Our  nation  fronts  on  the  Pacific,  just  as  it  fronts 
on  the  Atlantic.  We  hope  to  play  a  constantly 
growing  part  in  the  great  ocean  of  the  Orient. 
We  wish,  as  we  ought  to  wish,  for  a  great  commer- 
cial development  in  our  dealings  with  Asia,  and  it 
is  out  of  the  question  that  we  should  permanently 
have  such  developments  unless  we  freely  and 
gladly  extend  to  other  nations  the  same  measure 
of  justice  and  good  treatment  which  we  expect  to 
receive  in  return.  It  is  only  a  very  small  body  of 
our  citizens  that  act  badly.  Where  the  Federal 
Government  has  power  it  will  deal  summarily  with 
any  such.  Where  the  several  states  have  power  I 
earnestly  ask  that  they  also  deal  wisely  and 
promptly  with  such  conduct,  or  else  this  small 
body  of  wrongdoers  may  bring  shame  upon  the 
great    mass    of    their    innocent    and    right-thinking 

fellows that  is,  upon  our  nation  as  a  whole.     Good 

manners  should  be  an  international  no  less  than 
an  individual  attribute.  I  ask  fair  treatment  for 
the  Japanese  as  I  would  ask  fair  treatment  for 
Germans  or  Englishmen.  Frenchmen,  Russians,  or 
Italians  I  ask  it  as  due  to  humanity  and  civiliza- 
tion, I  ask  it  as  due  to  ourselves  because  we 
must  act  uprightly  toward  all  men. 

I  recommend  to  the  Congress 
that  an  act  be  passed  specifi- 
cally providing  for  the  natural- 
ization of  Japanese  who  come 
here  intending  to  become  Amer- 
ican citizens. 
One  of  the  great  embarrassments  attending  the 
performance  of  our  international  obligations  is  the 
fact  that  the  statutes  of  the  United  States  are 
entirely  inadequate.  They  fail  to  give  to  the  na- 
tional government  sufficiently  ample  power, 
through  United  States  courts  and  by  the  use  of  the 
army  and  navy,  to  protect  aliens  in  the  rights 
secured  to  them  under  solemn  treaties  which  are 
the  law  of  the  land.  I  therefore  earnestly  recom- 
mend that  the  criminal  and  civil  statutes  of  the 
United  States  be  so  amended  and  added  to  as  to 
enable  the  President,  acting  for  the  United  States 
Government,  which  is  responsible  in  our  interna- 
tional relations,  to  enforce  the  rights  of  aliens 
under  treaties.  Even  as  the  law  now  is  something 
can  be  done  bv  the  Federal  Government  toward 
this  end,  and  in  the  matter  now  before  me  affect- 
ing the  Japanese  everything  that  it  is  in  my  power 
to  do  will  be  done,  and  all  of  the  forces,  military 
and  civil,  of  the  United  States  which  I  may  law- 
fully employ  will  be  so  employed. 

There    should,     however,     be     no 

UplioIdiiiB  particle      of      doubt     as     to     the 

power    of    the    national    govern- 

"  ment  completely  to  perform  and 

ObllKatlonn  enforce    its    own    obligations    to 

other     nations.     The     mob     of    a 

single  city   may   at  any   time   perform   acts   of   law- 


Would 

Naturnll!r.e 

JniiuneMC 


less  violence  against  some  class  of  foreigners 
which  would  plunge  us  into  war.  That  city  by  itself 
would  be  powerless  to  make  defense  against  the 
foreign  power  thus  assaulted,  and  if  Independent 
of  this  Government  it  would  never  venture  to  per- 
form or  permit  the  performance  of  the  acts  com- 
plained of. 

The  entire  power  and  the  "whole  duty  to  protect 
the  offending  city  or  the  offending  community  lies 
in  the  hands  of  the  United  States  Government.  It 
is  unthinkable  that  we  should  continue  a  policy 
under  which  a  given  locality  may  be  allowed  tO' 
commit  a  crime  against  a  friendly  nation,  and  the 
United  States  Government  limited,  not  to  prevent- 
ing the  commission  of  the  crime,  but,  in  the  last 
resort,  to  defending  the  people  who  have  com- 
mitted it  against  the  consequences  of  their  own 
wrongdoing. 


Last      August      an      insurrection 
Intervfntiun        broke     out     in     Cuba     which,     it 
to  Aid  speedily       grew       evident,       the 

existing  Cuban   government   was 
Cuba  powerless    to    quell.      This    Gov- 

ernment was  repeatedly  asked 
by  the  then  Cuban  government  to  intervene,  and 
finally  was  notified  by  the  President  of  Cuba  that 
he  intended  to  resign;  that  his  decision  was  irre- 
vocable; that  none  of  the  other  constitutional  offi- 
cers would  consent  to  carry  on  the  government, 
and  that  he  was  powerless  to  maintain  order.  It 
was  evident  that  chaos  was  impending,  and  there 
was  every  probability  that  if  steps  were  not  imme- 
diately taken  by  this  Government  to  try  to  re- 
store order  the  representatives  of  various  Euro- 
pean nations  in  the  island  would  apply  to  their 
respective  governments  for  armed  intervention  in 
order  to  protect  the  lives  and  property  of  their 
citizens.  Thanks  to  the  preparedness  of  our  navy, 
I  was  able  immediately  to  send  enough  ships  to 
Cuba  to  prevent  the  situation  from  becoming  hope- 
less, and  I  furthermore  dispatched  to  Cuba  the  Sec- 
retary of  War  and  the  Assistant  Secretary  of  State 
in  order  that  they  might  grapple  with  the  situation 
on  the  ground.  All  efforts  to  secure  an  agreement 
between  the  contending  factions  by  which  they 
should  themselves  come  to  an  amicable  under- 
standing and  settle  upon  some  modus  Vivendi — 
some  provisional  government  of  their  own — failed. 
Finally  the  president  of  the  republic  resigned.  The 
quorum  of  Congress  assembled  failed  by  deliberate 
purpose  of  its  members,  so  that  there  was  no  power 
to  act  on  his  resignation,  and  the  government  came 
to  a  halt. 

In  accordance  with  the  so-called  Piatt  amend- 
ment, which  was  embodied  in  the  constitution  of 
Cuba,  I  thereupon  proclaimed  a  provisional  gov- 
ernment for  the  island,  the  Secretary  of  War  act- 
ing as  provisional  governor  until  he  could  be  re- 
placed by  Mr.  Magoon,  the  late  minister  to 
Panama  and  governor  of  tlie  canal  zone  on  the 
Isthmus.  Troops  were  sent  to  support  them  and  to 
relieve  the  navy,  the  expedition  being  handled  with 
most  satisfactory  speed  and  efficiency.  The  insur- 
gent chiefs  immediately  agreed  that  their  troops 
should  lay  down  their  arms  and  disband,  and  the 
agreement  was   carried  out. 

The  provisional  government  has  left  the  per- 
sonnel of  the  old  government  and  the  old  laws,  so 
far  as  might  be.  unchanged,  and  will  thus  admin- 
ister the  island  for  a  few  months  until  tranquillity 
can  be  restored,  a  new  election  properly  held,  and 
a  new  government  inaugurated.  Peace  has  come 
to  the  island,  and  the  harvesting  of  the  sugar-cane 
crop,  the  great  crop  of  the  island,  is  about  to  pro- 
ceed. 

When  the  election  has  been  held  and  the  new 
government  inaugurated  in  peaceful  and  orderly 
fashion  the  provisional  government  will  come  to  an 
end. 

I  take  this  opportunity  of  expressing  upon  behalf 
of  the  American  people,  with  all  possible  solem- 
nity, our  most  earnest  hope  that  the  people  of 
Cuba  will  realize  the  imperative  need  of  preserv- 
ing justice  and  keeping  order  in  the  island.  The 
United  States  wishes  nothing  of  Cuba  except  that 
it  shall  prosper  morally  and  materially,  and  wishes 
nothing  of  the  Cubans  save  that  they  shall  be  able 
to  preserve  order  among  themselves  and  therefore  . 
to  preserve  their  independence.  If  the  elections 
become  a  farce,  and  if  the  insurrectionary  habit 
becomes  confirmed  in  the  Island,  it  is  absolutely 
out  of  the  question  that  the  island  should  continue 
independent;  and  the  United  States,  which  has 
assumed  the  sponsorship  before  the  civilized  world 
for  Cuba's  career  as  a  nation,  would  again  have  to 


THE    PANDEX 


109 


Intervene  and  to  see  that  the  government  was  man- 
aged in  such  orderly  fashion  as  to  secure  the  safety 
of  life  and  property.  The  path  to  be  trodden  by 
those  who  exercise  self-government  Is  always  hard, 
and  we  should  have  every  charity  and  patience 
with  the  Cubans  as  they  tread  this  dlfflcult  path.  I 
have  the  utmost  sympathy  with,  and  regard  for, 
them,  but  I  must  earnestly  adjure  them  solemnly 
to  weigh  their  responsibilities  and  to  see  that 
when  their  new  government  Is  started  it  shall  run 
smoothly,  and  with  freedom  from  flagrant  denial 
of  right  on  the  one  hand  and  from  insurrectionary 
disturbances  on  the  other. 


American 

Conference 

in   Rio 


The  second  international  con- 
ference of  American  republics, 
held  In  Mexico  in  the  years 
1901-02,  provided  for  the  holding 
of  the  third  conference  within 
five  years,  and  committed  the 
fixing  of  the  time  and  place  and  the  arrangements 
tor  the  conference  to  the  governing  board  of  the 
Bureau  of  American  Republics,  composed  of  the 
representatives  of  all  the  American  nations  in 
Washington.  That  board  discharged  the  duty  im- 
posed upon  it  with  marked  fidelity  and  painstaking 
care,  and  upon  the  courteous  invitation  of  the 
United  States  of  Brazil,  the  conference  was  held 
at  Rio  de  Janeiro,  continuing  from  the  23d  of 
July  to  the  29th  of  August  last.  Many  subjects 
of  common  Interest  to  all  the  American  nations 
were  discussed  by  the  conference,  and  the  con- 
clusions reached  embodied  in  a  series  of  resolu- 
tions and  proposed  conventions,  will  be  laid  before 
you  upon  the  coming  in  of  the  final  report  of  the 
American  delegates.  They  contain  many  matters 
of  importance  relating  to  the  extension  of  trade, 
the  Increase  of  communication,  the  smoothing 
away  of  barriers  to  free  intercourse,  and  the  pro- 
motion of  a  better  knowledge  and  good  understand- 
ing between  the  different  countries  represented. 
The  meetings  of  the  conference  were  harmonious 
and  the  conclusions  were  reached  with  substantial 
unanimity.  ,     ^   , 

It  is  interesting  to  observe  that  in  the  success- 
ive conferences  which  have  been  held  the  repre- 
sentatives of  the  different  American  nations  have 
been  learning  to  work  together  effectively,  for 
while  the  first  conference  in  Washington  In  1889. 
■ind  the  second  conference  in  Mexico  In  1901-2.  oc- 
cupied many  months,  with  much  time  wasted  in  an 
unregulated  and  fruitless  discussion,  the  third  con- 
ference at  Rio  exhibited  much  of  the  facility  in  the 
practical  dispatch  of  business  which  characterizes 
permanent  deliberative  bodies,  and  completed  its 
labors  within  the  period  of  six  weeks  originally 
allotted   for  its  sessions. 

Quite  apart  from  the  specific  value  of  the  con- 
clusions reached  by  the  conference  the  example 
of  the  representatives  of  all  the  American  nations 
engaging  In  harmonious  and  kindly  consideration 
and  discussion  of  subjects  of  common  interest  is 
itself  of  great  and  substantial  value  for  the  promo- 
tion of  reasonable  and  considerate  treatment  of 
all  international  questions.  The  thanks  of  this 
country  are  due  to  the  government  of  Brazil  and 
to  the  people  of  Rio  de  Janeiro  for  the  generous 
hospitality  with  which  our  delegates,  in  conimon 
with  the  others,  were  received,  entertained  and  fa- 
cilitated in   their  work. 


ROOt'H 

Sontli  American 
Trip 


Incidentally  to  the  meeting  of 
the  conference,  the  Secretary  of 
State  visited  the  City  of  Rio 
de  Janeiro  and  was  cordially 
received  by  the  conference,  of 
which  he  was  made  an  hon- 
orary president.  The  announcement  of  his  inten- 
tion to  make  this  visit  was  followed  by  niost  cour- 
teous and  urgent  invitations  from  nearly  all  the 
countries  of  South  America  to  visit  them  as  the 
guest  of  their  governments.  It  was  deemed  that 
by  the  acceptance  of  these  invitations  we  might 
appropriately  express  the  real  respect  and  friend- 
ship in  which  we  hold  our  sister  republics  of  the 
southern  continent,  and  the  secretary,  accordingly, 
visited  Brazil.  Uruguay.  Argentina  ChUe,  Peru, 
Panama,  and  Colombia.  He  refrained  from  visiting 
Paraguay.  Bolivia,  and  Ecuador  only  because  the 
distance  of  their  capitals  from  the  seaboard  made 
It  impracticable  with  the  time  at  his  disposal.  He 
carried  with  him  a  message  of  peace  a"'^  friend- 
ship, and  of  strong  desire  for  good  understanding 
and  mutual  helpfulness;  and  he  ^^s  everywhere 
received  In  the  spirit  of  his  message.  The  members 
of  government,  the   press,   the  learned   professions, 


the  men  of  business  and  the  great  masses  of  the 
people  united  everywhere  In  emphatic  response  to 
his  friendly  expressions  and  in  doing  honor  to  the 
country  and  cause  which  he  represented. 

In  many  parts  of  South  America 
False    Ideas       there   has   been  much   misunder- 
Are  standing    of     the     attitude     and 

«k.«...H  purposes  of  the  United  States  to- 

snaiierea  ^^rd  the  other  American  repub- 

,      .    ..  lies.     An  Idea  had  become  prev- 

a  ent  that  our  assertion  of  the  Monroe  doctrine  Im- 
plied, or  carried  with  it,  an  assumption  of  superior- 
ity, and  of  a  right  to  exercise  some  kind  of  pro- 
tectorate over  the  countries  to  whose  territory 
that  doctrine  applies.  Nothing  could  be  farther 
from  the  truth.  Yet  that  impression  continued  to 
be  a  serious  barrier  to  good  understanding  to 
friendly  intercourse,  to  the  Introduction  of  Amer- 
ican capital  and  the  extension  of  American  trade 
The  Impression  was  so  widespread  that  apparently 
it  could  not  be  reached  by  any  ordinary   means. 

It  was  part  of  Secretary  Root's  mission  to  dispel  ' 
this  unfounded  impression,  and  there  Is  just  cause 
to  believe  that  he  has  succeeded.  In  an  address 
to  the  third  conference  at  Rio  on  the  31st  of  July 
— an  address  of  such  note  that  I  send  it  in,  together 
with    this   message — he   said: 

"We  wish  for  no  victories  but  those  of  peace;  for 
no  territory  except  our  own;  for  no  sovereignty 
except  the  sovereignty  over  ourselves.  We  deem  , 
the  Independence  and  equal  rights  of  the  smallest 
and  weakest  member  of  the  family  of  nations  en- 
titled to  as  much  respect  as  those  of  the  greatest 
empire,  and  we  deem  the  observance  of  that  re- 
spect the  chief  guaranty  of  the  weak  against  the 
oppression    of    the   strong. 

"We  neither  claim  nor  desire  any  rights  or  priv- 
ileges or  powers  that  we  do  not  freely  concede  to 
every  American  republic.  We  wish  to  Increase  our 
prosperity,  to  extend  our  trade,  to  grow  in  wealth, 
in  wisdom,  and  in  spirit,  but  our  conception  of  the 
true  way  to  accomplish  this  is  not  to  pull  down 
others  and  profit  by  their  ruin,  but  to  help  all 
friends  to  a  common  prosperity  and  a  common 
growth,  that  we  may  all  become  greater  and 
stronger  together.  Within  a  few  months  for  the 
first  time  the  recognized  possessors  of  every  foot 
of  soil  upon  the  American  continents  can  be  and  I 
hope  will  be  represented  with  the  acknowledged 
rights  of  equal  sovereign  states  in  the  great  world 
congress  at  The  Hague.  This  will  be  the  world's 
formal  and  final  acceptance  of  the  declaration  that 
no  part  of  the  American  continents  Is  to  be  deemed 
subject  to  colonization.  Let  us  pledge  ourselves 
to  aid  each  other  in  the  full  performance  of  the 
duty  to  humanity  which  that  accepted  declaration 
implies,  so  that  in  time  the  weakest  and  most 
unfortunate  of  our  republics  may  come  to  march 
with  equal  step  by  the  side  of  the  stronger  and 
more  fortunate.  Let  us  help  each  other  to  show 
that  for  all  the  races  of  men  the  liberty  for  which 
we  have  fought  and  labored  is  the  twin  sister  of 
justice  and  peace.  Let  us  unite  in  creating  and 
maintaining  and  making  effective  an  ail-American 
public  opinion,  whose  power  shall  influence  inter- 
national conduct  and  prevent  international  wrong, 
and  narrow  the  causes  of  war,  and  forever  pre- 
serve our  free  lands  from  the  burden  of  such  arma- 
ments as  are  massed  behind  the  frontiers  of  Eu- 
rope, and  bring  us  ever  nearer  to  the  perfection 
of  ordered  liberty.  So  shall  come  security  and 
prosperity,  production  and  trade,  wealth,  learning, 
the  arts,  and  happiness  for  us  all." 

These  words  appear  to  have  been  received  with 
acclaim  in  every  part  of  South  America.  They 
have  my  hearty  approval,  as  I  am  sure  they  will 
have  yours,  and  I  cannot  be  wrong  in  the  con- 
viction that  they  correctly  represent  the  sen- 
timents of  the  whole  American  people.  I  cannot 
better  characterize  the  true  attitude  of  the  United 
States  in  its  assertion  of  the  Monroe  doctrine  than 
In  the  w^ords  of  the  distinguished  former  minister 
of  foreign  affairs  of  Argentina,  Dr.  Drago.  in  his 
speech  welcoming  Mr.  Root  at  Buenos  Ayres.  He 
spoke  of — 

"The  traditional  policy  of  the  United  States 
(which)  without  accentuating  superiority  or  seek- 
ing preponderance,  condemned  the  oppression  of  the 
nations  of  this  part  of  the  world  and  the  control  of 
their  destinies  by    the   great   powers  of   Europe." 

It  Is  gratifying  to  know  that  in  the  great  City 
of  Buenos  Ayres,  upon  the  arches  which  spanned 
the  streets,  entwined  with  Argentine  and  American 
flags  for  the  reception  of  our  repre.sentative.  there 
were  emblazoned  not  only  the  names  of  Washlne- 
ton  and  Jefferson  and  Marshall,  but  also.  In  appre- 


110 


THE     PANDEX 


dative  recognition  of  tlieir  services  to  the  cause  of 
South  American  independence,  the  names  of  James 
Monroe.  John  Quincy  Adams,  Henry  Clay  and  Rich- 
ard Rush.  We  take  especial  pleasure  in  the  grace- 
ful courtesy  of  the  government  of  Brazil,  which 
has  given  to  the  beautiful  and  stately  building  first 
used  (or  the  meeting  of  the  conference  the  name 
of  "Palacio  Monroe."  Our  grateful  acknowledge- 
ments are  due  to  the  governments  and  the  people 
of  all  the  countries  visited  by  the  Secretary  of 
State  for  the  courtesy,  the  friendship,  and  the 
honor  shown  to  our  country  in  their  generous  hos- 
pitality  to  him. 

In  my  message  to  you  on  the  5th 
„  ,  of  December,   1905,  I  called  your 

C'OinpiiiDnry  attention  to  the  embarrassment 
Debt  that    might     be     caused    to     this 

Collection  government  by   the  assertion   by 

foreign  nations  of  the  right  to 
collect  by  force  of  arms  contract 
debts  due  by  American  republics  to  citizens  of  the 
,  collecting  nation,  and  to  the  danger  that  the  proc- 
ess of  compulsory  collection  might  result  in  the 
occupation  of  territory  tending  to  become  perma- 
nent.    I  then  said: 

"Our  own  government  has  always  refused  to 
enforce  such  contractual  obligation  on  behalf  of  its 
citizens  by  an  appeal  to  arms.  It  is  much  to  be 
wished  that  all  foreign  governments  would  take 
the  same  view." 

This  subject  was  one  of  the  topics  of  considera- 
tion at  the  conference  at  Rio  and  a  resolution  was 
adopted  by  that  conference  recommending  to  the 
respective  governments  represented  "to  consider 
the  advisability  of  asking  the  second  peace  con- 
ference at  The  Hague  to  examine  the  question  of 
the  compulsory  collection  of  public  debts,  and  in 
general,  means  tending  to  diminish  among  nations 
conflicts   of   purely   pecuniary   origin." 

This  resolution  was  supported  by  the  representa- 
tives of  the  United  States  in  accordance  with  the 
following  instructions: 

"It  has  long  been  the  established  policy  of  the 
United  States  not  to  use  its  armed  forces  for  the 
collection  of  ordinary  contract  debts  due  to  its 
citizens  by  other  governments.  We  have  not  con- 
sidered the  use  of  force  for  such  a  purpose  consist- 
ent with  that  respect  for  the  Independent  sover- 
eignty of  other  members  of  tlie  family  of  nations, 
which  is  the  most  important  principle  of  inter- 
national law  and  the  chief  protection  of  weak 
nations  against  the  oppression  of  the  strong.  It 
seems  to  us  that  the  practice  is  injurious  in  Its 
general  effect  upon  the  relations  of  nations  and 
upon  the  welfare  of  weak  and  disordered  states, 
■whose  development  ought  to  be  encouraged  in  the 
Interests  of  civilization;  that  it  offers  frequent 
temptation  to  bullying  and  oppression  and  to  un- 
necessary and  unjustifiable  warfare.  We  regret 
that  other  powers,  whose  opinions  and  sense  of 
justice  we  esteem  highly,  have  at  times  taken  a 
different  view  and  have  permitted  themselves, 
tho  we  believe,  with  reluctance,  to  collect  such 
debts  by  force.  It  is  doubtless  true  that  the  non- 
payment of  public  debts  may  be  accompanied  by 
such  circumstances  of  fraud  and  wrongdoing  or 
violation  of  treaties  as  to  justify  the  use  of  force. 

"This  government  would  be  glad  to  see  an  in- 
ternational consideration  of  the  subject  which  shall 
discriminate  between  such  cases  and  the  simple 
nonperformance  of  a  contract  with  a  private  per- 
son, and  a  resolution  in  favor  of  reliance  upon 
peaceful  means  in  cases  of  the  latter  class. 

"It  is  not  felt,  howeer,  that  the  conference  at 
Rio  should  undertake  to  make  such  a  discrimina- 
tion or  to  resolve  upon  such  a  rule.  Most  of  the 
American  countries  are  still  debtor  nations,  while 
the  countries  of  Europe  are  the  creditors.  If  the 
Rio  conference,  therefore,  were  to  take  such  action 
It  would  have  the  appearance  of  a  meeting  of 
debtors  resolving  how  their  creditors  should  act, 
and  this  would  not  inspire  respect.  The  true 
course  is  indicated  by  the  terms  of  the  program, 
Tvhich  proposes  to  request  the  second  Hague  con- 
ference, where  both  creditors  and  debtors  will  be 
assembled,  to  consider  the  subject." 


Last  June  trouble  which  had  ex- 
isted for  some  time  between  the 
republics      of     Salvador,     Guate- 
mala   and    Honduras    culminated 
in    war    "which    threatened    to    be 
ruinous  to  the  countries  involved 
and  very  destructive  to  the  commercial  Interests  of 
Americans,  Mexicans  and  other  foreigners  who  are 
taking    an    important    part    in    the    development    of 


Central 
American 
Mediation 


these  countries.  The  thoroly  good  understand- 
ing which  exists  between  the  United  States  and 
Mexico  enabled  this  government  and  that  of  Mex- 
ico to  unite  in  effective  mediation  between  the 
warring  republics — which  mediation  resulted,  not 
without  long-continued  and  patient  effort.  In  bring- 
ing about  a  meeting  of  the  representatives  of  the 
hostile  powers  on  board  a  United  States  war  ship 
as  neutral  territory,  and  peace  was  there  concluded: 
a  peace  which  resulted  in  the  saving  of  thousands 
of  lives  and  in  the  prevention  of  an  Incalculable 
amount  of  misery  and  the  destruction  of  property 
and  of  the  means  of  livelihood.  The  Rio  conference 
passed  the  following  resolution  in  reference  to 
this    action: 

"That  the  third  international  American  confer- 
ence shall  address  to  the  Presidents  of  the  United 
States  of  America  and  of  the  United  States  of  Mex- 
ico, a  note  In  which  the  conference  which  is  being 
held  at  Rio  expresses  its  satisfaction  at  the  happy 
results  of  their  mediation  for  the  celebration  of 
peace  between  the  republics  of  Guatemala,  Hondu- 
ras, and  Salvador." 

This   affords   an   excellent  exam- 

Kxerta  Ple  of  one  way  in  which  the  in- 

„       .  fiuence  of  the  United  States  can 

properly  be  exercised  for  the 
Influence  benefit    of    the    peoples      of      the 

western  hemisphere;  that  Is,  by 
action  taken  in  concert  with  other  American  re- 
publics and  therefore  free  from  those  suspicions 
and  prejudices  which  might  attach  if  the  action 
were  taken  by  one  alone.  In  this  way  it  is  possible 
to  exercise  a  powerful  influence  toward  the  substi- 
tution of  considerate  action  in  the  spirit  of  Justice 
for  the  insurrectionary  or  international  violence 
which  has  hitherto  been  so  great  a  hindrance  to 
the  development  of  many  of  our  neighbors.  Re- 
peated examples  of  united  action  by  several  or 
many  American  republics  in  favor  of  peace,  by  urg- 
ing cool  and  reasonable,  instead  of  excited  and  bel- 
ligerent, treatment  of  international  controversy, 
cannot  fail  to  promote  the  growth  of  a  general 
public  opinion  among  the  American  nations  which 
will  elevate  the  standards  of  international  action, 
strengthen  the  sense  of  international  duty  among 
governments,  and  tell  In  favor  of  the  peace  of 
mankind.  „  , 

I  have  Just  returned  from  a  trip  to  Panama  and 
shall  report  to  you  at  length  later  on  the  whole 
subject  of  the  Panama  Canal. 

The  Algeclras  convention,  which 
Convention  was  signed  by  the  United  States 

-  as  well  as  by  most  of  the  powers 

"'  of    Europe,    supersedes    the    pre- 

AlKeclriiN  vlous   convention   of   1880.   which 

was  also  signed  both  by  the 
United  States  and  a  majority  of  the  European  pow- 
ers This  treaty  confers-  upon  us  equal  com- 
mercial rights  with  all  European  countries 
and  does  not  entail  a  single  obligation  of 
any  kind  upon  us,  and  I  earnestly  hope  it 
may  be  speedily  ratified.  To  refuse  to  rat- 
ify it  would  merely  mean  that  we  forfeited  our 
commercial  rights  in  Morocco  and  would  not 
achieve  another  object  of  any  kind.  In  the  event 
of  such  refusal  we  would  be  left  for  the  first  time 
in  120  years  without  any  commercial  treaty  with 
Morocco:  and  this  at  a  time  when  we  are  every- 
where seeking  new  markets  and  outlets  tor  trade. 

The    destruction    of   the    Pribilof 
BarbaroiiM  Islands    fur    seals       by      pelagic 

i>»i«<rio  sealing      still      continues.        The 

"  herd  which  according  to  the  sur- 

Seallng  veys    made    in    1874    by    direction 

of  the  Congress,  numbered 
4,700,000,  and  which,  according  to  the  survey  of 
both  American  and  Canadian  commissioners  in 
1891,  amounted  to  1,000,000,  has  now  been  reduced 
to  about  180,000.  This  result  has  been  brought 
about  by  Canadian  and  some  other  sealing  vessels 
killing  the  female  seals  while  in  the  water  during 
their  annual  pilgrimage  to  and  from  the  South, 
or  in  search  of  food.  As  a  rule  the  female  seal 
when  killed  is  pregnant,  and  also  has  an  un- 
weaned  pup  on  land,  so  that,  for  each  skin  taken 
by  pelagic  sealing,  as  a  rule,  three  lives  are  de- 
stroyed— the  mother,  the  unborn  offspring,  and  the 
nursing  pup,  which  is  left  to  starve  to  death. 

No  damage  whatever  is  done  to  the  herd  by  the 
carefully    regulated    killing    on    land;    the    custom 


THE     PANDEX 


111 


of  pelagic  sealing  is  solely  responsible  lor  all  of 
the  present  evil,  and  is  alike  Indefensible  from  the 
economic  standpoint  and  from  the  standpoint  of 
humanity. 

In  1896  over  16,000  young  seals  were  found  dead 
from  starvation  on  the  Pribilof  Islands,  In  1897 
it  was  estimated  that  since  pelagic  sealing  began 
upward  of  400,000  adult  female  seals  had  been 
killed  at  sea,  and  over  300,000  young  seals  had 
died  of  starvation  as  the  result.  The  revolting 
barbarity  of  such  a  practice,  as  well  as  the  waste- 
ful destruction  which  it  Involves,  needs  no  demon- 
stration and  Is  its  own  condemnation.  The  Ber- 
ing Sea  tribunal,  which  sat  in  Paris  in  1893  and 
which  decided  against  the  claims  of  the  United 
States  to  exclusive  jurisdiction  in  the  waters  of 
Bering  Sea  and  to  a  property  right  in  the  fur 
seals  when  outside  of  the  three-mile  limit,  deter- 
mined also  upon  certain  regulations  which  the 
tribunal  considered  sufficient  for  the  proper  pro- 
tection and  preservation  of  the  fur  seal  in,  or 
habitually  resorting  to,  the  Bering  Sea.  The  tri- 
bunal by  its  regulations  established  a  close  season, 
from  the  1st  of  May  to  the  31st  of  July,  and  ex- 
cluded all  killing  in  the  waters  within  sixty  miles 
around    the   Pribilof   Islands. 

They  also  provided  that  the  reg- 

ReKnlntioDH         ulations    which    they    had   deter- 

Are  mined   upon,   with   a  view   to  the 

._„j„ ,  protection    and    preservation    of 

inatleqnate  ^^le  seals,  should  be  submitted 
every  five  years  to  new  exam- 
inations, so  as  to  enable  both  Interested  govern- 
ments to  consider  whether,  in  the  light  of  past 
experience,  there  was  occasion  for  any  modification 
thereof. 

The  regulations  have  proved  plainly  inadequate 
to  accomplish  the  object  of  protection  and  pres- 
ervation of  the  fur  seals,  and  for  a  long  time  this 
government  has  been  trying  in  vain  to  secure  from 
Great  Britain  such  revision  and  modification  of  the 
regulations  as  were  contemplated  and  provided 
for  by  the  award  of  the  tribunal  of  Paris. 

The  process  of  destruction  has  been  accelerated 
during  recent  years  by  the  appearance  of  a  number 
of  Japanese  vessels  engaged  in  pelagic  sealing. 
As  these  vessels  have  not  been  bound  even  by  the 
Inadequate  limitations  prescribed  by  the  tribunal 
of  Paris,  they  have  paid  no  attention  either  to  the 
close  season  or  to  the  sixty-mile  limit  imposed 
upon  the  Canadians,  and  have  prosecuted  their 
work  up  to  the  very  islands  themselves.  On  July 
16  and  17  the  crews  from  several  Japanese  vessels 
made  raids  upon  the  island  of  St.  Paul,  and  before 
they  were  beaten  off  by  the  very  meager  and  in- 
sufficiently armed  guard  they  succeeded  in  killing 
several  hundred  seals  and  carrying  olT  the  skins 
of  most  of  them.  Nearly  all  the  seals  killed  were 
females  and  the  work  was  done  with  frightful  bar- 
barity. Many  of  the  seals  appear  to  have  been 
skinned  alive  and  many  were  found  half  skinned 
and  still   alive. 

The  raids  were  repelled  only  by  the  use  of  fire- 
arms, and  five  of  the  raiders  were  killed,  two  were 
wounded,  and  twelve  captured.  Including  the  two 
wounded.  Those  captured  have  since  been  tried 
and  sentenced  to  imprisonment.  An  attack  of  this 
kind  had  been  wholly  unlocked  for.  but  such  pro- 
visions of  vessels,  arms,  and  ammunition  ■will  now 
be  made  that  its  repetition  will  not  be  found  profit- 
able. 

Suitable  representations  regarding  the  Incident 
have  been  made  to  the  government  of  Japan,  and 
we  are  assured  that  all  practicable  measures  will 
be  taken  by  that  country  to  prevent  any  recurrence 
of  the  outrage.  On  our  part  the  guard  on  the 
Island  will  be  increased  and  better  equipped  and 
organized,  and  a  better  revenue-cutter  patrol  ser- 
vice about  the  islands  will  be  established.  Next 
season  a  United  States  war  vessel  will  also  be  sent 
there. 

We  have  not  relaxed  our  efforts  to  secure  an 
agreement  with  Great  Britain  for  adequate  pro- 
tection of  the  seal  herd,  and  negotiations  with 
Japan  for  the  same  purpose  are  in  progress. 

The  laws  for  the  protection  of  the  seals  within 
the  jurisdiction  of  the  United  States  need  revision 
and  amendment.  Only  the  islands  of  St.  Paul  and 
St.  George  are  now.  In  terms.  Included  In  the  gov- 
ernment reservation,  and  the  other  islands  are  also 
to  be  included. 

The  landing  of  aliens  as  well  as 
Outline  citizens    upon    the   islands,    with- 

,  out    a    permit    from    the    Depart- 

ment    of    Commerce    and    Labor, 
New  Rules         jq^    any    purpose    except    in    case 
of  stress  of  weather  or  for  wa- 
ter, should  be  prohibited  under  adequate  penalties. 


The  approach  of  vessels  for  the  excepted  purposes 
should  be  regulated.  The  authority  of  the  govern- 
ment agents  on  the  islands  should  be  enlarged,  and 
the  chief  agent  should  have  the  powers  of  a  com- 
mitting magistrate.  The  entrance  of  a  vessel  into 
the  territorial  waters  surrounding  the  islands  with 
intent  to  take  seals  should  be  made  a  criminal 
offense  and  cause  of  forfeiture.  Authority  for 
seizures  In  such  cases  should  be  given  and  the 
presence  on  any  such  vessels  of  seals  or  sealskins, 
or  the  paraphernalia  for  taking  them,  should  be 
made  prima  facie  evidence  of  such  Intent.  I  rec- 
ommend what  legislation  is  needed  to  accomplish 
these  ends,  and  I  commend  to  your  attention  the 
report  of  Mr.  Sims,  of  the  Department  of  Com- 
merce and  Labor,   on   this  subject. 

In  case  we  are  compelled  to  abandon  the  hope  of 
making  arrangements  with  other  governments  to 
put. an  end  to  the  hideous  cruelty  now  Incident  to 
pelagic  sealing.  It  will  be  a  question  for  your 
serious  consideration  how  far  we  should  continue 
to  protect  and  maintain  the  seal  herd  on  land  with 
the  result  of  continuing  such  a  practice,  and 
whether  it  is  not  better  to  end  the  practice  by  ex- 
terminating the  herd  ourselves  in  the  most  humane 
way  possible. 

In    my    last    message    I    advised 
Seeond  y"   that  the  Emperor  of  Russia 

Hnirii^  had      taken      the      Initiative      in 

niibue  bringing    about    a    second    peace 

Conference  conference  at  The  Hague.  Under 
the  guidance  of  Russia  the  ar- 
rangement of  the  preliminaries  for  such  a  confer- 
ence have  been  progressing  during  the  past  year. 
Progress  has  necessarily  been  slow,  owing  to  the 
great  number  of  countries  to  be  consulted  upon 
every  question  that  has  arisen.  It  is  a  matter  of 
satisfaction  that  all  of  the  American  republics 
have  now,  for  the  first  time,  been  invited  to  join 
in  the  proposed  conference. 

The  close  connection  between  the  subjects  to  be 
taken  up  by  the  Red  Cross  Conference  held  at 
Geneva  last  summer,  and  the  subjects  which  natu- 
rally would  come  before  The  Hague  conference 
made  it  apparent  that  It  was  desirable  to  have  the 
work  of  the  Red  Cross  conference  completed  and 
considered  by  the  different  powers  before  the  meet- 
ing at  The  Hague.  The  Red  Cross  conference 
ended  its  labors  on  the  6th  day  of  July,  and  the 
revised  and  amended  convention,  which  "was  signed 
by  the  American  delegates,  will  be  promptly  laid 
before   the  Senate. 

By  the  special  and  highly  appreciated  courtesy 
of  the  governments  of  Russia  and  the  Netherlands 
a  proposal  to  call  The  Hague  conference  together 
at  a  time  which  would  conflict  with  the  conference 
of  the  American  republics  at  Rio  de  Janeiro  in 
August  was  laid  aside.  No  other  date  has  yet  been 
suggested.  A  tentative  program  for  the  conference 
has  been  proposed  by  the  government  of  Russia, 
and  the  subjects  %vhlch  it  enumerates  are  undergo- 
ing careful  examination  and  consideration  in  prep- 
aration  for  the  conference. 

It    must    be    kept    In    mind    that 
HtshteouHneaM      war  Is  not  merely  justifiable,  but 
,  Imperative,         upon         honorable 

men,   upon   an   honorable   nation. 
Pence  where     peace     can    only    be    ob- 

tained by  the  sacrifice  of  con- 
scientious conviction  or  of  national  welfare.  Peace 
is  normally  a  great  good,  and  normally  it  coin- 
cides with  righteousness,  but  it  Is  righteous- 
ness and  not  peace,  which  should  '  bind  the 
consciences  of  a  nation  as  it  should  bind  the 
conscience  of  an  Individual,  and  neither  a  na- 
tion nor  an  individual  can  surrender  conscience  to 
another's  keeping.  Neither  can  a  nation,  which 
is  an  entity,  and  which  does  not  die  as  individuals 
die,  refrain  from  taking  thought  for  the  interest 
of  the  generations  that  are  to  come,  no  less  than 
for  the  Interest  of  the  generations  of  to-day,  and 
no  public  men  have  a  right,  whether  from  short- 
sightedness, from  selfish  indifference,  or  from  sen- 
timentality, to  sacrifice  national  Interests  which 
are  vital  in  character.  A  just  war  is.  In  the  long 
run,  far  better  for  a  nation's  soul  than  the  most 
prosperous  peace  obtained  by  acquiescence  In 
wrong  or  Injustice.  Moreover,  though  it  is  criminal 
for  a  nation  not  to  prepare  for  war,  so  that  it  may 
escape  the  dreadful  consequences  of  being  defeated 
in  war,  yet  it  must  always  be  remembered  that 
even  to  be  defeated  in  war  may  be  far  better  than 
not  to  have  fought  at  all.  As  has  been  well  and 
finely  said,  a  beaten  nation  is  not  necessarily  a 
dis'graced  nation,  but  the  nation  or  man  Is  dis- 
graced if  the  obligation  to  defend  right  is  shirked. 
We   should,    as   a   nation,   do   everything    in     our 


112 


THE    PANDEX 


power  for  the  cause  of  honorable  peace.  It  is 
morally  as  Indefensible  for  a  nation  to  commit  a 
wrong  upon  another  nation,  strong  or  weak,  as 
for  an  individual  thus  to  wrong  his  fellows.  We 
should  do  all  in  our  power  to  hasten  the  day  when 
there  shall  be  peace  among  the  nations — a  peace 
based  upon  Justice  and  not  upon  cowardly  submis- 
sion to  wrong.  We  can  accomplish  a  good  deal  in 
this  direction,  but  we  cannot  accomplish  everything, 
and  the  penalty  of  attempting  to  do  too  much  would 
almost  inevitably  be  to  do  worse  than  nothing;  for 
it  must  be  remembered  that  fantastic  extremists 
are  not  in  reality  leaders  of  the  causes  which  they 
espouse,  but  are  ordinarily  those  who  do  most  to 
hamper  the  real  leaders  of  the  cause  and  to  dam- 
age the  cause  itself.  As  yet  there  is  no  likelihood 
of  establishing  any  kind  of  international  power, 
of  whatever  sort,  which  can  effectively  check 
wrongdoing,  and  in  these  circumstances  it  would 
be  both  a  foolish  and  an  evil  thing  for  a  great 
and  free  nation  to  deprive  itself  of  the  power  to 
protect  its  own  rights,  and  even  In  exceptional 
cases  to  stand  up  for  the  rights  of  others.  Nothing 
would  more  promote  iniquity,  nothing  would  fur- 
ther defer  the  reign  upon  earth  of  peace  and  right- 
eousness, than  for  the  free  and  enlightened  people 
which,  though  with  much  stumbling  and  many 
shortcomings,  nevertheless  strive  toward  justice, 
deliberately  to  render  themselves  powerless  while 
leaving  every  despotism  and  barbarism  armed  and 
able  to  work  their  wicked  will.  The  chance  for 
the  settlement  of  disputes  peacefully,  by  arbitra- 
tion, now  depends  mainly  upon  the  possession  by 
the  nations  that  mean  to  do  right  of  sufficient 
armed  strength  to  make  their  purpose  effective. 


The    United    States    navy    is    the 
Jfnvy  surest  guarantor  of  peace  which 

r'iini-<.nt».>  'h'^  country  possesses.  It  is 
uunrnniee  earnestly  to  be  wished  that  we 
o(  Peace  would  profit  by  the  teachings  of 

history  in  this  matter.  A  strong 
and  wise  people  ^vill  study  its  own  failures  no  less 
than  its  triumphs,  for  there  is  wisdom  to  be  learned 
from  the  study  of  both,  of  the  mistake  as  well  as 
of  the  success.  For  this  purpose  notliing  could  be 
more  instructive  than  a  rational  study  of  the  War 
of  1812.  as  it  is  told,  for  instance,  by  Captain  Ma- 
han.  There  was  only  one  way  in  which  that  war 
could  have  been  avoided.  If,  during  the  preceding 
t'welve  years,  a  navy  relatively  as  strong  as  that 
which  this  country  now  has  had  been  built  up,  and 
an  army  provided  relatively  as  good  as  that  which 
the  country  now  has,  there  never  would  have  been 
the  slightest  necessity  of  fighting  the  war;  and 
if  the  necessity  had  arisen  the  war  w^ould,  under 
such  circumstances,  have  ended  with  our  speedy 
and  overwhelming  triumph;  but  our  people  during 
those  twelve  years  refused  to  make  any  prepara- 
tions whatever  regarding  either  the  army  or  the 
navy.  They  saved  a  million  or  two  of  dollars  by 
so  doing;  and  in  mere  money  paid  a  hundred  fold 
for  each  million  they  thus  saved  during  the  three 
years  of  war  which  followed — a  war  which  brought 
untold  suffering  upon  our  people,  which  at  one 
time  threatened  the  gravest  national  disaster,  and 
which,  in  spite  of  the  necessity  of  waging  it, 
resulted  merely  in  what  was  in  effect  a  drawn 
battle,  while  the  balance  of  defeat  and  triumph 
was   almost   even, 

I  do  not  ask  that  we  continue  to  increase  our 
navy,  I  ask  merely  that  it  be  maintained  at  its 
present  strength;  and  this  can  be  done  only  if  we 
replace  the  obsolete  and  outworn  ships  by  new 
and  good  ones,  the  equals  of  any  afloat  in  any 
navy.  To  stop  building  ships  for  one  year  means 
that  for  that  year  the  navy  goes  back  instead  of 
forward.  The  old  battle-ship  Texas,  for  instance, 
would  now  be  of  little  service  in  a  stand-up  fight 
with  a  powerful  adversary.  The  old  double-turret 
monitors  have  outworn  tlieir  usefulness,  while  it 
was  a  waste  of  money  to  build  the  modern  single- 
turret  monitors.  All  of  these  ships  should  be 
replaced  by  others;  and  this  can  be  done  by  a  well- 
settled  program  of  providing  for  the  building  each 
year  of  at  least  one  first-class  battle  ship  equal 
in  size  and  speed  to  any  that  any  nation  is  at  the 
same  time  building;  the  armament  presumably  to 
consist  of  as  large  a  number  as  possible  of  very 
heavy  guns  of  one  caliber,  together  with  smaller 
guns  to  repel  torpedo  attack;  while  there  should 
be  heavy  armor,  turbine  engines,  and,  in  short, 
every  modern  device.  Of  course,  from  time"  to 
time  cruisers,  colliers,  torpedo-boat  destroyers,  or 
torpedo  boats,  will  have  to  be  built  also.     All  this. 


be  it  remembered,  would  not  increase  our  navy 
but  would  merely  keep  it  at  its  present  strength' 
Equally,  of  course,  the  ships  will  be  absolutely  use- 
less if  the  men  aboard  them  are  not  so  trained 
that  they  can  get  the  best  possible  service  out  of 
the  formidable  but  delicate  and  complicated  mech- 
anisms  intrusted   to   their   care. 


The    marksmanship    of    our    men 
Great  has  so  improved  during  the  last 

In  Ave  years  that  I  deem  it  within 

„     ,  ^,         bounds   to   say    that    the   navy    is 

Markomanxhlp  more  than  twice  as  efficient,  ship 
for  ship,  as  half  a  decade  ago. 
The  navy  can  only  attain  proper  efficiency  if 
enough  officers  and  men  are  provided,  and  if  these 
officers  and  men  are  given  the  chance  (and  re- 
quired to  take  advantage  of  it)  to  stay  continually 
at  sea  and  to  exercise  the  fleets  singly  and  above 
all  in  squadron,  the  exercise  to  be  of  every  kind 
and  to  include  unceasing  practice  at  the  guns,  con- 
ducted under  conditions  that  will  test  marksman- 
ship in   time  of  war. 

In  both  the  army  and  the  navy  there  is  urgent 
need  that  everything  possible  should  be  done  to 
maintain  the  highest  standard  for  the  personnel, 
alike  as  regards  the  officers  and  the  enlisted  men. 
I  do  not  believe  that  in  any  service  there  is  a  finer 
body  of  enlisted  men  and  of  junior  officers  than 
we  have  in  both  the  army  and  the  navy,  including 
the  marine  corps.  All  possible  encouragement  to 
the  enlisted  men  should  be  given,  in  pay  and  other- 
wise, and  everything  practicable  should  be  done  to 
render  the  service  attractive  to  men  of  the  right 
type.  They  should  be  held  to  the  strictest  dis- 
charge of  their  duty,  and  in  them  a  spirit  should 
be  encouraged  which  demands  not  the  mere  per- 
formance of  duty,  but  the  performance  of  far  more 
than  duty,  if  it  conduces  to  the  honor  and  the 
interest  of  the  American  nation;  and  in  return  the 
amplest  consideration  should  be  theirs. 


West    Point     and    Annapolis    al- 

Calla  for  ready  turn  out  excellent  officers. 

.    ,    .     ^  We    do    not    need    to    have    these 

fisntins  schools  made  more  scholastic.    On 

Men  the    contrary,    we    should    never 

lose    siglit    of    the    fact    that    the 

aim  of  each  school  is  to  turn  out  a  man  who  shall 

be,   above  everything  else,  a   fighting  man.      In   the 

army,  in   particular,   it  is  not  necessary  that  either 

the  cavalry  or   infantry  officer   should  have  special 

mathematical    ability.       Probably    in    both    schools 

the  best  part  of  the  education  is  the  liigh  standard 

of   character    and    of   professional    morale    which    it 

confers. 

But  in  both  services  there  is  urgent  need  for 
the  establishment  of  a  principle  of  selection  which 
will  eliminate  men  after  a  certain  age  if  they 
can  not  be  promoted  from  the  subordinate  ranks, 
and  which  will  bring  into  the  higher  ranks  fewer 
men,  and  these  at  an  earlier  age.  This  principle  of 
selection  will  be  objected  to  by  good  men  of  medi- 
ocre capacity  who  are  fitted  to  do  well  while 
young  in  the  lower  positions,  but  who  are  not 
fitted  to  do  well  when  at  an  advanced  age 
they  come  into  positions  of  command  and  of 
great  responsibility.  But  the  desire  of  these 
men  to  be  promoted  to  positions  which  they  are 
not  competent  to  fill  should  not  weigh  against  the 
interests  of  the  navy  and  the  country.  At  present 
our  men,  especially  In  the  navy,  are  kept  far  too 
long  in  the  junior  grades,  and  then,  at  much  too 
advanced  an  age,  are  put  quickly  through  the 
senior  grades,  often  not  attaining  to  these  senior 
grades  until  they  are  too  old  to  be  of  real  use 
in  them;  and  if  they  are  of  real  use,  being  put 
through  them  so  quickly  that  little  benefit  to  the 
navy  comes  from  their  having  been  in  them  at  all. 

The  navy   has   one   great   advan- 
Advantage  tage   over   the   army   in    the    fact 

(  jl,^  that    the    officers    of    high    rank 

are  actually  trained  in  the  con- 
Navy  tinual  performance  of  their  du- 
ties; that  is.  in  the  management 
of  the  battle  ships  and  armored  cruisers  gathered 
into  fleets.  This  is  not  true  of  the  army  officers, 
who  rarely  have  corresponding  chances  to  exercise 
command  over  troops  under  service  conditions. 
The  conduct  of  the  Spanish  War  showed  the  la- 
mentable   loss    of    life,    the    useless    extravagance, 


THE    PANDEX 


113 


and  the  InefBciency  certain  to  result  if.  during 
peace,  tiie  high  officials  of  the  War  and  Navy  De- 
partments are  praised  and  rewarded  only  If  they 
save  money  at  no  matter  what  cost  to  the  "efficiency 
of  the  service,  and  if  the  higher  officers  are  given 
no  chance  whatever  to  exercise  and  practice  com- 
mand. For  years  prior  to  the  Spanish  War  the 
secretaries  of  war  were  praised  chleflv  if  they  prac- 
ticed economy;  which  economy,  especially  In  con- 
nection with  the  quartermaster,  commissary,  and 
medical  departments,  was  directly  responsible  for 
most  of  the  mismanagement  that  occurred  in  the 
war  itself — and  parenthetically  be  it  observed  that 
the  very  people  who  clamored  for  the  misdirected 
economy  in  the  first  place  were  foremost  to  de- 
nounce the  mismanagement,  loss,  and  suffering 
which  were  primarily  due  to  this  same  misdirected 
economy  and  to  the  lack  of  preparation  it  Involved. 
There  should  soon  be  an  Increase  in  the  number  of 
men  for  our  coast  defenses;  these  men  should  be  of 
the  right  type  and  properly  trained;  and  there 
should  therefore  be  an  increase  of  pay  for  certain 
grades,  especially  in  the  coast  artillery. 


Money 
for   .\riny 
Miineuvers 


Money  should  be  appropriated 
to  permit  troops  to  be  massed 
in  body  and  exercised  in  ma- 
neuvers, particularly  In  march- 
ing. Such  exercise  during  the 
summer  Just  past  has  been  of 
incalculable  benefit  to  the  army,  and  should  under 
no  circumstances  be  discontinued.  If.  on  these 
practice  marches  and  In  these  maneuvers,  elderly 
officers  prove  unable  to  bear  the  strain,  they  should 
be  retired  at  once,  for  the  fact  is  conclusive  as  to 
their  unfitness  for  war;  that  is.  for  the  only  pur- 
pose because  of  which  they  should  be  allowed  to 
stay  In  the  service.  It  Is  a  real  misfortune  to  have 
scores  of  small  company  or  regimental  posts  scat- 
tered thruout  the  country;  the  army  should 
be  gathered  In  a  few  brigade  or  division  posts, 
and  the  generals  should  be  practiced  In  handling 
men  in  masses.  Neglect  to  provide  for  all  this 
means  to  Incur  the  risk  of  future  disaster  and 
disgrace. 

The  readiness  and  efficiency  of  both  the  army 
and  navy  in  dealing  with  the  recent  sudden  crisis 
in  Cuba  illustrate  afresh  their  value  to  the  nation. 
This  readiness  and  efficiency  would  have  been  very 
much  less  had  it  not  been  for  the  existence  of  the 


general  staff  In  the  army  and  the  general  board 
in  the  navy;  both  are  essential  to  the  proper  devel- 
opment and  use  of  our  military  forces  afloat  and 
ashore.  The  troops  that  were  sent  to  Cuba  were 
handled  flawlessly.  It  was  the  swiftest  mobiliza- 
tion and  dispatch  of  troops  over  sea  ever  accom- 
plished by  our  government.  The  expedition  landed 
completely  equipped  and  ready  for  Immediate  ser- 
vice, several  of  its  organizations  hardly  remain- 
ing In  Havana  over  night  before  splitting  up  into 
detachments  and  going  to  their  several  posts.  It 
was  a  fine  demonstration  of  the  value  and  effi- 
ciency  of  the  general   staff. 


Cubnn 
CrisiM 
Well   Met 


Similarly,  it  was  owing  In  large 
part  to  the  general  board  that 
the  navy  was  able  at  the  outset 
to  meet  the  Cuban  crisis  with 
such  instant  efficiency;  ship  af- 
ter ship  appearing  on  the  short- 
est notice  at  any  threatened  point,  while  tlie  Ma- 
rine Corps  in  particular  performed  indispensable 
service. 

The  army  and  navy  war  colleges  are  of  incalcu- 
lable value  to  the  two  services,  and  they  co-oper- 
ate with  constantly  increasing  efficiency  and  Im- 
portance. 

The  Congress  has  most  wisely  provided  for  a 
national  board  for  the  promotion  of  rifle  practice. 
Excellent  results  have  already  come  from  this  law. 
but  it  does  not  go  far  enough.  Our  regular  army 
is  so  small  that  In  any  great  war  we  should  have 
to  trust  mainly  to  volunteers;  and  In  such  event 
these  volunteers  should  already  know  how  to 
shoot;  for  If  a  soldier  has  the  fighting  edge,  and 
ability  to  take  care  of  himself  In  the  open,  his 
efficiency  on  the  line  of  battle  is  almost  directly 
proportionate  to  excellence  in  marksmanship.  We 
should  establish  shooting  galleries  in  all  the  large 
public  and  military  schools,  should  maintain  na- 
tional target  ranges  in  different  parts  of  the 
country,  and  should  in  every  way  encourage  the 
formation  of  rifle  clubs  thruout  all  parts  of  the 
land.  The  little  republic  of  Switzerland  offers  us 
an  excellent  example  In  all  matters  connected  with 
building  up  an  efficient  citizen   soldiery. 

THEODORE    ROOSEVELT. 
The  White  House,  December  3,  1906. 


114 


THE     PANDEX 


Skating  Feature  in  a  Recent  Musical  Comedy. 


-New  York  World. 


DRAMATIZING  THE  TIMES 


PLAYWRIGHTS  TRANSFERRING  THE  PASSIONS  AND   MOTIVES  OF 
THE  HOUR  TO  THE  STAGE— REACTION  FROM  THE  FLIP- 
PANT TO  THE  SERIOUS.— SOME  INSPIRING  INCIDENTS 
FROM  ACTUAL  LIFE. 


WHILE  such  dramatists  as  Bernard 
Shaw  are  calling  the  attention  of  the 
v.orld  to  the  fact  that  any  comprehensive 
social  reformation  is  probably  impossible 
vdthout  the  framing  of  some  new  religioiis 
principles  that  shall  touch  the  deeper  im- 
pulses of  human  nature,  the  sphere  of  the 
drama  itself  progresses  steadily  toward  an 
apparently  parallel  conviction.  Surfeited 
with  the  flippant  and  having  passed  pretty 
well  thru  what  might  be  called  its 
"Romance"  period  of  experiment  and  quest, 
the  stage  begins  to  settle  down  into  a  serious 
effort  to  reflect  the  spirit  of  its  own  times. 
And  the  times,  indeed,  afford  an  abun- 
dance of  material,  intense,  graphic,  absorbing 


as  one  may  readily  observe  by  running  thru 
the  alternating  human  incidents  and  dra- 
matic criticisms  which  follow  herewith : 

LOVE,  LABOR,  AND  CAPITAL 


Charles  Klein  Uses  Them  in  a  Successor  to 
Lion  and  the  Mouse." 


'The 


Charles  Klein,  for  example,  who  made  a 
brilliant  success  with  his  dramatization  of 
the  modern  business  man  in  the  play  called 
'The  Lion  and  the  Mouse,"  has  essayed 
another  portrayal  which  deals  intimately 
with  characters  and  situations  thoroly 
familiar  to  the  popular  mind  of  the  day. 
Said  Alan  Dale  in  the  New  York  American : 


THE     PANDEX 


115 


Labor  and  Capital  made  to  assume  the  sweet 
juxtaposition  of  Montague  and  Capulet  —  the 
leader  of  men  as  the  Romeo  and  the  sweet  capi- 
talistic girl  as  the  Juliet— give  to  Mr.  Charles 
Klein's  "Daughters  of  Men,"  at  the  Astor  The- 
ater, a  somewhat  ponderous  significance.  Fo.- 
you  find  yourself  so  moiled  and  broiled  with  fed- 
erated companies,  federated  brotherhoods, 
skilled  mechanics,  interstate  combinations.  Wall 
Street,  the  money  market,  and  the  branches  of 
labor,  that  it  is  hard  work  to  keep  a  tab  on 
such  mere  triviality  as  the  tender  passion.  You 
feel  that  you  are  munching  editorials,  inhaling 
tracts,  making  a  dash  into  the  science  of  polit- 
ical economy,  sniffing  at  economics,  and  doing 
dozens  of  very  worthy  things.  But  they  are 
the  worthy  things  you  generally  get  done  before 
you  go  to  the  theater. 

Oh,  the  illusion  of  the  playhouse,  with  its  ro- 
mance and  its  lift  from  the  too  serious  topics  of 
the  hour!  At  the  Astor  Theater  last  night  one 
realized  in  "The  Daughters  of  Men"  that  Mr. 
Klein  said  many  extremely  good  things;  that  his 
political  views  appeared  to  have  been  studied ; 
that  he  took  a  logical  view  of  labor  and  a  logical 
view  of  capital ;  that  the  heroic  Stedman,  accused 
of  being  a  freethinker  and  an  agitator,  had  the 
elements  of  all  correct  stage  heroes ;  that  the  shim- 
mering blonde  thing  in  pale  blue  whom  he  loved 
and  who  went  to  his  rooms  at  dead  of  night  (as 
per  usual)  to  ask  him  to  call  off  the  strike  and 
save  her  family  from  ruin  was,  after  all,  an 
attractive  heroine. 

Still  one  could  not  disentangle  the  love  theme 
of  the  twain  from  the  political  ragout  in  which 
it  wallowed.  It  was  like  looking  for  a  love  story 
in  the  Congressional  Record  or  the  Telephone 
Book.  It  was  culling  sweet  romance  in  a  diction- 
ary, or  scenting  poesy  in  a  gazetteer.  In  fact, 
it  was  an  arduous  though  not  wholly  impossible 
task.  The  sincerity  of  the  play  itself  told  con- 
siderably in  its  favor.  Sincerity  in  the  drama 
has  a  great  charm  of  its  own.  Those  who  de- 
clined to  invest  Mr.  Klein's  political  play  with 
as  much  human  interest  as  it  may  have  possessed 
must  at  any  rate  admit  its  sincerity.  That  sin- 
cerity never  let  up  for  one  moment. 

Stedman,  the  labor  hero,  was  sincere  in  every- 
thing he  said  and  did.  Sincerity  oozed  through 
his  fine  white  teeth.  He  was  sincere  to  his 
cause,  sincere  to  his  girl,  sincere  to  his  friends, 
sincere  to  his  enemies.  So  was  the  shimmering 
She  in  pale  blue.  I'm  sorry  to  say  that  one 
longed  for  just  one  touch  of  insincerity  in  the 
feminine  element  of  the  play.  Yes,  one  longed 
for  it. 

Then  there  was  the  creature  of  impulse,  born 
in  anarchy  and  exuding  all  sorts  of  sweet,  un- 
girlish  sentiments.  She,  too,  was  sincere.  Pos- 
sibly she  has  her  prototype  in  this  city — probably 
you  could  name  that  prototype — but  it  was  not 
in  her  sincerity  that  she  convinced  last  night. 
Louise,  in  the  comedy  moments  that  followed  her 
first  entrance,  was  delightful.  She  was  the  kind- 
est thing  that  happened  in  "The  Daughters  of 
Men."      Then    the   sincerity   got   in    and    did   its 


fell  work.  Louise  hurled  denunciations,  exhaled 
vituperation,  and  sank  to  the  level  of  her  asso- 
ciates. 

A  curious  play,  "The  Daughters  of  Men." 
Not  for  an  instant  is  it  trashy  or  inconsequent; 
not  for  a  moment  is  it  light  or  flippant.  It  is 
dealing  all  the  time  with  truths,  and  vital  truths. 
It  is  saying  things  that  right-minded  people  say 
and  think.  But — unfortunately — right-minded 
people  do  not  always  say  and  think  them  when 
they  are  viewing  a  drama.  Mr.  Klein's  play  is 
too  good,  too  thoughtful,  too  missionary,  too  un- 
relenting in  its  object,  to  preachy  and  too  deter- 
mined to  impress  us  into  the  right  way  of  life. 
It  is  an  extremely  worthy  defect — if  any  defect 
may  be  called  worthy. 


DRAMA  OF  LOVE  AND  POLITICS 


Broadhurst's    "The   Man   of  the   Hour"    Deals 

Entertainingly  with  City  Affairs. 
Another   play,    similar   in    personnel    and 
purport  .to  that  of  Mr.  Klein's,  is  described 
in  the  New  York  Times  as  follows  : 

A  youthful  mayor  who  can  not  be  bribed  or 
intimidated,  a  financier  who  wants  to  get  control 
of  a  street  railway  franchise  in  perpetuity,  and  a 
pair  of  political  bosses  who  are  at  odds  with 
each  other  and  who  are  fighting  to  gain  suprem- 
acy in  their  organization — these  are  the  chief 
characters  in  George  Broadhurst's  play,  "The 
Man  of  the  Hour,"  which  was  seen  for  the  first 
time  at  the  Savoy  Theater. 

Given  the  further  fact  that  the  young  mayor 
loves  the  financier's  niece,  that  his  opposition  to 
the  railway  deal  will  involve  her  fortune,  which 
has  been  invested  in  the  stock,  and  any  one  may 
easily  get  at  the  heart  of  what  it  required  four 
acts  to  adjust.  Less  time  might  have  been  ex- 
pended in  solving  the  issues.  But  in  justice  to 
Mr.  Broadhurst  it  must  be  said  that  a  good  deal 
of  very  fair  enjoyment  would  have  been  sacri- 
ficed thereby. 

"The  Man  of  the  Hour"  is  virile  melodrama. 
It  is  best  in  its  scenes  of  political  juggling,  but 
there  is  a  vein  of  good  fun,  and  occasionally  of 
the  genuine  humor  of  character  contrast  running 
pleasantly  through  the  whole.  It  contains  three 
or  four  highly  amusing  figures,  and  has  three  or 
four  situations  that  are  theatrically  intense. 
And  though  one  may  have  guessed  for  a  moment 
at  the  outset  that  the  financier's  private  secre- 
tary, who  is  eventually  to  betray  him  into  the 
hands  of  his  enemies,  is  none  other  than  the  son 
of  the  man  whom  he  (the  financier)  ruined  so 
many  years  before,  so  much  will  have  happened 
before  that  denouement  comes  that  the  point 
will  be  made  with  nearly  as  much  effectiveness 
as  if  it  had  not  all  been  skilfully  planned  for 
in  advance. 

As  a  matter  of  fact,  there  is  a  good  deal  of 
ingenuity  exhibited  in  Mr.  Broadhurst's  play, 
skill  in  composition  and  in  arrangement.    He  di.s- 


116 


THE    PANDEX 


plays  constructive  cleverness,  and  he  has  written 
some  excellent  natural  dialogue.  And  several 
capital  actors  play  the  principal  character  roles 
and  lend  the  value  of  excellent  service  to  the 
play.  Of  its  kind,  it  is  the  most  entertaining 
seen  in  several  seasons. 


GOSSIP  COSTS  FOUR  LIVES 


Man's  Attack  on  Woman's  Good  Name  Causes 
Murder  and  Three  Suicides. 
While  such  dramatists  as  the  above  are 
reaching  the  public  ear  and  eye  with  the 
plays  of  intimate  human  passion,  there  Ijap- 
pens  such  tragedy  as  the  following  in  real 
life.  The  item  is  from  the  Chicago  Record- 
Kerald: 

Owosso,  Mich. — The  slighting  words  of  one 
man  concerning  the  honor  of  a  neighbor's  wife 
have  cost  the  lives  of  four  persons  in  West  Haven 
township  within  the  last  five  days.  Mrs.  Burt 
A.  Seeley,  the  woman  of  whom  the  words  were 
spoken,  and  her  husband,  who  was  suspected  of 
the  murder  of  Edwin  Edgar,  the  woman 's  ac- 
cuser, committed  suicide  last  night.  Edgar  was 
murdered  last  Wednesday.  Mrs.  Melvin  Haugh- 
ton  was  the  fourth  victim.  Her  mind  became 
unsettled  by  the  strain  of  Edgar's  murder,  and 
Thursday  she  drank  acid. 

The  bodies  of  Seeley  and  his  wife  were  found 
in  bed  this  morning.  The  husband's  arm  was' 
about  his  wife.  A  bottle  of  strychnine,  from 
which  they  had  taken  large  quantities,  was  on 
a  stand  by  the  bed.  Pinned  to  the  cover  of  the 
stand  were  these  notes : 

"To-night,  to-night  is  our  last.  Don't  blame 
Dewev.     Good-by,  good-bv,   mother. 

"B.  A.  Seeley." 

"Good-by,  father,  mother,  and  everybody; 
Burt  and  I  have  taken  poison.  Take  our  things 
and  do  as  you  have  a  mind  to  with  them,  and 
above  all  things  don't  put  any  blame  on  Dewey's 
shoulders  or  anyone  else.  We  alone  E^re  respon- 
sible. Your  daughter, 

"Lottie." 

Dewey  is  Burt  Seeley 's  brother. 

Seeley  and  Edgar  lived  within  a  quarter  of 
a  mile  of  each  other  from  childhood,  attending 
the  same  country  school  and  settling  down  on 
farms  on  the  same  road.  As  they  grew  up,  their 
pathways  drew  apart.  Edgar  had  the  reputation 
of  being  a  model  young  man,  while  Seeley  was 
wild. 

The  first  open  quarrel  between  the  two  oc- 
curred one  Sunday  late  in  September,  when  they 
met  in  the  woods.  Seeley  declared  his  mother 
had  said  Edgar  was  making  threats  to  "do  him 
up." 

"Then  your  mother  is  a  liar,"  Edgar  replied. 

The  altercation  grew.  Then  Edgar  one  day 
made  the  remark  which  is  believed  to  have  caused 


his  death.    To  another  man  he  asserted  that  Mrs. 
Seeley  was  unfaithful  to  her  husband. 

The  story  reached  the  ears  of  Seeley  and  his 
wife.  Both  were  infuriated,  and  it  is  believed 
by  many  that  Mrs.  Seeley  urged  her  husband, 
whom  she  seems  to  have  dominated  in  all  his  acts, 
that  he  avenge  the  attack  upon  her  name.  Edgar 
was  ambushed  at  night  on  a  lonely  road  and 
shot  to  death. 

At  first  the  police  were  at  a  loss  to  solve  the 
murder  mystery.  Then  they  learned  of  the  old 
enmity  between  Seeley  and  Edgar.  Seeley  and 
his  wife  were  summoned  to  appear  at  the  in- 
quest. The  inquiry  was  set  for  an  early  day. 
Circumstantial  evidence,  so  strong  that 
Seeley  apparently  believed  he  could  not  escape, 
was  uncovered. 

It  was  then  the  determination  of  the  man  and 
wife  to  end  their  lives  and  the  woman's  control 
over  her  husband  was  apparent.  The  note  written 
by  her  is  in  firm,  clear  writing.  Seeley 's  hand- 
writing is  wavering  and  betrays  the  agitation 
under  which  he  was  laboring.  From  the  condi- 
tion of  the  stomachs  of  the  man  and  wife,  too, 
it  was  apparent  that  Seeley  had  eaten  no  supper, 
while  the  woman,  calm  and  determined,  to  the 
last,  had  had  a  substantial  meal. 


FORGETS  CASTELLANE  CASE 


Paris   Society   Finds   a   New   Sensation   Keener 
Than  Count  Boni's. 

In  France,  where  life  has  never  been  lack- 
ing in  food  for  the  dramatic  imagination, 
there  is  such  an  incident  as  the  following  to 
recall  the  Castellane  case  and  to  encourage 
the  playwright  toward  the  composition  of  a 
v/ork  that  will  adequately  portray  both  the 
satire  and  the  pathos  of  the  foreign- 
American  marriages.  Said  the  New  York 
American : 

Paris. — Rivalling  the  widespread  interest  dis- 
played by  the  gay  set  of  Paris  in  the  Count 
Boni  de  Castellane  divorce  proceedings  is  that 
in  the  coming  hearing  of  the  Le  Bargy  divorce 
case.  The  rush  of  applications  for  seats  in  the 
court  is  unprecedented.  Madame  Le  Bargy  has 
been  thrust  before  the  public  not  only  as  an 
actress  of  great  talent,  but  also  for  the  attention 
which  she  received  from  the  son  of  Casimer- 
Perier,  a  former  president  of  the  republic.  It 
is  concerning  this  affair  that  the  suit  has  come 
about. 

Madame  Simone  Le  Bargy,  wife  of  the  cele- 
brated actor,  was  at  the  height  of  her  histrionic 
success  in  June  as  the  heroine  of  Bernstein 's 
"La  Rafale,"  when  the  production  came  to  a 
sudden  end.  The  star  and  her  impetuous  young 
admirer  of  twenty-three  had  fled  to  London, 
away  from  her  husband,  who  is  the  idol  of  the 
French  matinee.     The  Ex-president  followed   to 


T  HE     P  A  N  D  E  X 


117 


BEFORE     AND 

The  way  a  franc  looked  to  Boni  when  he  was 
in  close  touch  with  the  Gould  cash  box.  (Arrow 
shows  franc.) 


AFTER. 


The  way  a  franc  looks  to  Boni  since  the  en- 
tente cordiale  between  himself  and  the  cash  box 
has  been  disturbed.     (Arrow  shows  Boni.) 

— Chicago  Tribune. 


entreat  his  son  to  return  to  France  and  became 
himself  enamored  of  the  charms  of  the  beauty. 
The  injured  husband  sought  in  vain  to  win  her 
back,  and  got  the  answer  from  her,  "It  matters 
little  whom  one  lives  with.  Life  is  boring  any- 
way. ' ' 

Admission  to  French  divorce  trials  is  by  in- 
vitation only,  the  lawyers  and  judges  giving  out 
the  tickets.  In  this  instance  there  will  be  far 
too  few  cards  to  go  around.  Casimer-Perier  was 
the  richest  and,  after  Carnot,  the  most  distin- 
guished and  polished  of  French  presidents. 


RABBI  UPHOLDS  A  PLAY 


Indianapolis     Jewish     Preacher     Approves     the 
Dramatic  Satire  of  Shaw. 
That  Bernard  Shaw  was  not  entirely  apart 
from  the  thought  of  his  times  is  suggested 


iri    the    following   from   the    Chicago   Inter- 
Ocean  : 

Cleveland,  Ohio. — In  a  sermon  on  "Shifting 
Standards  of  Morality"  at  the  Wilson  Avenue 
Temple,  Rabbi  N.  Feurliclit  of  Indianapolis  de- 
clared that  the  Shaw  comedy,  "Man  and  Super- 
man," is  an  incisive  indictment  against  moral 
standards  of  the  time.  He  said  that  it  was  folly 
to  plead  not  guilty  to  the  charges  the  play  makes 
as  too  many  of  them  are  true. 

As  an  illustration  of  what  is  termed  that  staid 
and  sometimes  cowardly  morality  of  the  day,  at 
which  Shaw  takes  a  fling  in  his  play.  Rabbi  Feur- 
licht  cited  the  case  of  Maxim  Gorky,  Russian 
novelist,  who  was  given  so  chilly  a  reception  in 
America  when  the  claim  was  made  by  a  hotel- 
keeper  that  his  companion  was  not  his  legal  wife. 

"He  came  upon  a  special  errand,  a  great  polit- 
ical   and    humanitarian     mission,"     said     Rabbi 


118 


THE     PANDEX 


Feurlicht.  "We  welcomed  him  with  loud  ac- 
claim. 

"The  aristocracy  of  wealth  and  culture  of  the 
land  admired  and  fawned  upon  him.  Newspapers 
exalted  and  praised  him.  But  suddenly  all  this 
ceased.  A  hotel-keeper  in  New  York,  representa- 
tive and  guardian  of  our  twentieth  century  mo- 
rality, refused  to  receive  the  novelist.  His  com- 
panion, it  was  said,  was  not  his  legal  wife.  All 
at  onee  the  great  emissary  of  freedom  was 
dropped  as  an  unclean  thing  into  the  gutter. 
Praise  was  turned  into  abuse ;  admiration  into 
vituperation.  Society  which  had  fondled  him 
closed  the  doors  upon  him. 

"Maxim  Gorky  had  been  wedded,  but  the 
couple  disagreed.  A  divorce  was  impossible  in 
Russia,  so  each  lived  apart  and  each  remarried, 
his  wife  even  before  he.  Gorky  selected  as  his 
wife  one  of  the  most  reputable  and  brilliant 
women  of  Russia. 

"We,  apparently  a  just  and  reasonable  people, 
were  eager  to  show  our  respectability.  To  do 
so  we  sacrificed  the  two  eternal  principles  of 
righteousness  and  justice — righteousness  in  that 
we  failed  to  search  for  the  truth,  and  justice  in 
that  we  neglected  a  transcendent  opportunity 
to  rescue  a  suffering  people  from  aristocratic 
bondage. 

"It  is  just  that  sort  of  conduct  against  which 
'Man  and  Superman'  is  aimed.  Because  of  our 
conventional  standards  we  are  all  more  or  less 
prudes. ' ' 


MUD-RAKES  MEDICAL  PROFESSION 


"Sick  Doctor  Is  Most  Tragic  Thing  in  World," 
Says  Playwright. 

If  there  was  a  time  in  England  when  the 
honored  practices  of  the  medical  profession 
were  made  the  butt  of  keen  sarcasm  by 
Charles  Reade,  it  is  not  inconceivable,  from 
the  following  item  from  the  Chicago  Inter- 
Ocean,  that  a  present-day  satirist  like  Shaw 
may  again  aim  shafts  at  the  medicists  and 
their  ways : 

London. — Here  is  some  of  the  talk  in  George 
Bernard  Shaw's  play,  "The  Doctor's  Dilemma": 

"Most  medical  discoveries  are  made  every  lif- 
teen  years  regularly." 

"The  most  tragic  thing  in  the  world  is  a  sick 
doctor.  He  is  like  a  bald-headed  man  trying  to 
sell  a  hair  restorer." 

"We  would  be  far  healthier  if  every  chem- 
ist's shop  in  England  were  demolished." 

"What  is  a  surgical  operation?  Only  manual 
labor." 

"I  don't  believe  in  morality.  I  am  a  disciple 
of  Bernard  Shaw." 

"It  shows  want  of  taste  to  speak  about  death, 
especially  in  the  presence  of  a  medical  man." 

"If  you  knew  as  much  as  I  about  the  ignorance 
and  superstition  of  patients  you  would  wonder 
at  doctors  being  as  honest  as  they  are." 


The  play  is  very  successful,  although  the 
critics  agree  that  it  is  not  a  play  at  all,  only  a 
discourse  a  la  Shaw  in  three  acts  and  an  epilogue. 

The  chief  problem  the  play  offers  for  discus- 
sion is,  of  course:  "Was  the  doctor  right?" 
but  this  is  only  one  of  the  questions  raised  in 
the  play's  course.  "Should  widows  marry 
again?"  "Ought  artists  be  honest?"  "Do  doe- 
tors  know  anything?"  "Should  children  be  vac- 
cinated ? "  "Is  the  vivisection  of  dogs  justifi- 
able?" are  a  few  others. 


A  JAPANESE  DREAM  PLAY 


Invited  Audience   Sees   Fuji-Ko   at  the   Garden 
Theater  in  New  York. 

Sooner  of  later,  of  course,  some  dramatist 
i^J  going  to  be  able  to  rise  to  the  treatment 
of  race  antagonisms,  such  as  are  now  current 
between  certain  people  of  the  United  States 
and  the  Japanese,  and  between  the  whites 
and  negroes.  Meantime  there  is  the  follow- 
ing incident,  as  described  in  the  New  York 
Times,  to  show  the  extent  to  which  drama  is 
extra-racial  and  extra-territorial : 

Fuji-Ko,  rejoicing  othenvise  in  the  title,  "The 
Lady  of  the  Wistarias,"  appeared  before  an  in- 
vited audience  at  the  Garden  Theater  recently  in  a 
so-called  Japanese  dream  play,  which  proved  to  be 
one  part  monologue,  very  poorly  written,  with 
one  part  moving  pictures,  and  a  tiny  bit  of 
Japanese  dancing  which  added  the  one  pleasing 
touch  of  variety  to  the  whole.  According  to  a 
note  on  the  program  the  play  is  founded  on  the 
Japanese  belief  that  the  spirits  of  dead  soldiers 
return  at  twilight — when  the  "honorable  bugle 
calls  them  home — to  guide  the  hands,  to  keep 
true  the  hearts  of  their  countrymen." 

Goruku-Tanaka,  having  been  called  to  war,  and 
supposedly  among  the  dead,  his  little  wife, 
0-Tsuri-San,  in  order  to  support  herself  and 
"the  Baby,"  adopts  the  profession  of  Geisha. 
She  tells  in  a  long  story  the  various  incidents  of 
her  life  past  and  present,  with  frequent  pauses 
in  the  recital,  while  badly  painted  biograph  pic- 
tures are  shown  supposedly  illustrating  the  inci- 
dents. The  whole  is  accompanied  by  music, 
which  someliow  fails  to  always  seem  appropriate, 
though  it  is  credited  on  the  program  to  Mr. 
Paul  Bevan,  M.  A.  F.  S.  A.,  Honorable  Secretary, 
"Japan  Society,"  London. 

Eventually  0-Tsuri-San  burns  incense  before 
an  altar,  prays  for  the  return  of  her  husband, 
and  he  stands  before  her,  a  very  substantial  sort 
of  vision.  He  tells  the  Geisha  that  he  is  not  a 
dream,  but  a  reality,  her  own  husband  come  back, 
and  the  curtain  falls. 

J\iji-Ko's  dance  with  fans  is  pretty  and  un- 
usual, but  the  rest  of  her  performance  is  color- 
less, insipid,  and  uninteresting. 


THE     PANDEX 


119 


RUSH!    RUSH!    RUSH!     HERE    COMES  THE  BOGIE  MAN. 

— New  York  American. 


REALISM  AT  WORST  IN  BERLIN 


Play  a  Succession  of  Horrors  Which  Rouse  In- 
dignation of  the  Audience. 

Before  passing  into  the  realm  of  the 
aitistic  and  the  permanent,  all  forms  of  art 
usually  have  to  express  themselves  in  the 
most  extreme  terms  of  realism.  The  follow- 
ing from  the  Philadelphia  North  American 
i -.  an  instance  in  point : 

Berlin. — Remarkable  scenes  took  place  at  the 
production  of  a  drama  entitled  "Chevalier  Blue- 
beard," by  Herr  Herbert  Eulenberg,  at  the  Les- 
sing  Theater  here  recently. 

The  play  surpasses  anything  that  has  liitherto 


been  presented  to  the  theater-going  public  in  the 
way  of  downright  sordid  and  horrible  realism. 

In  the  first  act  the  horrified  audience  saw  on 
the  stage  a  crypt  in  which  lay  the  heads  of  five 
wives  already  murdered  by  Bluebeard.  The  sec- 
ond act  represented  a  wedding  banquet  on  the 
stage,  which  is  suddenly  disturbed  by  the  only 
son  of  Bluebeard,  who  drinks  until  he  falls  into 
delirium  tremens,  and  then  runs  amuck,  demol- 
ishing everything  within  his  reach.  Suddenly, 
after  a  most  disgusting  exhibition  of  drunken 
delirium,  he  falls  on  his  knees  and  says  the 
Lord's  Prayer. 

More  Horrors. 

The  third  act  reveals  Bluebeard  murdering  his 
sixth  wife.    During  the  fourth  act  the  burial  of 


120 


THE     PANDEX 


the  sixth  wife  takes  place  on  the  stage.  There 
is  a  coffin,  with  weeping  relatives,  and  after  the 
funeral  service  the  coffin  is  lowered  into  the  grave 
by  ropes,  the  planks  are  removed  and  earth  is 
thi-own  on  the  coffin. 

The  son,  still  in  delirium  tremens,  hangs  him- 
self on  a  tree  on  the  stage  in  full  view  of  the 
audience,  and  soon  afterward  the  dead  wife's  sis- 
ter drowns  herself  in  despair. 

The  fifth  act  shows  Bluebeard  attempting  to 
murder  his  seventh  and  last  wife.  She  escapes 
from  him,  springs  into  the  flames  of  his  burning 
castle  and  perishes,  likewise  in  full  view  of  the 
audience.  Her  father  and  brother  thereupon  ap- 
pear and  kill  Bluebeard  without  more  ado. 

This  play  is  not  intended  to  be  melodramatic, 
but  an  extremely  modern  realistic  drama,  the 
Lessing  Theater  having  long  enjoyed  the  repu- 
tation of  being  the  home  of  one  of  the  highest 
forms  of  dramatic  art. 

The  audience  began  to  hoot,  shout,  and  hiss  in 
the  third  act,  and  general  indignation  rose  by 
degrees  until  a  perfect  storm  broke  out  in  the 
last  act.  The  spectators  shouted:  "This  is  dis- 
gusting!" "This  is  a  scandal!"  "This  is  pro- 
fane!"   "Stop  it!" 

Loud  hoots  and  hisses  at  times  made  the  actors 
almost  inaudible,  and  many  persons  rose  in  their 
places  and  shook  their  fists  at  the  actors  and 
actresses,  gesticulating  wildly  with  righteous  in- 
dignation. 

Most  critics  condemn  the  play,  but  a  few 
praise  it  as  revealing  wonderful  talent. 


COURTED  BY  MAIL  EIGHT  YEARS 


Trenton  Co-ed  Will  Journey  Alone  to  the  Philip- 
pines to   Wed   Her   Soldier. 

Here  is  another  of  the  incidents  of  real 
romance  that  serve  to  keep  up  the  imagina- 
tion of  the  playwrights.  It  is  from  the  New- 
York  World : 

Trenton,  N.  J. — A  romance  of  two  former 
co-eds  in  the  state  schools  here  will  have  a  happy 
climax  in  a  wedding  in  the  Philippines.  The 
principals  are  Miss  Florence  Wilkinson  Watson, 
daughter  of  John  Watson,  a  Trenton  business 
man  of  prominence,  and  Lieutenant  William  T. 
Butler,  a  former  resident  of  Morrisville,  Pa.,  now 
serving  in  the  United  States  Army  in  the  Philip- 
pines. 

The  bride-elect  will  travel  alone  across  the  con- 
tinent and  by  steamship  to  the  Philippines,  and 
upon  her  arrival  in  Manila  the  ceremony  will  be 
performed. 

Miss  Watson  has  not  seen  her  sweetheart  in 
eight  years.  In  that  time  he  had  done  all  his 
courting  by  mail.  She  was  only  a  school  girl 
when  he  left  home  to  join  Uncle  Sam's  forces  in 
the  war  with  Spain,  but  at  his  request  she  prom- 
ised to  write  to  him. 

Cupid  kept  a  watchful  eje  on   the  mails   and 


for  eight  years  letters  between  the  couple  were 
very  regular.  Recently  there  was  a  proposal 
from  the  soldier  and  an  acceptance  by  the  girl. 
Lieutenant  Butler  could  not  leave  his  post  of 
duty,  even  to  be  married,  and  so  his  bride  will  go 
to  him.  She  says  she  is  not  afraid  to  make  tlie 
long  journey  alone. 

The  bridegroom-to-be  is  a  self-made  officer. 
He  entered  the  service  as  a  private.  Miss  Wat- 
son will  start  for  the  Philippines  as  soon  as  she 
can  get  her  trousseau  ready. 


WOMAN  LASHED  TO  WHEEL 

Brings  the  Gold  Hunter  to  Machias,  Maine,  After 
a  Terrible  Experience. 
The     following,     from     the     Indianapolis 
News,  is  likely  some  day  to  find  its  way  into 
the  melodrama : 

Machias,  Me. — To  the  heroic  fortitude  of  the 
captain's  wife,  Mrs.  Frank  McGuire,  who  stood 
lashed  to  the  wheel  during  the  severe  gale  that 
swept  the  New  England  coast  from  Sunday,  No- 
vember 11,  to  the  following  Wednesday,  is  due 
largely  the  safety  of  the  schooner  Gold  Hunter, 
of  Blue  Hills,  Me.,  which  woiked  her  way  into 
this  harbor,  eleven  days  overdue  from  Portland. 
The  little  vessel  showed  plainly  the  marks  of  the 
storm.  Her  deck  was  swept  clean  and  her  sails 
were  in  tatters,  but  the  hull  withstood  the  ter- 
rific pounding  it  received. 

The  Gold  Hunter,  with  Captain  McGuire,  his 
wife,  and  one  man  for  an  assistant,  left  Port- 
land, November  10,  with  a  general  cargo  for  this 
port.  November  11  the  Gold  Hunter  made  good 
progress  with  clear  weather  until  afternoon, 
when  the  wind  breezed  up  from  the  northeast 
while  the  vessel  was  four  miles  off  Peter  Manan 
light. 

Split  the  Mainsail. 

A  sudden  gust  of  wind  split  the  mainsail  of 
the  vessel  and  carried  away  the  jibs.  Without 
her  headsails  the  little  schooner  became  unman- 
ageable. The  sea  made  up  rapidly  and  the  vessel 
was  continually  smothered  in  the  wash  of  the 
combers.  Mrs.  McGuire  was  below  at  the  time 
the  storm  broke,  preparing  supper,  but  rushed 
on  deck  and  took  the  wheel  while  her  husband 
and  his  assistant  went  to  work  to  bend  on  a  fore- 
sail so  as  to  bring  the  vessel  up  to  the  wind. 

W^ith  the  ei'aft  wallowing  wildly  in  the  trough 
of  the  sea  this  task  was  most  difficult.  With 
great  patience  and  consummate  seamanship  the 
two  men  labored  for  hours  to  get  their  little  rag 
of  sail  set.  while  Mrs.  McGuire,  lashed  to  the 
wheel,  aided  as  well  as  she  could  by  what  little 
steering  was  possible  on  the  almost  helpless 
craft.  Finally  the  foresail  was  rigged,  double 
reefed,  and  while  the  two  men  clung  exhausted 
to  the  mast,  Mrs.  McGuire  brought  the  vessel 
around  head-up  to  the  wind  and  held  her  there 
for  forty-eight  hours. 


THE    PANDEX 


121 


Drifted  Out  to  Sea. 
Before  the  fury  of  the  gale  the  vessel  drifted 
out  to  sea  for  ninety-six  miles  off  Mount  Desert 
Rock.  In  all  this  time  it  was  impossible  to  cook 
food  or  even  to  heat  any  coffee.  Kept  up  only 
by   excitement   and  pluck,   Mrs.   McGuire   clung 


with  the  helm  "kicking"  strongly  to  the  wild 
plunges  of  the  ship,  but  the  endurance  of  the 
rugged  north  woman  was  equal  to  the  test. 

November  13  the  gale  abated,  and  the  two 
men  rigged  temporary  sails  before  Mrs.  McGuire 
could  be  relieved  from  her  post.    All  hands  were 


THE  DUKE  AND  COUNT  CLUB. 


to  her  post  through  the  height  of  the  gale,  while 
Captain  McGuire  and  his  man  attended  to  their 
little  storm  sail,  which  continually  broke  from  its 
fastenings.     It  was  a  man's  work  at  the  wheel 


exhausted  with  their  struggles  and  exposure,  and 
under  such  scanty'  canvas  as  could  be  set  it  was 
hard  and  slow  work  bringing  the  Gold  Hunter 
into  port,  where  she  had  been  given  up  for  lost. 


122 


THE     PANDEX 


CHANCE  FREED  HIM  FROM  PRISON 


Man  Who  Procured  His  Conviction  Twenty-three 

Years  Ago,  Touched  by  Pity,  Obtains 

a  Pardon  from  Governor. 

Either  melodrama  or  the  sincere  romance 

ox  human  strife    may    take    the    following 

from  the  New  York  World  for  its  theme : 

The  circumstances  that  led  to  the  release  last 
Monday  of  Guiseppe  Guidici  from  life  imprison- 
ment in  Auburn  prison  show  what  an  important 
factor  chance  is  in  the  career  of  some  men. 
Twenty-four  years  ago  a  mere  boy  in  intelligence 
and  experience  came  to  this  country  from  Italy. 
Behind  him  he  left  his  four-year-old  sister  Anna, 
whom  he  promised  to  bring  over  as  soon  as  he 
had  made  enough  money.  Three  months  later 
he  was  under  sentence  of  death  for  the  muVder 
of  a  countrymen  whom  he  shot  in  a  quarrel.  His 
case  at  that  time  excited  a  great  deal  of  sym- 
pathy, and  through  the  intercession  of  such  well- 
known  persons  as  Judge  Tracy,  Henry  Ward 
Beecher,  General  Catlin,  Judge  Rapallo,  and  Mr. 
and  Mrs.  Cantoni,  of  Brooklyn,  David  B.  Hill, 
then  governor,  commuted  his  sentence  to  life 
imprisonment. 

He  was  first  taken  to  Sing  Sing,  where  his 
good  behavior  and  quiet  demeanor  won  him  the 
praise  and  confidence  of  the  prison  officials  and 
in  1890  he  was  transferred  to  Auburn.  For 
twenty  years  Guidici  labored  behind  prison  walls 
utterly  despairing  that  he  would  ever  become  a 
free  man  again.  Last  February,  however,  by 
strange  chance.  Justice  Almet  F.  Jenks,  of  the 
Appellate  Division  of  the  Supreme  Court,  who 
in  1884,  as  assistant  district  attorney  of  Kings 
Couiity,  conducted  the  prosecution  of  Guidici, 
met  him  in  Auburn  Prison. 

A  Strange  Meeting. 

The  Justice,  in  company  with  Justice  Nathan 
L.  Miller-,  had  gone  to  Rochester  to  attend  a  ban- 
quet given  to  the  justices  of  the  Appellate  Divi- 
sion, and  was  the  guest  of  Justice  Rich,  who  sug- 
gested a  visit  to  the  prison.  It  was  Sunday,  and 
the  warden  in  showing  them  around  chanced  to 
call  Guidici,  who  was  near  by,  to  bring  him  a 
key.  When  the  convict  returned.  Justice  Jenks, 
much  impressed  with  the  quiet  demeanor  of 
Guidici,  made  inquiries  about  him. 

When  told  the  history  of  the  man,  the  Justice 
suddenly  recalled  that  he  had  conducted  his 
prosecution.  Questioning  the  warden  still 
further,  he  learned  that  of  all  trustworthy  and 
well-behaved  convicts  in  the  prison,  Guidici  was 
the  model.  He  had  earned  the  confidence  of  the 
warden  and  the  keepers  and  for  eleven  years  had 
been  a  trusty  with  the  freedom  of  the  entire 
prison.  Justice  Jenks  was  touched  and  calling 
the  prisoner  to  him  said: 

"Guidici,  do  you  remember  me?  I  was  the 
district  attorney  who  sent  you  here." 

"No,  sir,"  replied  the  prisoner. 


"Would  you  like  to  be  free?"  continued  the 
Justice. 

"Yes,  sir,  I  would,"  rejoined  Guidici.  "I  am 
contented  here.  They  treat  me  very  well,  but  I 
would  like  to  be  free.  I  have  been  here  so  long — 
twenty-three  years,"  and  bowed  with  grief  the 
convict  hung  his  head  while  tears  rolled  down 
his  cheeks. 

Justice  Jenks  was  much  affected  and  promised 
Guidici  that  he  would  try  to  secure  his  pardon. 
From  that  day  he,  as  well  as  Judge  Miller,  la- 
bored until  they  obtained  a  full  pardon  for  Gui- 
dici from  Governor  Higgins.  But  the  kind- 
hearted  justices  did  not  stop  there.  They  wanted 
to  make  the  man's  future  as  secure  as  possible, 
and  accordingly  Guidici  will  leave  in  a  parlor 
coach  on  the  New  York  Central  Railroad  for 
Cortland,  N.  Y.,  where  Justice  Miller  has  a 
farm.  There  work  will  be  given  Guidici  for  the 
rest  of  his  days. 


CALLS  LOVE  A  DREAM 


Lecturer  Says  Race   Will  End  in  Madhouse  if 
Present  Marriages  Go  On. 

Occasionally  the  misanthrope  appears  in 
actual  life  exactly  as  in  the  play.  Here  is  a 
recent  instance,  as  given  in  the  Chicago 
Keeord-Herald : 

' '  If  the  people  of  America  would  keep  the  com- 
ing generations  from  inhabiting  madhouses  they 
should  abolish  indiscriminate  marriages,  forget 
that  hallucination  called  love,  and  choose  their 
life  partners  on  the  same  principle  that  a  suc- 
cessful cattleman  chooses  his  stock." 

In  the  above  sentence  Doctor  Julius  Grinker, 
professor  of  nervous  and  mental  diseases  at  the 
Chicago  Post  Graduate  Medical  School,  recently 
voiced  a  warning  to  the  American  public  of  the 
great  dangers  which  may  confront  it  in  the  near 
future.  He  spoke  in  the  Public  Library  Building 
under  the  auspices  of  the  Chicago  Medical  Soci- 
ety on  "American  Nervousness,  Its  Cause  and 
Cure."    A  large  audience  listened  to  the  address. 

Doctor  Grinker  eliminated  all  scientific  terms 
from  his  lecture  and  told  the  audience  in  plain 
words  of  the  nervous  diseases  which  were  slowly 
but  surely  eating  their  way  into  the  lives  of  the 
people  of  this  country.  Considerable  stress  was 
laid  on  the  subject  of  marriage  and  heredity,  and 
the  great  evils  which  result  from  bad  marriages 
were  shown. 

"Like  begets  like,"  said  he,  "and  the  nervous 
system  bows  to  the  law  of  all  life — the  law  of 
heredity;  the  law  that  governs  your  life  and 
mine.  If  we  are  bundles  of  unstable  nerves  and 
abnormal  susceptibilities,  it  is  but  little  trouble 
to  trace  the  cause  back  to  our  forefathers.  The 
youth  of  to-day  should  be  educated  and  com- 
pelled to  choose  his  mate  in  the  way  that  fine 
horses  and  cattle  are  chosen.  When  a  man 
comes  to  marrying  he  should  choose  his  wife  in 
the  same  way  that  she  chooses  a  new  dress. 

"Love  is  a  wonderful  thing.     It  is  a  halluci- 


THE     PANDEX 


123 


nation,  an  illusion  provided  by  nature  to  cause 
men  and  women  to  mate  and  to  procreate  the 
species.  But  love  should  be  thrust  in  the  back- 
ground and  relegated  to  the  scrap  heap  of  worn- 
out  adages  if  the  health  and  security  of  poster- 
ity is  to  be  taken  into  consideration.  Do  not 
have  your  children  afflicted  with  the  evils  that 
have  been  inflicted  upon  you.  Stop  falling  in  love 
with  a  pretty  face,  and  get  a  wife  who  is  healthy 
and  will  rear  strong  and  wholesome  children. 

"If  there  could  be  a  law  passed  in  this  coun- 
try by  which  men  and  women  would  be  compelled 
to  undergo  physical  examinations  and  have  the 
physical  records  of  their  ancestors  investigated 
before  a  marriage  would  be  allowed  it  would  be 
the  best  thing  that  could  possibly  happen.  If  it 
were  possible  that  this  law  could  be  passed, 
hundreds  of  diseases,  ailments,  and  ills  would 
be  eradicated  from  the  race." 

Doctor  Grinker  spoke  of  the  prevailing  causes 
of  nervousness  and  told  of  the  numerous  little 
things  by  which  the  neuresthenic  could  be  easily 
distinguished.  America,  he  said,  had  more  nerv- 
ous people  than  any  other  country  in  the  world, 
almost  one  member  of  every  family  in  the  United 
States  being  afflicted  with  some  form  or  other 
of  nervousness.  Among  the  most  nervous  class, 
he  said,  women  predominated. 

"You  see  thousands  and  thousands  of  nervous 
women  on  the  streets  every  day,"  said  he,  "and 
about  ninety-nine  out  of  a  hundred  should  be 
in  a  sanitarium.  The  shopping  habit  is  one  of 
the  great  causes." 

Besides  heredity,  Doctor  Grinker  said  that  en- 
vironment had  much  to  do  with  the  prevailing 
nervous  epidemic.  The  bringing  up  of  children, 
he  said,  was  the  most  important  and  the  most 
ignored  phase  of  the  situation. 


NEW  MARRIAGE  SOLUTION 


New  York  Woman  Creates  a  Storm  by  Proposing 
Trial  Wedlock. 

No  drama  of  the  current  day  could  be 
adequate,  whether  it  pretended  to  be  prob- 
Ifiri  play  or  not,  which  failed  to  take  account 
of  the  almost  universal  controversy  as  to 
how  love,  which  seeks  to  express  itself  in 
matrimony,  may  most  safely  risk  its  gratifi- 
cation. Therefore,  it  will  be  others  than  thtj 
comedians  who  will  give  their  minds  to  the 
following  from  the  Chicago  Inter-Ocean: 

New  York. — Trial  marriage  is  one  of  the  re- 
forms advocated  by  Mrs.  Elsie  Clews  Parsons  in 
a  book  published  by  G.  P.  Putnam's  Sons,  en- 
titled, "The  Family." 

The  author  is  the  daughter  of  Henry  Clews, 
the  banker,  and  wife  of  Congressman  Herbert 
Parsons  of  this  city.  She  is  a  doctor  of  philoso- 
phy, a  Hartley  housefellow,  and  was  for  six  years 
a  lecturer  in  sociology  at  Harvard  College.  The 
volume  just  issued  consists  of  fifteen  lectures.   It 


is  a  comprehensive,  painstaking  essay  of  the 
family  relations  from  ancient  times  to  the  pres- 
ent day,  and  embraces  a  great  mass  of  data  con- 
cerning marriage  among  all  civilized  people. 

For  the  infelicities  which  beset  the  institution 
of  matrimony  to-day  Mrs.  Parsons  oilers  reme- 
dies, to  be  applied  before  or  after  the  nuptial 
knot  is  tied.  The  ante-marriage  precaution  she 
advises  is  a  legal  supervision  of  the  qualities  of 
the  would-be  contracting  parties,  to  the  end  that 
their  fitness  for  the  connubial  state  may  be  deter- 
mined before  the  license  is  granted. 

Favors  Marriage  on  Probation. 

She  has  much  to  say  about  trial  or  time  mar- 
riages. The  trial  marriage  as  suggested  by  her 
is  a  union  in  which  the  couple  set  a  time  limit 
on  the  partnership  or  fix  a  period  of  probation. 
At  the  end  of  such  period,  if  the  relation  is  found 
to  be  satisfactory,  it  may  be  continued. 

If,  for  any  of  the  many  reasons  Mrs.  Parsons 
enumerates,  the  man  and  wife  deem  it  best  to 
part,  they  may  do  so  by  mutual  agreement,  with- 
out the  intervention  of  the  courts.  The  author 
favors,  also,  the  removal  of  legal  restraint  on 
either  the  man  or  woman  so  divorced  from  remar- 
rying. 

Intended  as  Guide  to  Mothers. 

The  main  part  of  the  book  is  given  to  the 
story  of  social  origins  and  developments,  par- 
ticularly in  respect  to  the  family  relation.  In  the 
closing  chapter,  which  is  an  ethical  consideration 
of  what  has  gone  before,  the  author  points  out 
present-day  matrimonial  evils  and  suggests  re- 
forms. The  work  as  a  whole,  Mrs.  Parsons  says, 
is  intended  to  prove  a  useful  guide  for  the  intel- 
ligent mothers,  "who,  single-handed,  undertake 
the  responsibility  of  fitting  their  daughters  for 
useful  and  joyous  womanhood." 

After  showing  that  men  and  women  bent  upon 
maniage  in  the  past  gave  no  thought  to  society's 
welfare,  the  author  says  that  she  perceives  a 
changing  tendency  in  modern  times. 

"There  are  signs  already,"  she  announces, 
"of  the  spread  of  the  idea  that  the  individual 
is  brought  to  consider  the  effects  on  society  of 
his  or  her  marriage.  Individuals  tainted  by  epi- 
lepsy, insanity,  inebriacy,  deaf  mutism,  etc.,  are 
taught  by  many  to  be  morally  guilty  if  they 
marry.  There  is  a  growing  realization  of  the 
cost  to  the  state  of  reproduction  by  its  di.seased 
or  vicious  subjects,  and  a  growing  inclination  to 
prevent  these  classes  from  reproducing  them- 
selves. 

Eugenics  a  Religious  Dogma. 

"If  the  biological  knowledge  of  the  future 
throws  more  light  upon  the  present-day  mysteries 
of  heredity — demonstrating  the  disastrous  results 
of  the  mating  of  those  handicapped  by  minor  as 
well  as  more  flagrant  taints  or  lacks — the  social 
obligation  in  marriage  will  be  held  more  and  more 
considerable.  The  social  demand  for  the  posses- 
sion of  progressive  traits,  physical,  moral,  and 
mental,  as  well  as  lack  of  disease  on  the  part  of 
the  child  bearers  and  begeters,  will  exert  more 


124 


THE     PANDBX 


and  more  pressure  upon  the  individual.  Eugenics, 
as  Professor  Dalton  suggests,  will  become  a  reli- 
gious dogma. 

"The  relation  between  married  persons  should 
be  that  best  fitting  them  for  their  task  of  parent- 
hood. It  should  be  one  allowing  for  a  full  devel- 
opment of  their  natures,  for  all  their  capabilities 
should  be  taxed  in  their  role  of  parenthood.  It 
is  unfortunate  that  in  the  emancipation-of-woman 
agitation  of  the  past  half  century  the  reformers 
failed  to  emphasize  the  social  as  well  as  the 
individualistic  need  of  change." 

Early  Marriages,  Under  Conditions. 

Mrs.  Parsons  makes  a  plea  for  early  marriages 
under  certain  conditions  of  education,  but  admits 
the  force  of  some  arguments  advanced  against 
them. 

"It  would  therefore  seem  well,"  she  says, 
"from  this  point  of  view  to  encourage  early  trial 
marriages,  the  relation  to  be  entered  into  with  a 
view  to  permanency,  but  with  the  privilege  of 
breaking  it  if  proved  unsuccessful,  and  in  the 
absence  of  offspring,  without  suffering  any  great 
degree  of  public  condemnation: 

"If  individualism  and  altruism  are  to  be  recon- 
ciled in  the  view  that  child-bearing  and  rearing 
is  the  most  important  of  all  social  services,  the 
desirability  of  change  in  many  social  relations 
in  and  out  of  the  family  will  have  to  be  frankly 
faced  and,  if  necessary,  new  adaptations  must 
be  welcomed." 

Discusses  Various  Forms. 

In  another  part  of  the  book,  which  treats  of 
the  various  forms  of  marriage,  is   this  passage : 

"Duration  of  marriage  in  the  lifetime  of  the 
married  persons  seems,  to  a  great  extent,  to  be 
dependent  upon  its  form.  Where  monogamy  pre- 
vails, it  is  often  accompanied  by  forms  of  promis- 
cuity or  by  readily  obtained  divorce.  Polygamy 
satisfies,  to  a  certain  extent,  the  desire  for  vari- 
ety to  which  transiency  of  relationships  is  often 
due.  In  this  connection  Sir  John  Lubbock  makes 
an  enlightening  distinction  between  lax  and  brit- 
tle mayriage.  Wliere  an  enduring  form  of  mar- 
riage is  prescribed,  marriage  tends  to  be  lax ;  i.  e., 
polygamous  or  accomplished  by  promiscuity; 
where  separation  is  more  or  less  optional,  it  tends 
to  be  brittle. 

"Incidentally,  let  us  note  here,  in  illustration 
of  the  brittle  marriage,  so-called  time  and  trial 
marriages.  In  time  marriages  a  contract  for  mar- 
riage for  a  stated  time  is  made.  The  time  may 
be  fpr  a  fixed  number  of  days  during  the  week 
(part  time  marriage).  This  is  a  lax  rather  than 
a  brittle  arrangement.  Or  for  a  stated  continu- 
ous period  (term  marriage,  hand  fasting).  At 
the  end  of  the  stated  period  the  relation  may  or 
may  not  be  made  permanent.  •  *  »  Trial 
marriage  is  a  variety  of  time  marriage,  it  being 
distinctly  agreed  that  the  relationship  may  be 
di.ssolved  at  any  time." 

By  making  legal  provisions  for  greater  care 
in  the  forming  of  conjugal  alliances,  however, 
Mrs.'  Parsons  would  avert  many  unhappy  results 
and  simplify  the  problem  of  felicitous  marriages. 


She  goes  so  far  as  to  suggest  a  matrimonial 
white  list,  although  she  leaves  a  possible  black 
list  to  the  imagination  of  the  reader. 


STILL  A  QUEEN— OF  DREAMS 


In  Her  Fancy  Mrs.  Astor  Still  Entertains  Many 
Who  Are  Dead  and  Gone. 
Royalty  has  always  had  its  pathetic  tales 
of  declining  greatness,  which  lives  in  mock 
state  and  holds  its  court  in  the  halls  of  its 
own  disordered  imagination;  but  few  would 
have  thought  that  America's  aristocracy 
would  ever  have  had  the  dramatic  story  to 
recount  which  is  given  as  follows  in  the 
Denver  Post : 

Her  mind  clouded,  her  health  shattered,  Mrs. 
Astor,  last  and  greatest  of  the  supreme  leaders 
of  New  York  society,  will  never  again  sit  upon 
her  throne.  A  dreamer  of  strange  dreams,  this 
American  social  leader  ends  her  career  in  sorrow. 

There  will  be  no  Astor  ball  this  season.  There 
can  not  be,  for  Mi's.  Astor  will  not  be  able  to 
entertain.  The  whispers  behind  fans,  in  bou- 
doirs, and  over  teacups  are  now  loudly  voiced  in 
the  revelation  that  Mrs.  Astor  is  insane. 

She  believes  that  she  is  still  at  the  zenith  of 
her  power  and  glory  as  a  social  leader,  but  she 
reigns  only  in  a  court  thronged  with  courtiers  of 
her  imagination,  the  images  of  lovely  women  and 
gallant  men — some  of  them  are  quick,  but  more 
dead — by  whom,  in  fancy,  she  sees  herself  sur- 
rounded. 

In  the  dead  hours  of  the  night,  the  Astor  Fifth 
Avenue  mansion  will  be  a  blaze  of  light,  and 
within  the  empty  drawing  rooms  Mrs.  Astor  will 
be  strolling  about  among  her  imaginary  guests. 

Night  after  night  the  watchman  in  front  sees 
the  lights  flash  up  in  the  drawing  rooms,  the 
conservatory,  the  guest  chambers,  the  ballroom, 
wherever  Mrs.  Astor  directs,  for  it  has  been  ar- 
ranged that  all  her  moods  and  whims  be  humored, 
and  that  she  be  under  no  physical  restraint.  Act- 
ing under  the  orders  of  Mrs.  Astor 's  children. 
Colonel  John  Jacob  Astor,  whose  mansion  ad- 
joins that  of  his  mother,  Mrs.  Orme  Wilson  and 
Mrs.  Haig,  the  servants  exert  themselves  to 
humor  her  eccentricities  and  obey  her  orders  to 
the  letter,  so  far  as  they  may  be  for  her  wel- 
fare. 

Day  and  Night  Servants  at  Her  Call. 

Taint  streams  of  music  will  creep  through  the 
massive  doors  and  double  windows.  In  her  rest- 
lessness she  oftens  craves  music.  Not  infre- 
quently a  brougham  will  dash  up  to  the  porte- 
cochere  with  a  yawning  coachman  and  footman 
on  the  box.  The  portal  will  swing  open,  perhaps, 
and  a  slim  figure,  wrapped  in  furs  and  sustained 
by  two  serving  men,  will  come  to  the  threshold. 

A  shake  of  the  head  and  the  little  group  van- 
ishes inside.  A  footman  waves  to  the  coachman 
and    the   carriage   returns   to    the   stables.     Mrs. 


THE     PANDEX 


125 


Astor  has  been  persuaded  not  to  set  out  in  the 
dead  of  night  to  pay  a  round  of  calls. 

Mrs.  Astor  is  obsessed  of  the  idea  that  she  is 
still  at  the  zenith  of  her  power  and  glory  as 
leader  of  society.  She  sits  at  her  desk,  and  with 
her  secretary,  or  companion,  plans  state  dinners, 
grand  balls,  little  supper  parties  after  the  opera. 
They  indulge  her  to  the  top  of  her  beiit.  The 
engraved  cards  with  a  line  blank  for  the  date 
are  brought  out,  names  of  the  guests  whom  she 
designates  are  written  in,  and  the  envelopes 
are  addressed. 

She  checks  off  the  list.  Querulously  she  de- 
bates upon  the  eligibility  of  this  woman  or  that 
man. 

Then  the  bundles  of  invitations  are  borne  from 
the  room  on  a  silver  salver  by  a  servant  and 
burned  in  the  furnace.  It  does  not  matter  to 
Mrs.  Astor.    She  forgets. 

In  the  daytime  she  drives,  not  often,  but  when- 
ever she  can  not  be  persuaded  to  remain  indoors. 
It  is  typical  of  her  condition  that  she  regards 
persons  and  objects  inversely.  This  renders  her 
amenable  to  control  by  taking  a  contrary,  posi- 
tion. 

How  She  Is  Managed. 

If  it  is  not  thought  best  to  permit  her  to 
drive,  Dr.  Flint,  the  nurse,  Colonel  Astor,  or  one 
of  her  .servants  will  suggest  that  she  go  out  in 
the  carriage.     Mrs.  Astor  will  decide  not  to  go. 

When  she  will  not  eat,  she  is  told  that  she 
can  not  have  food.  She  orders  it,  to  prove  her 
mastery  of  her  affairs  in  her  own  household,  and 
food  is  brought  to  her. 

She  has  conceived  the  idea  that  the  doonvays 
in  the  mansion  are  incorrectly  placed,  that  the 
arched  tops  should  be  on  the  floor  and  the  sills 
at  the  ceiling.  She  ordered  a  table  fastened  to 
the  ceiling  of  one  of  her  private  apartments, 
declaring  that  the  guests  whom  she  expected  to 
dinner  could  not  be  seated  comfortably  in  any 
other  way. 

Tlie  table  was  secured  as  she  wanted  it,  but 
she  was  not  satisfied  that  it  could  not  be  u.sed 
until  she  had  had  a  stepladder  fetched  and 
vainly  essayed  to  climb  it  to  get  to  the  table. 

Quire  after  quire  of  her  monogramed  paper 
is  covered  with  invitations  to  noted  society 
women,  asking  them  to  call  and  discuss  arrange- 
ments for  balls  and  dinners. 

The  letters,  of  course,  are  never  mailed.  The 
topics  of  which  they  treat  are  gone  from  Mrs. 
Astor 's  mind  before  the  ink  on  the  notes  is  dry. 

She  accosts  her  servants  and  other  attendants 
by  the  names  of  her  friends,  those  who  have 
shared  with  her  the  social  successes  of  the  past 
and  present  generation.  This  one  is  Mrs.  Fish, 
that  Mrs.  Belmont,  the  other  Ward  McAllister, 
another  Mrs.  Oelrichs,  a  maid  Mrs.  Vanderbilt, 
and  so  on.  Those  who  have  seen  Richard  Mans- 
field in  the  final  act  of  "Beau  Brummel"  can  im- 
agine these  distressing  and  heart-rending  scenes. 

Intervals  of  lavish  generosity  come  when  Mrs. 
Astor  will  summon  her  servants  and  deck  them 
out  in  some  of  the  treasures  of  her  wardrobe,  and 
of  her  jewel  coffers.    She  smiles  pleasedly  as  she 


tosses  them  rich  silks,  satins,  and  furs,  and  re- 
quests them  to  don  them;  or  hangs  about  their 
necks  diamond  necklaces,  ropes  of  pearls,  set- 
ting diamond  crowns,  coronets,  and  tiaras  upon 
their  heads,  and  loading  their  fingers  with  gems. 

"You  will  oblige  me  by  accepting  these,"  she 
asks  plaintively.  They  bear  the  jewels  and  the 
dresses  away  and  put  them  back  in  their  places. 

Nurses  and  Doctors  Fear  the  End  May  Come. 

Sleep  flees  her  for  days.  Then  she  is  given  opi- 
ates, not  too  many  nor  in  too  strong  doses,  for 
the  physicians  fear  for  her  heart.  She  dreads 
the  night.  When  her  fitful  tossing  ceases  and 
she  lies  quiet,  a  felt-shod  nurse  extinguishes  the 
lights  in  the  great  chamber.  Then  she  flits  to  a 
corner  and  seats  herself  where  she  can  watch 
the  bed.  In  the  shadows  the  nurse  waits,  satis- 
fled  so  long  as  the  quiet  breathing  of  the  patient 
murmurs  in  the  dark,  fearing  lest  it  cease  and 
the  impending  shadows  close  down  upon  the 
house,  as  soon  they  must. 

Mi-s.  Astor  is  the  daughter  of  Abraham  Scher- 
merhorn,  a  wealthy  merchant  of  the  old  city. 
She  was  never  a  beauty,  but  no  woman  who  rose 
to  her  eminence  in  society  was  ever  so  generally 
and  devotedly  loved  and  respected. 

It  is  a  tradition  that  she  was  never  heard  to 
utter  an  unkind  word  of  any  one.  Scandal  she 
would  neither  listen  to  nor  repeat. 

Her  sweetness  of  disposition  and  habit  was 
unchanged  even  during  the  provocations  of  the 
famous  Astor  family  feud  that  arose  over  the 
question  of  which  should  be  called  "Mrs.  Astor" 
and  be  the  head  of  the  family  on  the  distaff  side 
• — Mrs.  William  Astor  or  Mrs.  William  Waldorf 
Astor,  the  wife  of  the  son  of  John  Jacob  Astor, 
William  Astor 's  brother. 

It  was  that  victory  which  firmly  established 
Mrs.  Astor  in  her  position  as  leader  of  society. 

Mrs.  William  Waldorf  Astor,  defeated,  re- 
moved to  England  and  died  there. 

It  can  not  be  doubted  that  Mrs.  Astor  is  the 
last  society  leader.  Society  as  it  is  now  con- 
stituted is  too  large  to  resign  itself  to  the  domi- 
nation of  one  woman.  There  are  over-many 
intei-necine  quarrels.  Besides,  where  is  there  a 
woman  of  birth,  position,  and  wealth  who  has 
Mrs.  Astor 's  tact? 

Almost  Seventy-nine  Years  Old. 

The  break-down,  which  came  in  Boston  shortly 
after  she  had  landed  there  from  the  steamship 
that  brought  her  across  the  Atlantic  from 
Europe,  was  foreshadowed  while  she  was  abroad 
in  the  summer. 

All  of  her  life — she  is  now  nearly  seventy-nine 
— Mrs.  Astor  had  been  remarked  for  her  poise,  ■ 
her  excellent  sense,  and  her  repressive  inclina- 
tions. None  of  the  oddities  of  manner  which 
usually  presage  the  advance  of  age  marred  her 
demeanor. 

But  last  summer  there  was  a  change.  As  much 
as  her  strength  would  permit,  she  plunged  into 
the  gaieties  of  the  various  resorts  which  she 
visited.  This  was  startling,  for  Mrs.  Astor  for 
years  had  shunned  such  things. 


126 


THE     PANDEX 


Her  high  spirits  were  noticeably  at  variance 
with  her  customary  placidity.  She  ranged  the 
fashionable  shops  of  London  and  Paris,  buying 
lavishly  of  the  beautiful  garments  which  were 
laid  out  for  her  inspection.  She  talked  of  a 
social  season  in  New  York  this  winter  which 
should  be  the  crowning  triumph  of  her  career. 

"I  am  growing  younger  and  younger  every 
day,"  she  frequently  told  her  friends.  "Would 
you  be  surprised  if  I  should  marry  again?" 

None  of  the  toilettes  which  she  chose  was  suit- 
able for  an  elderly  woman.  They  were  of  bril- 
liant hues  and  radiant  materials,  the  most  daring 
conceptions  of  the  Parisian  modistes. 

Most  of  the  gowns  were  such  as  would  be  worn 
by  a  girl  of  twenty. 

With  them  she  ordered  coquettish  little  hats, 
confections,  such  as  she  had  never  cared  for 
previously.      Trunkful    after    trunkful    of    these 


fripperies,  representing  a  great  sum,  were  exam- 
ined by  the  customs  inspectors  at  Boston. 

An  ominous  collapse  sent  her  to  bed  almost 
as  soon  as  she  gained  the  shelter  of  the  Hotel 
Somerset.  Specialists  were  sent  for,  among  them 
being  Dr.  Austin  Flint  of  this  city.  Their  ver- 
dict at  that  time  has  been  fully  confirmed  by 
her  state  since  she  came  to  New  York  in  Octo- 
ber. Other  alienists  and  phy-sicians  learned  in 
diagnosing  and  coping  with  the  maladies  and  in- 
firmities of  the  old  have  watched  her  constantly. 
Their  opinions  coincide  with  the  judgment  of 
Doctor  Flint. 

Among  her  medical  attendants,  besides  Doctor 
Flint,  are  his  son,  Austin  Flint,  Jr.,  who  vir- 
tually lives  in  the  Astor  mansion ;  Doctor  Allan 
MacLean  Hamilton,  and  Doctor  Charles  R.  Dana. 
Their  orders  are  carried  out  by  three  of  the  best 
nurses  who  could  be  obtained. 


6{E3 


AN    INCIDENT    OF    REAL    LIFE 

WHICH  SURPASSES  FICTION 

OR  MELODRAMA  IN  ITS 

PATHETIC     HUMAN 

INTEREST 


SCARCELY  the  most  improbable  of  East 
Side  melodrama  would  have  ventured, 
for  the  sake  of  a  new  thrill,  into  the  story 
that  has  recently  come  out  of  the  Middle 
West,  and  involves  a  scale  of  family 
devotion  and  sacrifices  seldom  witnessed  or 
even  conceived.  Said  the  Cleveland  Plain 
Dealer,  describing  this  incident: 

Do  gypsies  steal  children  and  carry  them  off 
to  become  members  of  their  own  thieving,  for- 
tune-telling, roving  tribes? 

Whoever  believes  that  such  stories  are  myths, 
invented  to  terrify  refractory  little  ones  at  bed- 
time, need  only  to  turn  to  this  page  and  read  the 
affecting  statement  of  little  Rosie  Adams  of  Chi- 
cago, who,  after  more  than  a  year  in  slavery  in 
different  bands  of  these  nomads,  has  been  re- 
stored to  her  parents  at  Salem,  Mass. 

They  should  bear  in  mind  also  that  but  for  the 
devotion  of  her  parents,  which  impelled  them  to 


^Adapted  from  Cleveland  Plain  Dealer. 

leave  their  home  and  become  voluntary  ffvp^ies, 
attaching  themselves  first  to  om;  tribe  and  t'len 
to  another,  probably  little  Rosic  wo'-ld  never 
have  escaped  from  the  captors  wiio  profited  by 
her  toil,  and  who  sold  lier  into  bouiliit."'  in  other 
camps,  when  so  disposed,  like  any  chattel. 

In  September  of  last  year  there  was  no  hap- 
pier, though  humble,  home  circle  in  Chicago 
than  that  of  which  John  Adam,  an  honest  and 
hard-working  mechanic,   was   the   head.     Only   a 


THE    PANDEX 


127 


few  years  before  he  had  come  from  Russia  with 
his  wife  and  infant  daughter,  Rosie. 

As  no  more  children  had  been  born  to  them, 
Rosie  was  their  idol.  The  father  saved  money 
out  of  his  wages,  and  they  bought  a  little  home 
in  the  outskirts  of  the  city.  Rosie  was  sent  to 
the  public  school  a  few  blocks  distant,  and  at 
eleven  years  old  gladdened  her  parents'  hearts 
by  signs  that  she  was  developing  into  a  genuine 
little  American. 

Failed  to  Return  from  School. 

Then  one  day  at  the  beginning  of  November 
Rosie  failed  to  return  from  school  at  the  usual 
hour.  When  Adam  returned  from  his  work  at 
supper  time  he  found  his  wife  weeping  and  heart- 
broken. Their  little  Rosie  had  not  come  home. 
Her  mother  had  gone  to  the  schoolhouse  and 
learned  only  that  Rosie  had  been  dismissed  with 
the  other  children. 

All  that  night,  and  for  many  days  and  nights 
afterward,  Adam  searched  vainly  for  his  lost 
daughter.  The  most  he  could  learn  was  that  a 
little  girl  answering  to  Rosie 's  description  had 
been  seen  walking  along  Michigan  Boulevard 
toward  the  Union  Railway  Station  with  a 
swarthy  complexioned  woman  and  carrying  a 
bundle. 

During  the  summer  there  had  been  a  camp  of 
gypsies  in  a  vacant  lot  not  far  from  the  Adam 
home.  Both  Adam  and  his  wife  had  seen  bands 
of  wandering  gypsies  in  Russia.  They  were 
among  those  simple-minded  folk  who  really  be- 
lieved that  gypsies  sometimes  stole  and  carried 
off  white  children. 

It  was  useless  for  their  friends  to  argue  with 
them.  Without  little  Rosie  there  was  nothing 
left  for  them  in  this  life. 

"God's  will  be  done,"  said  Adam  to  his  wife. 
"We  also  will  become  gypsies,  for  only  in  that 
way  may  we  hope  to  get  news  of  our  little  one." 

Eagerly  the  wife  assented.  They  sold  every- 
thing they  possessed  but  their  little  home,  ar- 
rayed themselves  in  gypsy  garb,  boarded  a  train 
on  the  same  road  by  which  the  father  believed 
Rosie  and  her  woman  captor  had  traveled  east- 
ward from  Chicago  and  got  off  at  a  small  town 
in  Indiana,  where  Adam  had  learned  there  was 
a  gypsy  camp. 

Adam  was  a  stout  fellow,  familiar  with  horses, 
wagons,  and  harness,  and  the  gypsies  welcomed 
him  and  his  wife  into  their  tribe.  They  did  not 
dare  make  any  inquiries  about  their  lost 
daughter,  merely  keeping  their  eyes  open  and 
their  ears  ready  to  profit  by  idle  gossip  which 
might  offer  a  clew  to  the  missing  child's  where- 
abouts. 

Looked  Like  Real  Gypsies. 

Becoming  a  skilful  horse  trader,  Adam  gained 
the  esteem  of  his  gypsy  comrades.  His  mechan- 
ical skill  made  him  very  useful  in  repairing  their 
harness  and  wagons.  It  also  furnished  him  with 
an  excuse  to  transfer  his  services  to  other  bands 
when  they  were  especially  needed.  In  this  way, 
without  creating  suspicion,  the  father  and  mother 
worked  their  wav  into  Ohio  and  to  Detroit. 


Mrs.  Adam,  by  her  ready  and  capable  services, 
gained  the  good  will  of  the  gypsy  women  wher- 
ever husband  and  wife  camped,  and  so  was  not 
excluded  from  the  circle  of  tribal  gossip.  In 
this  way  she  learned  that  she  and  her  husband 
were  only  a  few  weeks  behind  an  eastward  trav- 
eling band  which  had  recently  purchased  from 
another  band  a  little  white  girl  who  had  become 
prosperously  expert  at  telling  fortunes. 

Adam  and  his  wife  believed  this  to  be  their 
daughter.  They  grasped  every  opportunity  to 
work  their  way  eastward.  In  the  winter  time 
this  was  slow  work,  for  then  most  gypsy  camps 
remain  stationary  in  some  favorable  location 
waiting  for  spring  and  good  roads. 

It  was  May  before  they  had  crossed  the  AUe- 
ghenies.  By  that  time  no  one  would  have  known 
that  Adam  and  his  wife  were  not  real  gypsies. 
Their  hands  and  faces  were  blackened  by  weather 
and  the  smoky  atmosphere  of  winter  camps. 
Mrs.  Adam's  hair,  which  had  been  flaxen,  like 
little  Rosie 's,  had  been  darkened  at  the  begin- 
ning of  her  travels  with  a  decoction  of  herbs. 

In  the  gossip  she  overheard  from  time  to  time 
the  stolen  child  was  spoken  of  as  dark-haired, 
and  the  mother  had  no  doubt  that  little  Rosie 's 
hair,  eyebrows,  and  eyelashes  had  been  similarly 
treated  by  her  gypsy  captors.  So  the  father  and 
mother  had  never  wasted  time  looking  for  a  child 
with  their  Rosie 's  flaxen  locks: 

In  the  Jersey  Lowlands. 

It  was  not  until  nearly  a  year  from  the  time 
they  started  on  their  travels  that  Adam  and  his 
wife  reached  the  lowlands  of  New  Jersey  and 
joined  a  camp  of  gypsies  not  far  from  Trenton. 
Then  they  became  almost  certain  of  little  Rosie 's 
whereabouts. 

They  learned  that  a  little  girl  captive  had  been 
sold  for  $200  to  the  famous  chief  of  the  New 
England  tribe,  John  Croix.  This  news  gave  them 
grave  apprehensions,  for  the  reputation  of  John 
Croix  for  cruelty  and  greed  had  become  well 
known  to  them. 

"Husband,  we  must  hurry,"  said  Mrs.  Adam. 
"I  feel  that  we  are  drawing  near  to  our  little 
daughter  and  that  her  lot  is  harder  than  ever." 

As  soon  as  possible  they  had  themselves  trans- 
ferred to  a  New  England  bound  band  which  had 
need  of  Adam's  hands  with  wagons  and  harness. 
Then  they  crossed  the  Hudson  by  the  Fort  Lee 
Ferry,  journeyed  through  Westchester  County, 
N.  Y.,  into  Connecticut,  into  Massachusetts  and 
to  the  outskirts  of  Boston,  where  the  band  rested 
for  a  week.    It  was  then  late  in  October. 

"Husband,  we  must  hurry;  I  seem  to  hear  our 
little  one  calling  to  us,"  said  the  wife  every 
day.  The  long  strain  was  telling  on  them  both. 
It  was  terrible  for  them  while  the  band  rested. 

It  was  now  they  learned  that  John  Croix  and 
his  band  decided  to  winter  on  a  farm  near 
Salem,  Mass.  Hearing  this,  the  band  of  which 
Adam  and  his  wife  were  members  broke  camp, 
its  leaders  thinking  that  the  neighborhood  of 
Salem  might  be  a  good  wintering  place  for  them, 
too. 

Two  days  brought   them  within  sight   of   the 


128 


THE     PANDEX 


camp  of  John  Croix,  and  they  pitched  their  tents 
for  the  night. 

.  First  Sight  of  the  Daughter. 

•John  Adam  could  not  wait  for  morning  light. 
In  the  early  dusk  he  stole  over  among  the  tents 
of  John  Croix's  camp,  his  wife  following  at  his 
heels.  Suddenly  the  sight  of  a  brown-skinned, 
dark-haired  little  girl  in  front  of  one  of  the 
tents  stirring  something  in  a  pot  over  a  fire  made 
his  heart  stand  still. 

"If  only  I  could  see  that  her  eyes  are  blue," 
thought  Adam. 

Just  then  an  old  gypsy  woman  came  out  of 
the  tent  and  boxed  the  little  girl's  ears  so  sav- 
agely that  she  cried  out. 

It  was  his  own  little  lost  "Rosebud's"  voice. 
But  how  much  older  her  twelve  months'  hard 
experience  had  made  her  appear!  Adam  started 
forward,  forgetting  all  the  caution  he  had 
learned. 

The  little  girl  saw   and   recognized  her  father 


and  mother.  She  threw  out  her  anns,  screaming 
joyfully : 

"Oh,  mamma,  dear!  Oh,  papa!  It's  me — 
your  little  Rosebud!" 

Mrs.  Adam  clasped  her  child  to  her  bosom 
and  then  swooned,  while  her  husband  wept  and 
prayed  on  his  knees  with  his  "little  Rosebud's" 
hand  clasped  tight.  But  the  gypsies  were  en- 
raged. The  father  and  mother  were  roughly 
treated  and  detained  by  their  late  companions. 
But  little  Rosie,  made  nimble  and  resourceful 
by  her  wild  experiences,  dashed  away  and 
brought  the  police.  To  save  himself  from  arrest, 
John  Croix  was  compelled,  when  taken  to  court 
with  the  girl  and  her  parents,  to  pay  Adam  $400 
— $200  on  account  of  the  original  kidnapping 
and  $200  for  Rosie 's  services  during  her  period 
of  slavery.  With  this  sum  the  now  happy  Adam 
family  will  return  to  their  home  to  begin  civil- 
ized life  anew. 


To;\E 

REQUISITE  TO  ANY  REFORM. 


:^        Mws  McDowell 

— Adapted  from  New  York  World. 

BERNARD    SHAW    AND    ANDREW    D.    WHITE    THINK    EFFECTIVE 

SOCIAL  CHANGES  CANNOT  BE  WROUGHT  UNTIL  A  NEW 

RELIGIOUS  EMOTIONALITY  IS  MADE  GENERAL 

BY    NEW    FORM    OF    BELIEF. 


AS  ONE  after  another  of  the  outward 
clothes  of  graft  and  social  error  are 
thrown  off  thru  the  cumulative  influence  of  the 
latter-day  demand  for  comprehensive  reform, 
there  has  been  a  corresponding  approach  to 
the  real  underlying  elements  and  motives  of 
human  conduct.  In  the  face  of  the  enorm- 
ous problems  with  which  the  new  political 
leaders  have  had  to  deal,  there  has  been 
found   a   necessity   for   principles   that   are 


much  stronger  than  expediency,  that  out- 
ride the  pomp  and  thrill  of  partisanship,  and 
that  will  still  hold  themselves  not  only  in- 
tact but  enthusiastic  as  well,  no  matter  what 
the  opposing  circumstance. 

Among  some  close  and  thoughtful  ob- 
servers this  signifies  a  return  to  the  primary 
conceptions  and  impulses  involved  in  re- 
ligion— an  inference  which  is  more  or  less 
borne  out    by  an  apparent  revival    of  life 


THE     PANDEX 


129 


among  existing  sects  and  a  remarkable  in-  ers  of  the  times.    The  quotation  is  from  the 

crease  in  the  number  of  new  sects  whose  New  York  Times: 

tenets  all  seem  to  include,  in  some  manner,  London.— Bernard  Shaw  lectured  in  the  Essex 

the  union   of  the  religious   ideals  with   the  Hall,  in  connection  with  the  Guild  of  St.  Mat- 

..      ,        ■    i       J!    i   .          /.^  thew,   his    subieet    beina:   "Some    Necessary    Re- 

practical  ponits  of  statecraft.  p^j,.;  j,,  Religions."    Mr.  Sl.aw  said  we  'had  a 


A  Thanksgiving  inquiry 

(By  WALTER  JUAN  DAVIS) 


O,  Lore},  so  migbty  and  so  kigli. 
It  is  our  custom,  unto  Tljee, 

To  raise  our  hands  and  to  Ttee  cry 
I  wonder  if  Thou   knowest  me ! 


O.  Lord   of  earth   and  sea  and  sky, 
W^tile  all  Thy  people  do  rejoice. 

And  check  the  soh.  abate  the  sigh — 
I  wonder,  dost  Thou  hear  my  voice  ! 

Lord,  hear  me  once,  ere  I  should  die ; 

My  greatest  "wonder  is  of  me; 
What  is  the  thing  that  I  call  I? 

What  IS   my   meaning  unto  Thee? 


RELIGION  NEEDED  FOR  REFORM 


Bernard  Shaw  Says  This    Only  Can   Overcome 
Social  Cowardice. 

For  instance,  there  has  been  the  following 
notable  utterance  by  Bernard  Shaw,  the 
caustic  dramatist  and  commentarian  of  Eng- 
land, who,  in  many  respects,  may  be  said  to 
be  one  of  the  most  advanced  and  able  think- 


great  many  pressing  social  problems  to  solve,  but 
lacked  a  religion  which  would  impel  us  to  tackle 
them. 

The  socialism  presented  by  those  able  middle- 
class  Jews,  Marx  and  Lasalle,  was  a  demonstra- 
tion that  the  workingTnen  were  being  robbed  of 
fifty  per  cent  of  the  proceeds  of  their  labor,  but 
it  was  found  that  people  would  not  make  a  revo- 
lution for  fifty  per  cent.  Men  were  always  cow- 
ards. If  they  were  not  afraid  they  would  con- 
stantly be  getting  run  over.    The  more  intelligent 


130 


THE    PANDEX 


and  sensitive  a  man  was  the  more  cowardly  he 
was. 

A  Religious  Man  Defined. 

If  the  great  congregation  of  cowards  called 
the  human  race  were  to  be  got  to  disregard  their 
own  safety  and  interest,  they  must  be  made  re- 
ligious. A  religious  man  was  not  one  who  be- 
longed to  the  Church  of  England  or  who  did  not, 
and  the  enthusiasm  of  men  who  did  not  belong 
to  that  church  seemed  much  greater  than  that 
of  men  who  did.  Nor  was  he  a  man  with  a  spe- 
cial creed.  A  religious  man  was  one  who  had 
sure  knowledge  that  he  was  here,  not  to  fulfill 
some  narrow  purpose,  but  as  an  instrument  of 
the  force  which  created  the  world  and  probably 
the  universe.  Religion  made  a  man  courageous, 
and  if  he  was  not  intelligent  it  made  him  ex- 
tremely dangerous.  In  the  absence  of  religion 
a  coarse  man  had  the  most  courage,  but  with 
religion  the  most  fragile  and  sensitive  became 
enormously  courageous. 

Many  people  who  said  they  believed  in  God 
did  so  because  they  thought  that  otherwise  He 
would  strike  them  dead.  That  was  an  abomin- 
able idolatry.  Yet  in  schools  religion  was  taught 
much  in  this  way.  The  Jehovah  of  the  earlier 
parts  of  the  Bible  was  an  abominable  idol  who 
was  pleased  to  have  Jephtha's  daughter  sacri- 
ficed to  him,  and  sent  bears  to  eat  up  little  chil- 
dren. The  result  was  that  the  masses  became  so 
irreligious  that  the  people  did  not  dare  to  teach 
them  a  genuine  religion,  for  they  would  not  be- 
lieve it. 

Coming  to  the  New  Testament,  we  found 
something  new  and  startling — a  Man  who  spoke 
of  himself  as  God,  and  when  he  did  so  always 
caused  a  riot,  because  the  people  could  not  stand 
for  such  a  stupendous  idea.  The  end  of  the  Gos- 
pel story — the  popular  and  bloody  part — spoiled 
the  beginning.  If  Christ  had  died  in  a  country 
house,  worth  five  thousand  a  year,  everything  He 
said  would  be  just  as  true  as  if  He  had  been 
crucified. 

Powerlessness  of  God. 

The  main  truth  that  required  to  be  taught  was 
the  powerlessness  of  God.  If  we  conceived  God 
as  a  moral  force  we  must  admit  that  apart  from 
us  He  was  powerless.  Millions  revolted  against 
religion  when  confronted  with  the  question  "If 
God  is  so  powerful,  why  is  the  world  such  a  hor- 
rible place?"  It  was  no  use  saying  God  could 
not  be  understood.  A  man  in  the  dock  would 
not  be  e.xcused  because  he  said  he  had  some 
higher  purpose  that  other?,  could  not  understand. 

The  will  that  drove  the  universe  was  driving 
every  man  more  or  less,  even  the  most  sordid 
stockbroker  in  London,  and  it  was  evidently 
driving  at  some  sort  of  moral  conception.  An- 
other thing  to  remember  about  God  was  that  He 
made  mistakes.  Only  after  many  trials  He  had 
produced  a  man  who,  though  only  a  makeshift, 
was  at  his  best  rather  a  wonderful  creature.  If 
men  realized  that  what  God  was  driving  at 
finally  was  a  perfected  comprehension  of  His  own 
purpose,  there  would  be  little  difficulty  in  making 
them  religious,  observant,  and  intelligent. 


People  lumped  in  with  their  religion  and  phi- 
losophy and  morals  a  number  of  other  things 
which  were  merely  associated  ideas  and  customs. 
He  never  talked  disrespectfully  of  religion,  but 
his  mission  was  to  tell  people  of  the  rubbish  that 
choked  religion.  Until  that  rubbish  was  got  rid 
of  there  was  no  chance  of  getting  a  world  in 
which  anything  worth  talking  about  would  ever 
be  done. 


Steam  Heat 

from  Gas 

is    obtained    most    satisfactorily    from    the 

Gasteam  Radiator 

Maintains  an  even  temperature  of  seventy 
degrees  in  a  room  ten  feet  square  at 
a    cost    of    five-eighths    cent      per    hour. 

APPROVED  BY  UNDERWRITERS 

Estimates  and  heating  cost  approximations 

upon  application.      Large  buildings 

a  specialty. 

The  Gas  and  Electric 
Appliance   Co. 

809  Turk.  St.,   San  Francisco,  Cal. 


MAPLEINE 


and 
Sugar 


MAKE 

Table  Syrup 

Better  than  Maple 

The  housewife  prepares  it  in 
her  own  kitchen  in  five  minutes. 
Simply  dissolve  white  sugar  and 
add  Mapleine  for  the  delicate 
Maple  Flavor. 


35-CENT  BOTTLE  ^""  "  -"'  •"""••  °° 


receipt  of   stamps. 


CRESCENT  MFG.  CO.,  SEATTLE,  WASH. 


THE    PANDEX 


131 


DAWN  OF  A  NEW  RELIGION 


No  Throne  Above,   No  Beyond,   Says  Professor 
Schmidt,  of  Cornell. 

Another  instance  is  the  following  from  the 
New  York  World : 

Ithaca,  N.  Y. — Professor  Nathaniel  Schmidt, 
of  the  Cornell  department  of  Semitic  languages 
and  Oriental  history,  preached  in  the  Unitarian 
Church  recently.  Dr.  Andrew  D.  White  and 
other  prominent  Cornell  officials  were  present. 

The  speaker  declared  that  a  new  religion  was 
approaching,  in  which  is  a  deeper  insight  into 
nature  and  a  deepening  of  the  moral  sense. 
Christianity  has  failed  to  adapt  itself  to  the 
spiritual  needs  of  man,  he  said.  The  new  religion 
will  meet  all  these.  It  will  be  universal,  cover- 
ing all  times  and  peoples. 

The  supernatural  in  religion  is  foolishness, 
he  declared.  There  is  no  throne  above  in  the 
new  faith,  and  the  idea  of  a  beyond  can  have  no 
place.  We  are  all  denizens  of  the  universe.  The 
mind  must  progress.  Away  with  formulas  and 
creeds !  Put  them  into  a  museum,  as  a  thing  to 
be   studied. 


THE  STORM  ABOUT  MRS.  EDDY. 


Christian  Scientists  Make  Ardent  Defense  of  the 
Founder  of  Their  Church. 

Still  another  instance  of  the  emotion  that 
lies  in  the  adherence  of  many  people  to  new 
sects  which  have  to  do  intimately  with  the 
practical  morals  of  every-day  life  is  afforded 
in  the  promptitude  with  which  the  Christian 
Scientists  rallied  to  the  defense  of  Mrs. 
Eddy.     Said  the  St.  Louis  Republic: 

James  A.  Logwood,  of  the  Christian  Science 
Publication  Committee  of  Missouri,  issued  a 
statement  regarding  the  recent  published  reports 
about  the  condition  of  Mrs.  Mary  Baker  G. 
Eddy,  head  of  the  Christian  Scientist  Church. 

"The  original  report,"  Mr.  Logwood  says, 
"contained   three  specific  charges. 

"First — That  Mrs.  Eddy,  in  her  daily  drives 
around,  and  about  the  streets  of  Concord,  was 
being  impersonated  by  a  dummy  in  the  form  of 
one  Mrs.  Leonard. 

"Second — That  Mrs.  Eddy  was  dying  with 
cancer,  and  that  she  was,  and  had  been  for  some 
time,  under  the  charge  of  a  physician. 

"Third — That  Mrs.  Eddy,  through  disease  and 
the  infirmities  of  age,  was  physically  and  mental- 
ly disqualified  from  attending  to  her  affairs." 

Mr.  Logwood's  statement  continues: 

It  was  clearly  shown  by  the  published  accounts 
that  charge  No.  1  was  based  wholly  upon  the 
statement  of  one  witness,  a  janitor  from  Brook- 
lyn, N.  Y.  This  janitor  went  to  Concord  for  the 
purpose  of  identifying  the  woman,  who,  it  was 


said,  was  impersonating  Mrs.  Eddy  in  her  daily 
drive.  He  had  never  seen  Mrs.  Eddy,  but  as- 
serted that,  from  where  he  stood  on  the  side- 
walk, he  recognized  Mrs.  Leonard,  although  much 
disguised  through  the  closed  doors  of  her  car- 
riage.    This  incident  occurred  on  October  22. 

Sworn   Statements. 

Here  are  the  unimpeachable  facts: 

Mrs.  Leonard  makes  a  sworn  statement  before 
Josiah  Fei-nald,  Notary  Public,  in  which  she  says 
she  had  never  impersonated  Mrs.  Eddy;  had 
never  ridden  in  her  carriage;  in  fact,  had  never 
stept  inside  of  it,  and  had  not  been  out  of  sight 
of  Pleasant  View,  Mrs.  Eddy's  home,  since  Feb- 
ruary 19,  1906. 

Mrs.  Leonard's  denial  of  having  impersonated 
Mrs.  Eddy  was  corroborated  by  Mayor  Charles 
R.  Corning,  General  Frank  S.  Streeter,  and  by 
several  others.  They,  according  to  their  sworn 
statements,  knew  Mrs.  Eddy  personally;  saw  her 
almost  daily  in  her  drives  about  Concord,  and  fre- 
quently spoke  to  her;  had  transacted  business 
with  her  personally;  and  all  declared  that  they 
had  never  seen  any  person  in  Mrs.  Eddy's  car- 
riage except  herself. 

Rudolph  B.  Frost,  who  has  charge  of  the 
painting  at  Pleasant  View,  also  swore  that  on 
October  22,  while  Mrs.  Eddy  was  out  driving,  he 
conversed  with  Mrs.  Leonard,  who  was  super- 
intending the  work  he  was  doing  about  the  house. 

As  to  the  second  charge,  while  it  was  boldly 
stated  that  Mrs.  Eddy  was  dying  of  cancer,  and 
had  a  medical  doctor  in  attendance,  these  charges 
are  absolutely  devoid  of  any  evidence.  No  doc- 
tor's name  has  been  mentioned  in  the  accusa- 
tion, and  no  such  doctor  has  been  found. 

Disease  Denied. 

Mrs.  Leonard  made  the  following  statement 
before  a  notary  public: 

"I  deny  most  emphatically  that  Mrs.  Eddy 
has  any  such  disease  as  cancer  or  that  she  has 
any  other  disease.  As  I  am  and  have  been  in 
daily  contact  with  Mrs.  Eddy,  seeing  her  many 
times  each  day,  I  am  in  a  position  to  know  as 
to  what  I  am  stating.  The  story  that  a  phy- 
sician from  Boston  is  attending  her  is  without 
foundation,  as  there  is  no  physician  from  any- 
where attending  Mrs.  Eddy,  nor  has  there  been 
while  I  have  been  in  her  home." 

This  statement  was  also  corroborated  by  those 
in  Mrs.  Eddy's  home,  and  many  others,  whose 
names  can  be  furnished  if  desired. 

The  third  charge,  that  Mrs.  Eddy  is  mentally 
and  physically  disqualified,  and  is  unable  to  at- 
tend to  her  affairs,  on  account  of  disease  and  in- 
firmity of  age,  is  also  disproved  beyond  con- 
tradiction. 

Frederick  N.  Ladd,  treasurer  of  the  Concord 
Loan  and  Savings  Bank,  in  a  signed  statement, 
said:  "I  am  not  a  member  of  the  Christian 
Science  Church,  but  I  feel  it  my  duty  to  con- 
tradict such  false  rumors.  I  have  had  the  honor 
of  being  in  the  presence  of  Mrs.  Eddy  several 
times  each  year,  and  most  emphatieally  say  that 


132 


THE     PANDEX 


she  is  in  every  way  capable  of  conducting  her 
business  affairs." 

George  H.  Moses,  editor  of  the  Concord  Even- 
ing Monitor,  made  a  signed  statement  to  this 
effect : 

"I  have  had  the  pleasure  of  knowing  Mrs. 
Eddy  for  more  than  ten  years,  and  I  have  had 
occasion  to  correspond  with  her,  and  to  meet  her 
with  reference  to  matters  of  public  importance 
in  this  community.  These  relations  with  her  still 
continue,  and  within  a  very  short  time  I  have 
received  from  her  long  letters,  written  from  be- 
ginning to  end  in  her  own  handwriting,  which, 
from  long  acquaintance,  is  perfectly  familiar  to 
me,  and  that  she  is  indubitably  alive,  both  phy- 
sically and  mentally,  is  well  attested  by  these 
communications. ' ' 

Mrs.  Eddy's  Statement. 

Following  the  interview  with  Mrs.  Eddy,  Oc- 
tober 20,  the  Associated  Press  representative 
wrote : 

"Although  Mrs.  Eddy  shows  her  advanced  age 
in  some  respects,  her  voice  to-day  was  clear  and 
strong,  and  she  gave  no  evidence  of  decrepitude, 
or  of  any  weakness  not  to  be  expected  of  a 
woman  in  her  eighty-sixth  year." 

Edward  N.  Pearson,  Secretary  of  State  of  New 
Hampshire,  says :  "I  was  present  by  invitation 
at  Pleasant  View  to-day  with  the  representatives 
of  eleven  newspapers.  I  stood  near  Mrs.  Eddy, 
whom  I  have  known  personally  for  some  fifteen 
years.  I  distinctly  heard  her  answers  to  the 
questions  asked  her.  I  saw  her  leave  the  room 
in  which  the  interview  was  given,  and  walk  to 
her  carriage.  I  saw  the  carriage  drive  toward  the 
city.  Mrs.  Eddy's  voice  was  clear  and  strong, 
and  her  appearance  was  that  of  a  woman  in  full 
possession  of  all  her  faculties.  I  am  not  a  Chris- 
tian Scientist  and  I  am  without  bias  and  preju- 
dice in  this  matter." 

On  November  1,  two  press  representatives — 
Mr.  Harlan  0.  Pearson,  local  representative  of 
the  Associated  Press,  and  the  editor  of  the  Pa- 
triot— were  at  Mrs.  Eddy's  residence,  and  stood 
in  the  hallway  while  Mrs.  Eddy  came  down  stairs. 
They  stood  where  they  could  not  be  seen  by  Mrs. 
Eddy,  who  was  totally  unaware  of  their  presence. 
They  said  she  descended  easily,  without  any  ap- 
parent hesitation,  thus  proving  to  them  her  abil- 
ity to  go  up  and  down  stairs,  and  about  her 
house   as   usual. 

These  and  many  other  signed  statements,  at- 
test Mrs.  Eddy's  mental  and  physical  ability 
and   freedom   to   attend   to   her   personal   affairs. 

Her  Writings. 

To  lift  any  lingering  shadow  of  mystery  as 
to  Mrs.  Eddy's  retirement,  I  quote  from  her  own 
writings  on  the  subject.  In  her  book  "Miscel- 
laneous Writings,"  page  278,  in  a  letter  to  her 
students  in  Chicago,  written  in  1888,  she  says : 

"For  two' years  I  have  been  gradually  with- 


drawing from   active   membership   in    the   Chris- 
tian Scientist  Association." 

Same  volume,  page  136,  in  1891,  writing  to  her 
students: 

"When  I  retired  from  the  field  of  labor,  it 
was  a  departure,  socially,  publicly  and  finally, 
from  the  routine  of  such  material  modes  as  so- 
ciety and  our  societies  demand.  Rumors  are  ru- 
mors— nothing  more.  I  am  still  with  you  on  the 
field  of  battle,  taking  forward  marches,  broader 
and  higher  views,  and  with  the  hope  that  you 
will  follow." 

On  page  322  in  Mrs.  Eddy's  message  to  her 
Boston  church,  prior  to  1896,  explaining  why  she 
would  not  be  present :  ' '  Your  dual  and  imper- 
sonal pastor,  the  Bible,  and  science  and  health 
with  key  to  the  Scriptures,  is  with  you;  and  the 
life  these  give,  the  truth  they  illustrate,  the  love 
they  demonstrate,  is  the  great  shepherd  that 
feedeth  my  flock,  and  leadeth  them  'beside  the 
still  waters.'  By  any  personal  presence  or  word 
of  mine,  your  thought  must  not  be  diverted  or 
diverged,  your  senses  satisfied,  or  self  be  jus- 
tified." 

Christian  Science  does  not  include  in  its  prac- 
tice hypnotism,  mesmerism,  or  spiritualism.  It 
is  based  upon  the  rational  and  demonstrable 
teachings  of  the  holy  Scriptures.  By  their  fruits 
ye  shall  know  them.  It  is  conservatively  esti- 
mated that  within  the  brief  period  of  _  the  his- 
tory of  Christian  Science  more  than  1,000,000 
people  have  become  virtually  interested  in  it,  be- 
cause they  have  learned,  through  actual  proofs, 
that  it  is  not  a  mere  theory,  but  a  tangible, 
living,  demonstrable  truth. 

There  is  hardly  a  town  or  hamlet  in  the  civi- 
lized world  but  that  one  will  find  those  that  have 
been  benefited  by  this  Christ-truth  and  are  ready 
to  give  a  reason  for  the  hope  that  lieth  in  them. 
"Therefore,  beloved,  my  often-coming  is  un- 
necessary; for,  though  I  be  present  or  absent,  it 
is  God  that  feedeth  the  hungry  heart,  that  giveth 
grace,  that  healeth  the  sick  and  cleanseth  the  sin- 
ner. For  this  consummation  he  hath  given  you 
Christian  Science,  and  my  past  poor  labors  and 
love."  Christian  Science  Journal,  volume  12, 
page  94. 

Mrs.  Eddy  issued  a  public  statement,  dated  May 
3,  1894.  She  says,  in  part :  ' '  My  work  for  the 
mother  church  is  done;  and  be  it  remembered 
that  I  came  to  Concord,  N.  H.,  for  the  purpose 
of  retirement." 

Christian  Science  teaches  its  followers  to  lead 
pure  and  upright  lives,  and  to  heed  the  words  of 
the  Master,  as  given  in  the  sermon  on  the  mount. 
"Love  your  enemies,  bless  them  that  curse  you, 
do  good  to  them  that  hate  you,  and  pray  for 
them  which  despitefully  use  you,  and  perse- 
cute you ' ' ;  and,  thus  ' '  to  let  your  light  so  shine 
before  men  tha,t  they  may  see  your  good  works 
and  glorify  your  Father  which  is  in  heaven." 


THE    PANDEX 


133 


WHISTLING  GIRL  IN  CHURCH  what  were  apparently  feelings  of  mingled  interest 

— and   surprise    while    a    woman    whistler   warbled 

Vaudeville  Feature  Employed  to  Attract  Attend-  three  tunes  in  the  intervals  between  the  reading 

ance  in  New  York.  of  the  Word  and  the  sermon. 

The  appreciation  with  which  some  of  the         Dr.  Goodchild  believes  in  the  efficacy  of  ad- 

,      ,  ,  ,    ,,  ,  ,      „  vertising,    and    the    last    number     or     Gist,     hi? 

orthodox   sects   meet   the   new   demands  for  g,i„rch   paper,   announced   that   it   was   the   pur- 


AT  A  CHICAGO  CORNER  AT  THE  BUSIEST  HOUR. 
"Farewell,  dear;    we  must  hope  for  the  best.    I  may  be  able  to  get  across  safely." 

— Chicago  Tribune. 

practical   phases   to   the   religious   organiza-  pose  of  the  trustees  to  do  all  that  could  be  done 

^     ,,..,«,,       •         J.  .1,  to  make  the  services  of  tlie  church  attractive, 

tions  IS  reflected  in  the  following  from  the  «  t^     ^     ■,,;■, , 

bo  the  members  ot  Dr.  Goodchild  s  congi-ega- 

Jsevf  York  Herald:  tion     were     prepared     for     something     unusual 

„-,.,,,  1  •       J.    i         1-   •  when  they  assembled  last  evening.     Thev  saw  a 

Vaudeville   turns,   as   an   adjunct   to   religious  ^^^^^  ^-^^^  ^^  ^,^p  rostrum  under  the  choir  loft, 

service,   have  been  introduced   by   the   Rev.   Dr.  ^^^^  j^  ^  front  pew  a  young  woman  whom  ihey 

Frank    M.    Goodchild,    pastor    of     the     Central  recognized  from  her  lithographs,  which  hung  xn 

Baptist    Church,    in    West    Forty-second    Street,-  the  lobby  of  the  ehureh,  as  Miss  Ethel  M.  Palmer, 

and     recently-  the    congregation    listened    with  "artistic  whistler;''''  -.'A. 


134 


THE     PANDEX 


Miss  Palmer  had  her  own  accompanist,  and 
when  it  came  time  to  do  her  first  turn  she  stepped 
briskly  to  the  rostrum.  A  moment  later  bird- 
like notes  interpreting  the  "Manzanillo,"  by 
Robyn,  were  chasing  each  other  through  the 
building.  There  was  no  doubt  of  the  artistic 
rendering  of  the  number,  but  the  privilege  of 
applauding  which  is  accorded  a  theater  audience 
was  denied  to  the  congregation,  so  the  "turn" 
was  received  in  silence. 

Defends  His  Action. 

Miss  Palmer's  second  number  was  the  inter- 
mezzo from  "Cavalleria  Rusticana,"  and  this 
was  followed  by  Tobani's  "Hearts  and  Flow- 
ers," so  familiar  to  all  students  of  semi-classic 
music.  There  was  a  little  stir  among  Dr.  Good- 
child's  hearers  after  the  whistler  retired,  and  it 
was  noticed  that  many  settled  back  in  their  seats, 
their  faces  bearing  an  expression  of  relief.  It 
was  evident  then,  as  was  proved  by  bits  of  con- 
versation heard  after  the  services  were  over, 
that  there  was  some  uncertainty  in  the  minds 
of  the  pastor's  flock  as  to  the  propriety  of  the 
performance,  and  they  were  glad  it  was  over. 

After  the  sermon  Dr.  Goodchild  consented  to 
give  his  views  regarding  vaudeville  as  an  acces- 
sory to  religion.     He  said : 

"My  object  in  making  this  departure  from 
conventional  lines  is  to  see  if  by  introducing  a 
little  musical  novelty  we  could  not  fill  the  whole 
church  on  Sunday  night.  The  conditions  under 
which  we  have  to  labor  are  not  equalled  in  any 
other  city  in  the  world.  The  Central  Baptist 
Church  is  in  the  middle  of  a  block  in  which 
there  are  seven  theaters.  We  have  not  a  half 
dozen  families  in  the  congregation  who 
live  within  a  mile  of  the  church.  We  must  draw 
on  the  floating  church  attendants,  and  it  is  with 
this  in  mind  that  the  departure  from  regular 
lines  was  made. 

"While  I  do  not  wholly  approve  of  the  intro- 
duction of  anything  that  will  mar  the  sacred- 
ness  of  church  worship,  I  believe  in  using  the 
best  means  of  assembling  the  people.  I  be- 
lieve with  Dr.  Duff,  that  eminent  preacher  who 
once  said:  'I  would  be  willing  to  knock  two 
old  shoes  together  if  it  would  draw  a  crowd  to 
whom  I  might   preach  Jesus   Christ.' 

"Personally,  I  would  prefer  a  plain,  ordinary 
sei-vice,  but  to  reach  the  people  I  intend  to  com- 
pete in  as  dignified  a  way  as  possible  with  the 
attractions  with  which  this  church  is  surrounded. 

"Next  Sunday  night  we  will  listen  to  Charles 
Wold  play  sacred  and  classical  melodies  on  his 
musical  glasses." 


TO   CARE  FOR  THE   BABIES 


Kindergarten   in    a   New   Jersey   Edifice   While 
Mothers   Attend   Service. 
An  interesting  side  light  on  the  trend  to- 
ward the  practical  is  given,  again,  in  the 
following  from  the  New  York  World : 

"Bring  your  babies  to  church;   the  girls  j  villi 
play  with  them  during-  the  services. " 


Such  is  the  message  which  the  pastor  and  trus- 
tees of  the  Methodist  Church  of  Verona,  N.  J., 
have  sent  to  the  mothers  of  the  town. 

A  kindergarten  has  been  established  in  the 
chapel  of  the  church,  and  Miss  Gertrude  Edith 
MacDowell  and  Miss  Jane  Condit,  both  promi- 
nent in  the  Epworth  League,  have  taken  upon 
themselves  the  task  of  caring  for  the  youngsters 
while  the  mothers  listen  to  sermons  by  the  Rev. 
Charles  Eugene  Little.  Last  Sunday  was  the 
first  session  of  the  kindergarten,  and  church  at- 
tendance increased  mightily  because  of  the  in- 
novation. 

"I  think  the  work  is  simply  grand,"  said  Miss 
MacDowell  after  the  service  last  Sunday  morn- 
ing. ' '  And  how  much  the  mothers  enjoyed  the 
sermon !  Why,  there  were  lots  and  lots  of  women 
in  church  to-day  whom  we  had  not  seen  for  a 
long  time,  just  because  there  was  no  one  to  mind 
their  children." 


THE  RELIGION  OF  THE  OCCULT 


Englishmen  Are  Debating  the  Question  of  Trans- 
migration of  Souls. 
The  reaching  out  of  religious  forms  to- 
ward the  expanded  world  included  under 
the  nomenclature  of  the  Occult  is  shown,  in 
part,  in  the  following  from  the  Philadelphia 
Inquirer : 

London. — If  letters  to  the  newspapers  can  be 
accepted  as  a  criterion,  hundreds  of  Englishmen 
are  wondering  whether  we  have  ever  lived  before. 
Dr.  Andrews  Wilson  analyzes  the  strange  phe- 
nomenon of  memory  given  by  the  contributors 
in  part  as  follows : 

' '  The  doctrine  of  metempsychosis  or  trans- 
migration of  souls  represents  a  very  ancient  be- 
lief. Not  merely  did  it  credit  the  possibility 
that  the  soul  after  death  could  be  transferred 
from  one  human  being  to  another,  but  it  also 
held  that  the  human  soul  might  take  up  its 
abode  in  another  form  of  life  and  be  trans- 
ferred from  the  purely  human  to  the  lower  ani- 
mal domain.  The  theory  asserts  that  as  each 
stage  is  ended  and  a  new  era  begun,  the  soul 
sheds  most  of  the  features  it  illustrated  in  the 
life  it  left,  retaining,  now  and  then,  however, 
vague  memories  of  some  of  its  antecedent  states. 
Such  memories,  forcibly  projected  into  the  fore- 
ground of  our  existence  to-day,  it  is  held,  should 
convince  us  that  we  have  'lived  before.' 

"Everything  we  have  heard  or  seen  or  other- 
wise appreciated  through  the  agency  of  our  sense 
organs — every  impression,  every  sensation — is 
really  stored  up  within  those  brain  cells  which 
exercise  the  memory  function.  True,  we  may 
not  be  able  to  recall  all  of  them  at  will;  many 
are  doubtless  beyond  the  reach  of  the  power 
that  revives  and  prints  off  for  us  positives  from 
our  stored  up  mental  negatives.  But  it  is  none 
the  les&  significant  that  on  occasion  we  can  dis- 
inter memories  of  events  whose   date  lies  very 


THE    PANDEX 


135 


far  back  in  our  lives — recollections,  those  per- 
haps, we  have  never  realized  after  their  recep- 
tion, but  lying  latent,  and  only  awaiting  the  re- 
quisite and  proper  stimulus  to  awaken  them  and 
to  bring  them  to  the  surface  of  our  life. 

"This  expresses  briefly  what  wq  mean  by  our 
'subliminal  consciousness.'  " 


OBJECTS  TO  THANKSGIVING. 


Jewish  Rabbi  Finds  Danger  in  the  Presidential 
Proclamation. 

A  peculiar  phase  of  the  religious  situation, 
and  one  which  probably  reflects,  in  spite  of 
its  controversial  aspect,  the  tendency  to- 
ward new  religious  unity,  is  shown  in  the 
following  from  the  New  York  Times: 

Philadelphia. — Rabbi  Krauskopf,  speaking  in 
the  Broad  Street  Temple,  attacked  President 
Roosevelt's  Thanksgiving  proclamation  and  de- 
clared that  no  Thanksgiving  service  would  be 
held  in  his  synagogue.  He  argued  that  compli- 
ance with  the  proclamation  would  be  subversive 
of  the  religious  liberty  in  which  the  Nation  was 
founded,  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States 
guaranteeing  an  absolute  separation  of  Church 
and  State.  His  subject  was  "Sectarianism  in 
Public  Institutions."    He  said: 

"A  President's  proclamation  asking  the  peo- 
ple to  assemble  for  a  Thanksgiving  service  in 
their  respective  places  of  worship  implies  either 
that  such  a  service  is  not  provided  for  by  the 
various  church  organizations,  or  that  he  is 
obliged  to  do  so  by  the  laws  of  the  land.  As 
to  the  former  supposition,  none  knows  better 
than  President  Roosevelt  that  of  all  religious 
practices  none  is  more  frequently  enjoined  and 
none    more   scrupulously   observed   than    that   of 


rendering  thanks  to  Him  from  whom  all  our 
blessings  flow.  As  to  the  President  being  re- 
quired by  law  to  issue  such  a  proclamation,  our 
law  books  fail  to  show  such  authority.  The 
practice  is  due  to  custom  only. 

"The  many  ways  in  which  the  Thanksgiving 
Day  is  observed  shows  that  almost  instinctively 
the  people  refuse  to  take  their  religious  orders 
from  any  save  their  respective  church  organiza- 
tions. In  but  comparatively  few  churches  are 
services  held,  and  the  attendance  upon  them  is 
the  most  meager  of  the  year.  Large  numbers  of 
the  persons  devote  the  day  to  feasting  and  merry- 
making. Football  games  are  attended  by  tens 
of  thousands,  foremost  among  them  the  so-called 
cream  of  society,  among  them  many  who  seldom 
absent  themselves  from  the  regular  services  of 
the  church.  Theaters,  music  halls,  and  other 
places  of  amusement   are  crowded   on   that  day. 

"I  have  no  objection  to  Thanksgiving  Day  as 
a  day  of  rejoicing.  I  would  be  the  last  to  ad- 
vocate its  abolition  as  a  secular  holiday.  We 
have  none  too  many  holidays,  and  there  is  noth- 
ing that  our  Nation  needs  so  much  as  days  of 
relaxation.  But  as  much  as  I  favor  it  as  a 
secular  holiday,  I  strongly  oppose  it  as  a  holy 
day  enjoined  by  the  Government.  I  regard  a 
government's  interference  in  matters  religious, 
or  a  religious  interference  in  matters  political, 
as  a  danger  against  which  we  can  not  be  suf- 
ficiently on  our  guard." 


ON  TRAIL  OF  THE  MISSIONARY. 


A  Newspaperman  Starts  Out  to  Learn  Whether 
They  Are  a  Value  or  a  Pest. 
In  no  field  does  the  religious  element  im- 
pinge so  much  upon  the  practical  field  of 
polities  as  in  the  matter  of  missions.  Some- 
thing of  interest  in  this  direction,  evidently. 


W      CHAS.KE1LUS&  CO 
HIGH  GRADE  CLOTHIERS 


% 


••CLOTHES  OF  QUALITY." 

We  offer  no  incentives,  other  than  the  best  made  and  smartest  clothes  anybody  ever 
dared  make.  Our  productions  this  Season,  from  the  Hilhop  or  Seaside  Outings  to 
the  Glad  Garments,  worn  at  receptions,  theaters,  etc.,  are  thoroughly  emphatic  in  Style 
and  Materials.     Just  Clothes  Culture. 


KING  SOLOMON'S  HALL, 
FILLMORE  ST.,  NEAR  POST 


136 


THE     PANDEX 


is  at  least  to  be  forthcoming  if  the  following 
preliminary  story  from  the  Pittsburg  Dis- 
patch may  be  taken  as  an  indication  : 

Mr.  Ellis's  assignment  is  to  make  a  frank,  un- 
biased and  first-hand  newspaper  study  of  what 
American  missionaries  are  really  doing  in  for- 
eign lands,  and  how  they  are  doing  it;  to  in- 
vestigate the  social  and  religious  changes  that 
are  now  transforming  the  East,  and  to  write  char- 
acter studies  of  some  of  the  interesting  men  from 
this  side  who  are  doing  things  on  the  other  side 
of  the  world. 

A  special  interest  will  attach  to  these  letters 
on  the  part  of  church-going  readers,  for  these 
■want  to  know,  in  unstereotyped  speech,  just  what 
religious  work  in  so-called  "heathen"  lands  is 
like  and  exactly  how  it  is  done.  Mr.  Ellis  is  com- 
missioned as  a  special  representative  by  the 
International  Young  Men's  Christian  Associ- 
ation, by  the  World's  Christian  Endeavor 
Union,  by  the  Student  Volunteer  Movement,  by 
the  Religious  Education  Association,  by  the 
American  National  Red  Cross  Society,  by  the 
Young  People's  Missionary  Movement,  and  by 
the  secretaries  of  all  the  leading  missionary 
organizations  in  the  United  States  and  Canada. 
He  also  bears  letters  from  Government  officials, 
from  international  business  concerns,  and  from 
residents  of  the  Orient,  so  that  all  doors  will  be 
open  to  him  and  every  possible  facility  extended 
for  the  fullest  investigation  of  his  subjects. 


Midpaciflc. — I  am  on  the  trail  of  the  American 
missionary.  His  footprints  are  large  and  deep 
and  many,  and  I  shall  certainly  come  up  with 
him.  Then  we  shall  know  what  sort  of  individual 
he  is — whether  a  haloed  saint,  as  the  religious 
papers  represent,  or  a  double-dyed  knave,  as 
many  other  papers  and  people  assert,  or  a  plain, 
every-day  American  trying  to  do  an  extraordi- 
nary job  to  the  best  of  his  ability. 

Rather  queer,  isn't  it,  that  after  having  been 
in  the  business  of  exporting  missionaries  for  well- 
nigh  one  hundred  years  America  should  actually 
know  so  little  about  the  article  himself,  and  be 
So  decidedly  divided  as  to  his  value? 

For  the  American  missionary  has  been  more  a 
subject  of  controversy  than  American  canned 
beef.  Hundreds  of  persons  who  have  visited 
foreign  parts  and  say  they  know,  and  thousands 
who  declare  that  they  have  their  information 
"straight,"  declare  that  the  missionary  is  a  sort 
of  pious  bunco  man;  that  he  is  not  wanted  where 
he  works;  that  he  is  an  unmitigated  nuisance, 
and  he  is  keenly  alert  to  the  welfare  of  number 
one. 

Contrariwise,  a  vastly  larger  number  of  per- 
sons in  every  part  of  the  land  firmly  believe,  and 
support  their  conviction  by  their  coin,  that  the 
missionary  is  a  saint  and  a  hero,  and  the  selfless 
servant  of  a  thankless  world's  welfare.  All  criti- 
cism of  him  they  sweepingly  resent,  and  are  loath 


to  hear  aught  to  his  dispraise.  The  apotheosis 
of  the  missionary  is  a  characteristic  of  modem 
religious  life. 

On  a  Still  Hnnt  for  Facts. 

Curiously  enough,  the  public  hears  only  these 
two  opinions  of  the  missionary,  one  of  which 
represents  him  as  a  scoundrel  or  a  fool,  the  other 
of  which  exalts  him  as  a  demi-god.  So  far  as  I 
am  aware,  nobody  has  ever  set  out,  indepen- 
dently, and  representing  no  board,  society,  or 
cause,  to  find  out,  impartially,  the  exact  facts 
in  the  case.  This  is  the  mission  I  have  under- 
taken. My  journalistic  integrity  is  pledged  to 
the  duty  of  ascertaining,  without  favor  or  fear, 
exactly  what  sort  of  person  the  missionary  is, 
how  he  works  and  amid  what  conditions,  and 
whether  the  task  he  has  imposed  upon  himself 
is  worth  doing  at  all,  and,  if  so,  whether  he  is 
doing  it  well. 

To  that  end  I  shall  personally  examine  on  the 
ground  representative  enterprises  of  all  denomi- 
national and  undenominational  missions.  I  shall 
attempt  to  study  the  workers  themselves  and 
hear  their  side  of  the  story.  With  equal  diligence 
I  shall  consult  qualified  native  opinion  and  search 
out  the  foremost  foreign  critics  and  ascertain 
their  views.  In  a  word,  with  no  other  purpose 
than  to  give  the  American  public  a  fair,  frank, 
full  story  of  this  controverted  subject,  I  have 
started  on  this  journey  around  the  world.  What- 
ever the  conclusions  I  may  report,  they  will  at 
least  be  honest. 

Largest  American  Business  Abroad. 

The  biggest  single  foreign  enterprise  in  which 
America  is  engaged  is  this  one  of  foreign  mis- 
sions. The  rest  of  the  world,  and  especially  the 
Orient,  knows  the  Western  continent  chiefly  by 
its  missionaries.  Figured  in  dollars,  the  business 
last  year  cost  the  American  public  $5,807,165, 
paid  in  by  an  organization  with  approximately 
12,000,000  shareholders  of  all  religious  denomi- 
nations, Protestant,  Roman  Catholic,  and  Mor- 
mon. (The  foreign  mission  work  of  all  coun- 
tries cost  $15,000,000  yearly.)  For  all  this  enor- 
mous output  the  tangible  returns  to  Amtrica 
were  practically  nothing.  True,  the  missionary 
helped  to  create  a  market  for  the  American  pack- 
ers '  products  and  for  American  locomotives  and 
sundry  other  forms  of  merchandise.  But  the 
church  members,  as  church  members,  who  put 
up  the  money,  profited  not  at  all  by  this. 

Apparently,  the  missionaries  themselves,  of 
whom  America  maintains  3776  in  Japan,  China, 
Korea,  the  Philippines,  Burma,  Siam,  India, 
Thibet,  Persia,  Turkey,  Egypt,  and  the  South 
American  countries,  do  not  get  rich  out  of  this 
vast  sum.  According  to  the  official  figures,  which 
I  secured  before  leaving  the  United  States,  the 
missionary's  salary  ranges  from  nothing  to  $1800 
a  year.  The  last-named  figure  is  paid  to  veterans 
of  the  Baptist  denomination,  who  are  married 
and  have  families;  the  former  represents  the 
salary  promised  to  the  missionaries  of  the  China 
Inland    Mission,    the    Christian    and    Missionary 


THE    P AND EX 


137 


For  the  clearest  exposition  of  the  Anthracite 
Coal  Monopoly  and  its  dealings  with  both 
miners  and  customers,  read — 

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MOONBLIGHT 

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Dept.  374  •  CHICAeo. 


138 


THE     PA  NDEX 


Alliance,     and     a    few     other    undenominational 
bodies. 

Per  cent 

United  Presbyterian 4 1-3 

Methodist,  North 5  2-5 

Methodist,  South 5  7-10 

Baptist,  South 6  1-10 

Presbyterian,  North 6  3-10 

Presbyterian,  South 7  7-10 

Reformed  Church 8  7-10 

American  Board 10  3-5 

Protestant  Episcopal 11 1-10 

Baptist,  North 11 1-2 

I  found  these  Missionary  Board  officials  a  civil 
lot.  I  could  have  wished  the  Armstrong  Commit- 
tee such  luck  in  its  investigation  of  insurance 
matters.  The  boards  open  wide  up,  and  then 
deluge  one  with  information  upon  his  approach. 
In  fact,  the  consideration  which,  more  than  any 
other,  tends  to  predispose  me,  as  an  investigator, 
toward  the  missionary  people  is  the  heartiness 
and  frankness  with  which  they  seem  to  welcome 
an  investigation.  Without  hesitation  they  have 
afforded  me  every  facility  for  looking  into  their 
work  at  home  and  in  foreign  lands.  They  say : 
"Find  out  the  worst  and  tell  the  public,  includ- 
ing us.  We  want  to  see  the  thing  with  the  eyes 
of  a  disinterested  observer."  Surely,  I  reason, 
the  organization  which  maintains  that  attitude 
can  not  contain  much  graft,  however  mistaken 
its  principles  and  policies  may  be. 

New  Side  of  College  Life. 

Picked  up  in  the  forest  of  facts  amid  which  I 
found  myself,  is  the  news  that  Yale  University 
has  established  a  missionary  lectureship,  with 
Professor  Harlan  P.  Beach,  an  ex-missionary,  as 
incumbent;  and  that  Yale,  Harvard,  Princeton, 
and  the  University  of  Pennsylvania  all  now 
have  foreign  mission  enterprises  of  their  own, 
manned  by  graduates  and  supported  by  alumni 
and  students. 

Nothing  more  extraordinary  has  come  to  my 
knowledge  than  the  grip  the  missionary  cause 
seems  to  have  taken  upon  the  American  insti- 
tutions of  higher  learning.  The  largest  and 
most  representative  intercollegiate  and  under- 
graduate gathering  ever  held  on  the  Western  con- 
tinent, if  not  in  the  world,  was  the  Student 
Volunteer  Convention  in  Nashville  last  spring, 
when  more  than  three  thousand  students,  from 
some  four  hundred  universities,  colleges,  and 
academies,  met  in  a  remarkable  convention. 
About  three  thousand  of  these  volunteers  have 
gone  to  foreign  parts  since  the  movement  was 
inaugurated  in  1892. 

In  connection  with  this  body  and  other  organ- 
izations of  young  people  there  has  been  a  phe- 
nomenal development  of  the  study  of  missionary 
literature,  and  within  a  dozen  years  more  than 
600,000  purely  missionary  books  have  been  sold. 

Hard  Knocks  for  the  Missionaries. 

Quite  different  are  the  stories  I  hear  in  other 
quarters.  One  of  the  higher  officers  of  the  Pacific 
Mail    Steamship    Company    assured    me,    as    one 


who  knows,  that  "the  missionaries  are  a  lot 
of  grafters.  But,"  he  added,  with  the  charac- 
teristic commercial  spirit  of  the  day,  "I  do  not 
want  to  see  their  graft  stopped,  for  it  pays  us 
to  carry  them." 

A  Hong  Kong  merchant  aboard  ship  declared 
that  "the  missionaries  are  a  pack  of  scoundrels. 
They  are  overbearing,  lazy,  pestiferous  fellows, 
recruited  only  from  the  very  lowest  ranks  of 
society  in  America  and  Great  Britain."  That 
last  was  a  little  more  than  I  could  swallow,  for 
it  went  contrary  to  my  personal  knowledge  in 
numerous  instances.  The  missionary  may  prove 
to  be  a  bad  egg  when  he  reaches  foreign  shores, 
but  every  college  man  in  the  land  knows  the 
stock  from  which  he  springs.  I  recalled  while 
leaning  over  the  rail  conversing  with  Mr.  Hong 
Kong  Merchant,  that  a  few  weeks  before  I  had 
read  an  enthusiastic  autograph  letter  from  Presi- 
dent Roosevelt  to  Rev.  Dr.  Arthur  H.  Smith 
(father  of  the  project  of  bringing  Chinese  stu- 
dents to  American  universities)  concerning  tlie 
latter 's  books  on  China.  A  few  days  previously 
Dr.  Smith  had  been  the  President's  guest  at 
luncheon. 

As  a  matter  of  candor,  I  may  say  that  thus 
far  I  am  having  some  difficulty  in  running  down 
to  particulars  the  countless  charges  against  the 
missionaries.  I  hope  to  have  better  fortune  in 
foreign  lands.  As  an  illustration  of  my  troubles, 
there  is  the  instance  of  a  fellow-passenger  on  the 
transpacific  steamer,  the  wife  of  a  Philippine 
official.  She  had  learned  the  nature  of  my  quest. 
"I  am  glad  you  are  going  to  get  after  the  mis- 
sionaries, and  I  hope  you  will  rip  them  up  the 
back,"  she  began  breezily.  "We  who  travel 
and  live  out  here  know  that  they  are  a  bad  lot." 
Yet  she  could  not,  when  urged,  become  more 
definite,  and,  although  long  a  resident  of  Manila 
and  an  Episcopalian,  she  confessed  that  she  had 
never  heard  or  met  Bishop  Brent,  the  brilliant 
head  of  the  Philippine  missions  of  her  church. 

Good  Morals  but  Bad  Manners. 

Already  I  have  a  dim  suspicion  that  one  rea- 
son for  the  antipathy  which  many  travelers  have 
to  missionaries  is  to  be  found  in  the  latter 's 
attitude  toward  life  aboard  ship  and  in  port 
cities.  The  missionary  is,  I  infer,  often  narrow 
and  intolerant,  and  desirous  of  imposing  his 
standards  upon  everybody.  He  is  prone  to  make 
unmannerly  remarks  about  the  amount  of  drink- 
ing that  goes  on,  seven  days  a  week,  aboard 
ship.  The  incessant  gambling,  also,  of  the  smok- 
ing room  and  ship  saloons  gets  on  his  puritanical 
nerves.  He  can  not  see — and  he  is  entirely  too 
blunt  and  inconsiderate,  I  believe,  in  expressing 
this  opinion — why  practices  should  be  counted 
good  form  aboard  ship  that  are  contrary  to  the 
law  of  the  land  when  ashore.  That  is  the  way 
he  justifies  his  tactlessly  aired  opinions. 

Tourists  do  not  like  to  have  the  narrow  stand- 
ards of  the  missionaries  thus  flung  at  their  heads 
censoriously;  and  they  are  not  likely  to  form  an- 
entirely  favorable  estimate  of  their  critics.   "Too 
many   young  missionaries,"  said   a   famous   vet- 


THE    PANDEX 


139 


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140 


THE     r  A  N  D  E  X 


eran  missionary  to  me  a  few  minutes  ago,' 
"think  that  they  must  start  out  by  trying  to 
convert  the  whole  ship.  They  do  not  try  to 
mingle  socially  and  congenially  with  their  fellow- 
passengers.  They  acquire  an  identity  as  mission- 
aries, rather  than  as  men  and  women." 

The  same  man,  himself  a  resident  of  Yoko- 
hama, is  authority  for  the  statement  that  mis- 
sionaries in  port  cities  maintain  an  attitude  of 
aloofness  or  separation  toward  other  foreigners. 
They  apparently  reason  that  they  have  come  out 
to  work  for  the  natives,  and  so  they  can  not 
give  any  time  to  the  European  community.  The 
result  is  inevitably  a  lack  of  mutual  sympathy 
and  understanding,  and  the  creation  of  a  hostile 
spirit  on  both  sides.  A  good  missionary,  I  take 
it,  needs  to  be  a  good  "mixer";  he  must  know 
how  to  be  a  man  among  all  kinds  of  men;  else 
his  usefulness,  his  reputation,  and  his  calling 
will  suffer. 

Still,  whatever  his  faults  or  virtues,  the  mis- 
sionary is  an  interesting  personality.  He  man- 
ages to  keep  pretty  much  in  the  public  eye, 
whether  by  being  kidnapped  by  brigands,  mas- 
sacred by  Chinese,  by  being  lost  in  Africa's  wil- 
derness, by  making  work  for  the  nation's  gun- 
boats and  marines  and  diplomats,  by  running 
genuine  relief  enterprises,  or  by  being  decorated 
by  kings,  emperors,  and  scientific  societies. 


LOVE  IN  THE  CAR. 

A  motor  car  is  not  the  place 

To  court  a  girl  with  ease  and  grace, 

You'll  find  you  can't  keep  up  the  pace 

And  woo  her. 
Your  eyes  on  the  road  ahead, 
There  isn't  much  that  can  be  said; 
You  really  dare  not  turn  your  head 

To  view  her. 

Her  color  comes,  her  color  goes. 
On  either  side  the  landscape  flows; 
The  motor  is  the  worst  of  foes 

To    Cupid. 
The  man  who  guides  his  flying  car 
Along  love's  lane  will  ne'er  go  far; 
He'll  fetch  up  with  an  awful  jar — 

The  stupid ! 

'Tis  better  then  to  wisely  wait. 
And  when  you  strike  a  tamer  rate 
Along  the  path  from  papa's  gate — 

Why,  view  her. 
There'll  be  no  throttle  there  nor  brake. 
No  speeds  your  anxious  thoughts  to  take, 
No  fear  of  skid  or  bump  or  break — 

So  woo  her. 

— Exchange. 


FOR  PREVENTING  SUICIDE. 


A  NEW  YORK  MINISTER  INAUGURATES  A  MOVEMENT  WHICH  HAS 

ALREADY  RESCUED  A  LARGE  NUMBER  OF  PERSONS  OF  BOTH 

SEXES  FROM  THE  TAKING  OF  THEIR  OWN  LIVES. 


Twelve  men  and  women,  frankly  declaring  that 
they  believed  suicide  to  be  the  only  way  out  of 
difficulties  in  which  they  found  themselves,  have 
sought  the  aid  of  the  Reverend  Henry  M.  War- 
ren, chaplain  of  the  city  hotels,  within  the  last 
five  days  in  response  to  a  general  invitation  ex- 
tended by  him  to  those  who  contemplated  suicide, 
in  which  he  said  he  would  help  them  to  change 
their  minds.  This  invitation  was  given  by  Doctor 
Warren  in  his  service  last  Sunday  night  in  the 
Fifth  Avenue  Hotel  and  was  printed  in  the 
Herald  the  next  day. 

In  his  sermon  Doctor  Warten  said  there  were 
scores  of  strangers  in  New  York  every  day 
who  had  come  there  with  the  well-founded  in- 
tention of  ending  their  lives.  They  came,  he  > 
said,  because  they  could  easily  conceal  or  lose 
their  identity. 

Doctor  Warren  argued  that  the  suicidal  intent 
of  such  persons  might  often  be  thwarted  if  they 


only  had  some  person  to  whom  they  could  pour 
out  their  hearts  at  the  critical  moment  in  their 
unhappy  lives.  They  almost  invariably  came 
to  the  city  alone  and  were  therefore  without 
counsel  when  the  contending  thoughts  coursed 
through  their  brains.  To  serve  as  a  personal 
friend  rather  than  as  a  minister,  Doctor  Warren 
made  his  recjuest  that  all  persons  so  inclined 
see  him  before  they  carried  out  their  purposes. 

Twelve  men  and  women  have  confessed  person- 
ally to  Doctor  Warren  that  they  intended  to 
commit  suicide,  and  he  has  received  more  than 
a  score  of  letters  from  others^  who,  although  not 
intending  to  end  their  lives,  have  declared  them- 
selves to  be  in  dire  straits,  from  which  they 
believed,  they  said,  there  was  no  departure  save 
by  extreme  methods. 

Keeps  Identity  Secret. 

Doctor   Y7arren    granted    an   interview    (o    the 


THE     PANDEX 


141 


CONSUMPTION 

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142 


THE     PANDEX 


Herald  touching  the  cases  of  those  who  called 
on  him,  but  refused  to  divulge  the  names  or 
addresses  of  any  of  them. 

"One  of  the  most  striking  instances,"  said 
Doctor  Warren,  "was  that  of  a^  man  who  came 
to  this  city  from  Boston.  He  is  the  manager  of 
a  large  manufacturing  concern  there  and  has  a 
wife  and  several  daughters.  Family  and  finan- 
cial difficulties  caused  him  to  ponder  over  suicide 
as  a  way  out  of  his  difficulties,  and  he  came  to 
this  city  and  registered  in  the  Grand  Union 
Hotel  under  an  assumed  name.  He  had  told  his 
family  he  was  going  to  the  Pacific  Coast  on 
business. 

' '  On  his  way  through  the  lobby  to  a  drug 
store,  where  he  expected  to  purchase  poison,  he 
saw  my  explanatory  card  and  asked  the  clerk 
about  me.  He  came  to  see  me,  and  by  remain- 
ing with  him  for  a  whole  day  I  got  him  to  go 
back  home.  I  have  received  a  letter  from  him 
telling  me  I  saved  him  from  what  he  saw  after- 
wards would  have  been  an  awful  mistake." 

Many  of  the  cases  which  have  come  to  Doctor 
Warren's  personal  attention  arose  from  lack  of 
funds.  Others  were  caused  directly  by  business 
or  professional  failure.  As  an  illustration.  Doc- 
tor Warren  quoted  this  letter: 

"Dear  Sir: — I  have  read  a  reprint  of  your 
'invitation  to  suicide'  in  the  Herald.  Well,  you 
may  give  new  hope  and  life  to  some,  but  not 
to  me.  Some,  like  I,  have  suffered  so  long  that 
any  kind  of  rest  must  be  welcomed.  Years  ago, 
a  graduate  of  the  Universities  of  Zurich  and 
Munich,  I  started  life  full  of  hope  and  ambition 
as  an  architect.  Now,  after  untold  hardships,  I 
mean  to  end  it,  and  not  even  my  wife  can 
prevent  it,  I  fear.  If  there  is  any  power  in 
words,  for  my  wife's  sake  give  me  hope.  Things 
are  dark,  dark — so  dark.     Send  for  me. 

"New  York,  November  26,  1906." 

Another  Man  Saved. 

"About  three  days  ago,"  continued  Doctor 
Warren,  "a  Scotchman  came  and  told  me  he 
was  going  to  commit  suicide.  Although  his 
clothes  were  shabby,  one  could  tell  that  they  had 
been  cut  from  good  material.  He  told  me  that 
a  year  ago  he  had  been  a  well-to-do  merchant 
in  Glasgow,  that  he  had  failed  in  business,  had 
been  deserted  subsequently  by  his  wife,  and  had 
fled  to  America.  For  several  months  he  said  he 
had  worked  as  a  clerk,  but  had  lost  his  position 
when  his  employers  cut  down  their  force  of 
clerical  men.  The  rest  of  his  story  was  short. 
He  had  gone  from  bad  to  worse  until  he  sought 
sleep  on  park  benches  and  food  anywhere. 

"Several  days  ago,  he  said,  he  picked  up  a 
Herald  on  a  bench  in  Central  Park  and  read 
the  account  of  my  sermon  on  suicides  and  came 
to  see  me.  I  got  him  work  and  to-day  he  has 
no  thought  of  suicide." 

Illustration  of  the  mental  state  of  women 
who  plan  to  commit  suicide  is  this  letter,  received 
a  few  days  ago  by  Doctor  Warren : 

' '  Dear  Doctor  Warren : — I  read  of  your  ser- 
mon in  Monday's  Herald.     You  stated  that  any 


person  in  trouble  who  expected  to  commit  sui- 
cide should  come  to  you  first  and  you  would 
advise  them.     I  must  see  you  at  once. 

"I  am  just  now  impelled  to  do  anything,  how- 
ever desperate.  I  can't  tell  my  troubles  to  my 
friends.  I  can't  do  it — I  haven't  the  heart.  I 
must  tell  some  one.  I  would  rather  die,  however, 
than  even  give  an  inkling  of  my  difficulty  to 
my  friends." 

Another  case  of  which  Doctor  Warren  told 
was  that  of  the  son  of  a  banker  living  in  River- 
side Drive,  who,  after  he  had  made  one  unsuc- 
cessful attempt  to  end  his  life,  was  dissuaded 
from  a  second  attempt. 

"This  young  man,"  said  Doctor  Warren,  "is 
a  college  graduate  and  independently  wealthy. 
He  told  me  he  had  tried  to  die  by  inhaling  illu- 
minating gas  in  his  bedroom.  A  servant,  how- 
ever, had  entered  his  room  and  turned  off  the 
gas  and  he  let  the  matter  pass  as  accidental. 
He  told  me  he  wanted  to  die  because  a  young 
woman  to  whom  he  had  been  engaged  had  broken 
the  engagement  and  been  married  to  another 
man.  Imagine  my  astonishment  when  he  told 
me  that  I  had  performed  the  wedding  ceremony 
myself. 

"I  soothed  him  and  told  him  I  was  not  posi- 
tive that  I  had  ever  performed  such  a  ceremony 
and  that  he  might  have  heard  an  erroneous  re- 
port. He  thought  his  case  over  for  an  hour, 
shook  hands  and  said  goodby.  He  is  to-day  as 
happy  as  ever,  having  heard  that  the  report  was 
false,  and  I  have  learned  that  the  sweetheart's 
quarrel  may  be  patched  up  soon. 

Letter  from  St.  Louis. 

Unusual  because  of  its  grim  philosophy  is  this 
letter  recently  received  by  Doctor  Warren  from 
a  man  in  St.  Louis : 

"Dear  Sir: — I  have  seen  your  appeal  in  the 
paper  to  the  effect  that  any  one  who  intended 
suicide  could  address  you.  As  I  am  one  of  those 
unfortunate  ones,  or,  perhaps,  fortunate  ones 
who  can  make  up  his  mind  to  such  a  step  under 
certain  circumstances,  I  address  you  frankly. 

"The  first  question  you'll  ask  me  is,  'Is  life 
worth  living?'  My  reply  is  that  it  is,  but  when 
you  have  a  family  depending  upon  you  and  you 
can  not  make  a  livelihood  for  them  you  are  only 
an  extra  burden,  whereas  they  would  benefit  by 
your  death.  They  would  get  the  life  insurance. 
If  I  stay  here  much  longer  even  this  will  be 
gone,  as  I  am  unable  to  keep  it  up.  I  am  fifty 
years  old.  I  was  in  business  for  myself,  but 
failed  in  1902  by  endorsing  notes  for  others.  I 
am  now  out  of  work.  You  may  think  it  an  easy 
thing  to  get  a  position  at  ray  time  of  life.  Just 
try  it  and  you  will  learn  differently;  nobody 
wants  you.     *     *     * 

"Quotations  from  Scripture  and  sermons  will 
not  be  of  any  assistance.  It  is  practical  assist- 
ance that  is  wanted,  and  to  get  this  practical 
assistance  the  Lord  must  help  those  who  help 
themselves.  The  only  practical  help  I  see  is 
suicide. ' ' 

"This    man's    case,    hopeless    though    it    may 


THE  PANDEX 


143 


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PHENIX 


INSURANCE   COMPANY 

OF        BROOKLYN,        NEW        YORK 

NET    SURPLUS    OVER 
$2,000,000.00 


GEORGE   P.    SHELDON President 

GEORGE  INGRAHAM Vice-President 

CHAS.  F.  KOSTER Secretary 

J.  H.  LENEHAN,  General  Agent 

Western    and     Southern     Department,    Chicago,    Illinois 

A,  C.  OLDS,  State  Agent   for  Pacific   Coast 

KOHL    BUILDING.    SAN    FRANCISCO,    CALIFORNIA 


BOOLE-SLOANE  CO.,  Inc. 

CITY  AGENTS 

FERRY  BUILDING 


CITY  REPRESENTATIVE 
NOBLE  H.  EATON 

218-219  KOHL  BUILDING 


PHENIX 
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I'leaae  mention  The  Paudex  when  writing  to  Advertisers. 


144 


THE    PANDEX 


seem,  should  not  in  reality  be  so,"  said  Doctor 
Warren.  "If  there  were  some  one  to  whom 
he  could  go  in  St.  Louis,  some  one  to  advise  him, 
I  feel  sure  that  the  cloud  would  be  dispelled." 

"Several  days  ago,"  continued  Doctor  War- 
ren, "a  smartly  gowned  woman  about  thirty-five 
years  old,  came  to  see  me.  She  told  me  she  was 
a  widow  and  had  until  then  been  in  financial 
straits  for  several  months.  She  said  she  had 
left  her  boarding  house  two  weeks  previous  with- 
out paying  her  bill,  being  ashamed  to  say  she 
had  no  money.  She  handed  me  $90  and  begged 
me  to  go  and  pay  the  bill.  She  said  she  had 
feared  arrest  daily  and  had  several  times  been 
on  the  point  of  committing  suicide  because  of 
sheer  mortification.  I  paid  the  bill  and  this 
woman's  troubles  ended." 

"Only  Wednesday  a  young  woman  told  me 
she  had  intended  to  commit  suicide  unless  she 
was  able  to  get  a  position  at  once  to  buy  her 
food  and  shelter.  I  talked  to  her  for  several 
hours  and  sent  her  away  in  a  cheerful  mood. 
All  she  needed  was  a  ray  of  hope  and  a  sugges- 
tion as  to  how  and  where  to  find  employment." 
"I  am  in  a  dreadful  fix,"  wrote  a  woman.  "I 
am  here  alone  in  the  city,  my  only  home  being 
a  rented  room  at  $2  a  week.  I  owe  $3  on  it 
and  all  I  have  is  five  cents  in  cash.  I  am  too 
weak  from  lack  of  food  to  even  hunt  work.  I 
never  thought  I  would  be  in  such  a  predicament 
when,  several  years  ago,  my  husband  (now  dead) 

was  pastor  of  the  Church,  in  ,  and 

I  was  organist." 

"This  letter,"  said  Doctor  Warren,  "is  only 
one  of  many  of  its  type.  A  few  dollars  from 
some  fund  would  help  such  persons  to  their 
feet." 


RAG    CARPET  WEAVING,  ^'«  ^r 
'  Chenille 
Wove  Rug»  and   Silk  Rag  Porriera  woven  to  order.    Also  hand- 
some Fluff  Rugs  made  from  your  old  carpets. 
Send  for  Circulars.  GEO.  MATTHEW. 

709  Fifth  St..  Oakland,  Cal. 


Real  Elstate 


BURR-PADDON  COMPANY.  (Inc.).  the  Leading  Real  Estate  Agents. 
Main  Offices,  1694  Fillmore  Street,  San  Francisco,  Cal.  Branch  at  950 
Broadway,  Oakland;  Dear  S.  P.  Depot. 


M 

TRICYCLE  COM PANYS 

1^  Invalid    Rolling  Chairs 

a                 AND  TRICYCLE  CHAIRS 

Bj      for  th«  disAblcd  are  the  acme  of  perfection 

f  2l08MarketSt,San Francisco, Califomiii 
837  South  Si>r:„|j  St.,  Loi  Angele. 

Srn^  for   Ittuilralrd  Ca'ali.gut 

THL 
LAST 

COWBOY 


The  Last  Cowboy  looked  at  the  caravan  of 
prairie  schooners  waiting  for  the  opening  of  the 
Big  Pasture.  Far  away  the  wisps  of  smoke  from 
a  flouring  mill  blurred  the  horizon. 
"Mexico  for  me,"  was  all  he  said. 
There  are  no  more  Big  Pastures.  There  was 
all  of  Oklahoma  once.  Then  the  Government  cut 
down  the  range  by  the  great  opening  of  1888. 
Then  there  was  the  Cherokee  Strip  and  this  went 
out  in  the  great  rush  of  1893.  Then  there  was 
No  Man's  Land,  and  this  is  now  a  peaceful 
county  in  Oklahoma,  settled  by  the  despised 
"Nestors."  Then  there  was  the  I.  X.  L.,  with 
its  three  million  acres  in  a  solid  body.  This  has 
been  cut  up  in  small  farms  and  Amarillo,  the  old 
cattle  outfitting  point,  has  become  a  city  of  farm- 
ers. And  last  of  all  was  the  Big  Pasture.  Now 
that  is  going. 

The  Last  Cowboy  was  too  good  a  loser  to 
whimper.  "It  was  a  great  day  for  us  while  it 
lasted,"  he  said.  "All  of  this  western  country 
was  ours.  We  could  ride  where  we  pleased, 
shoot  where  we  pleased,  when  we  pleased,  and 
almost  whoever  we  pleased,  and  no  questions 
asked.  We  made  this  country,  or  at  least  this 
part  of  the  country.  We  got  here  when  the  In- 
dians were  here.  We  drove  out  the  Indians. 
Then  we  drove  out  the  wolves.  Then  we  exter- 
minated the  coyotes  and  prairie  dogs.  Now  we 
have  got  to  follow  the  long  trail.  No  more 
United  States  for  us.  The  blamed  old  Nestor 
has  made  us  hard  to  catch.  It's  home  and  kids 
and  the  quiet  life  for  us  after  this. 

"But  we  have  done  some  things  besides  shoot 
up  towns  and  make  tenderfeet  dance  in  booze 
joints.  First  of  all  we  tamed  the  Comanches. 
We  had  a  hard  tussel  with  them  redskins,  but 
we  made  Christians  out  of  them  before  we  got 
through  and  they  are  the  peaceablest  Indians 
in  the  West  to-day.  We  fought  'em  all  the  way 
from  the  Cimarron  to  the  Rio  Grande,  through 
the  sage  brush  and  the  chaparral  till  they  quit 
stealing  ponies  and  quit  burning  towns.  The 
picture  books  don't  give  us  any  credit  for  this. 
They  just  tell  about  the  times  when  we  got  off 
the  range  on  a  budge  hunt.  Yet  we  were  the 
long  arm  of  the  law  in  this  Western  country  up 
to  the  time  the  'Nestors'  began  to  get  thick 
some  twelve  or  fifteen  years  ago.  Time  was 
when  you  could  go  five  hundred  miles  on  a  stretch 
and  never  strike  a  constable.  It  was  the  cow- 
boy who  kept  out  the  cattle  thief,  who  kept  out 
the    train    robbers    and    the    murderers    and    the 


T  H  E    P  A  N  D  E  X  14') 


All  the  Way 


CAUFORNIA  LIMITED 
OVERLAND  EXPRESS 


Only  Direct  Line  to  Kansas  City — Chicago 

Ask  the  Santa  Fe  Agent 

Ferry  Building,  San  Francisco,  Cal. 

Pleaae  nK-atlon  The  Pnndex  when  wrltlnx  to  Advertiser*. 


146 


THE     PANDEX 


—Judge. 


SORT  OF  A  SOUFFLE  SOUND. 
"Sh-s-s-s!     They're  eating  dinner  now." 
"  Are  you  sure  .'" 
"Yes;   1  bear  father  eating  soup.'* 

rest  of  the  bunch  who  go  out  principally  in  the 
night  time. 

"Of  course  it  hurts.  When  a  fellow  has  got 
used  to  'gyp'  water  and  the  mirages,  when  the 
shadows  of  the  mountains  take  on  the  gold  and 
silver  in  the  evenings,  when  the  gray  of  the 
sage  brush  gets  into  the  blood,  a  fellow  kind  of 
hates  to  leave  it.  It's  been  home  to  us  from 
the  time  we  could  throw  our  legs  across  a  pony's 
back.  The  great  winking  stars  at  night  and  the 
great  staring  sun  in  the  daytime — they  have 
burned  their  way  into  the  marrow  of  our  bones. 
We  have  been  brother  to  the  desert  loneliness, 
to  the  gray  wolf  and  the  slinking  coyote,  com- 
panions of  the  dumb  brutes  who  feed  on  the 
rolling  prairies.  And  it's  hard  to  quit.  It's 
hard  to  think  we  have  reached  Lands  End,  that 
the  old  free  life  has  gone  forever 
and  that  from  this  time  on  we  must 
adopt  domestic  habits  or  go  to 
where  there  are  no  wire  fences,  no 
railroads,  and  no  'Nestors.'  Think 
of  me  with  a  bunch  of  kids." 

And  he  laughed  way  down  in  the 
cavernous  rfecesses  of  his  sun- 
browned  chest. 

"Wouldn't  I  make  a  pretty 
father?  Why  the  first  time  I  tried 
to  hold  a  baby  I  would  let  him  drop 
and  break  his  head.  It's  Mexico 
or  the  Philippines  or  dinky  old 
Argentina  for  me." 

The  pinto  pony  grazed  around  at 
his  feet  and  he  pulled  at  the  pipe 
for  a  minute. 

"Now,  wouldn't  it  jar  yOu  to 
think  that  the  Indian  has  outlived 
the  cowboy  after  all?  That's  the 
hell  of  it.  We  must  go  alone.  We 
are  the  last  of  what  the  literary 
fellers  call  a  type.  But  the  old 
paint-faced  Indians  remain  and  the 
Government  feeds  'em.  That's 
what  makes  me  want  to  go  out  and 
turn  loose  this  old  gun  of  mine  six 
times  more  for  luck.  Still  it's  all 
in  the  game  and  when  a  man  calls 
the  turn  wrong  he's  got  no  right  to 
holler   when    the    dealer    rakes    in 


the  chips.  It's  just  a  case  of  betting  on  the 
wrong  card.  We  thought  it  was  going  to  last 
forever.  We  thought  there  was  room  enough  in 
other  parts  of  the  country  for  the  fool  farmers 
without  their  trying  to  cut  up  the  big  ranches. 
That 's  where  we  got  off  wrong.  And  the  damned 
Indian  who  didn't  think,  who  didn't  have  no 
think,  is  here,  and  we  are  the  ones  to  go.  And 
the  first  son  of  a  gun  of  an  Indian  who  laughs 
at  me  is  going  to  get  what's  coming  to  him. 
He's  going  to  get  it  so  the  doctors,  won't  be  of 
much  use  to  him. 

' '  Some  fellers  have  been  telling  me  to  give 
it  up  and  settle  down,  to  acquire  a  section  of 
land  and  raise  a  family.  Now,  that  sounds  good 
to  a  man  who  has  always  had  a  policeman  to 
see  that  he  got  home  all  right  every  night  and 
who  wears  slippers  when  he  goes  out  on  the  porch 
to  get  his  morning  paper,  but  none  of  it  for 
Willie.  The  old  saddle  for  a  pillow,  the  ground 
for  a  bed  and  the  long  wail  of  the  coyote  to 
sing  me  to  sleep.  I'd  just  as  soon  be  in  jail  as 
cooped  up  in  a  cottage.  The  stampede,  the  long, 
long  days  on  the  Montana  trail,  the  night  rides, 
the  thirst  and  the  hunger  and  the  good  old  windy 
ranges  are  what  call  to  me.  A  man  who  has 
had  his  feet  frozen  to  his  stirrups,  who  has  had 
snow-blindness  and  sand-blindness,  who  has 
thrown  wild  steers  with  his  naked  hands  and 
snapped  rattlesnakes'  heads  off  as  a  child  would 
pop  a  whip,  would  look  like  a  fool  beside  a  fire- 
side with  a  baby  on  his  knee." 

There  was  a  long  pause  and  the  pipe  sent  long 


ALL    FOOT-WORK. 
The  Girl — "  Oh.  isn't  this  heavenly,  Charley,  dear! 
he  forgets  half  the  time  we've  a  patent  piano-player." 


Papa's  so  absent-minded 
—Puck. 


THE    PANDEX 


147 


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A.  B.  Smith  Co. 

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Rockland  Commercial  College 

ROCKLAND,  ME. 

H.  A.  HOWARD.   Proprietor. 

"I  have  used  a  number  of  Williams  Typewriters  in 
this  college  during  the  past  five  years,  which  have  been 
subjected  to  hard  usage  at  the  hands  of  students  and 
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writers. My  experience  has  convinced  me  that  the 
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148 


THE     PANDEX 


streamers   into   the   hazy   blue    of  the   sky.     He  pinching  shoe.     Still,  it  all  comes  to  the  same  in 

kicked  with  his  heels  in   the  sand   and   watched  the  eiid." 

the  sun  going  down.  He   swung   himself   into   the   saddle,   the   pony 

"Well,    we'll    go    up    into    British    Columbia,  swept   across   the   plain  in   a  long  easy  "lope." 

maybe.      They    tell    me    there's    big    ranges    up  For    miles    you    could    see    him,    a    lonely    figure 


THOROUGH  BUT  NOT  PEDANTIC. 

(Overheard  at  the  Louvre.) 

American  Tourist  (suspiciously) — "Say,  guide,  haven't  we  seen  this  room  before?" 
Guide — "Oh,  no,  monsieur." 

Americaji  Tourist — "Well,  see  here.    We  want  to  see  eversrthing,  but  we  don't  want  to  see 
anything  twice!" 

—Punch. 


there.      Anyway,    we're    not    wanted    here.      It's  limned  against  the  sun.     He  disappeared  over  a 

skidoo.     Go  away,  old  peoples,  go   away.     If  it  rise   in   the   prairie   and   the   shadows   fell.     The 

wasn't  that  the  damned  Indian  has  got  the  laugh  last  of  the  old-time  cowboys  had  become  just  a 

on    us    at    the    last — that's    the    rub;    that's    the  memory. 


THE     PANDEX 


149 


PHONE  MAIN  3001 


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150 


THE     PANDEX 


A  VANISHED  COMMODITY 


Old-Fashioned  Brown  Sugar  with  All  Its  De- 
lights Is  Gone. 

"What  I  waiit, "  said  the  top-flatter  who  was 
buying  groceries,  "is  some  brown  sugar.  Got 
any?" 

The  clerk  said  he  had  and  sifted  out  a  shovel- 
ful of  sugar  in  to  the  tray. 

"Hold  on  a  minute,"  said  the  top-flatter. 
"That  isn't  brown  sugar.  It's  the  kind  you  fel- 
lows all  over  town  have  been  trying  to  sell  me 
for  brown  sugar,  but  it  isn't  brown;  it's  a  pale, 
whitish,  sickly  yellow.  What  I  call  brown 
sugar  is  the  kind  mother  used  to  sweeten  the 
pies  with  when  I- was  a  kid.  Don't  you  remem- 
ber it?  It  was  dark  and  coarse-grained  and 
full  of  lumps  as  big  as  your  fist.  There  was  more 
of  the  concentrated  essence  of  sweetness  in  one 
of  those  lumps  than  in  a  whole  shovelful  of  this 
yellow  stuff,  and  after  a  fellow  had  sneaked  a 
chunk  of  it  out  of  the  barrel  and  crawled  off 
under  the  back  stairs  and  gobbled  it  in  secrel 
he  was  fairly  oozing  sugar  at  every  pore.  Thai 
is  the  kind  of  sugar  I  want.     Got  any?" 

"No,  sir,"  said  the  clerk,  "we  don't  keep 
it.  It  is  very  old  fashioned.  There  is  only  a 
little  of  it  put  on  the  market." 

The  top-flatter  sighed.  "I  understand  now," 
he  said,  "why  so  many  cakes  and  pies  and 
preserves  don't  taste  right." 


Too  Bad  to  Be  True. 

The  hall  bedroom  boarder,  who  had  been  I'e- 
cently  married,  rose  screaming  from  his  nuptial 
couch. 

"What  in  the  world  is  the  matter,  dearest?" 
exclaimed  his  bride. 

"I  dreamed,"  and  he  shuddered  almost  to  the 
swooning  point  at  the  memory;  "I  dreamed  that 
I  saw  a  forest  scene  like  the  one  in  the  home- 
made oil  painting  in  my  room  at  the  boarding 
house. ' ' 

Reminding  him  of  the  impossibility  of  such 
a  thing,  the  young  woman  managed  to  quiet  the 
terrified  man. — Judge. 


Forewarned. 
"How  is  the  water  in  the  bath,  Fifi?" 
"Please,  my  lady,  it  turned  baby  fairly  blue." 
"Then  don't  put  Fido  in  for  an  hour  or  so." 
— Courier- Journal . 


■     The  First  Quarrel. 
Adam — It's  all  off.     Good-bye  forever! 
Eve — Then  take  back  your  rib. 


Some  men  grow,  under  responsibility,  and  oth- 
ers were  swell. — Puck. 


If  conscience  makes  cowards  of  us  all,  cow- 
ardice, on  the  other  hand,  gives  some  of  us  about 
all  the  conscience  we  ever  know. — Puck. 


New  Lamps  for  Old. 

Johnny's  dog,  Tige,  was  a  nuis- 
ance. His  pet  theory  must  have 
been  that  all  things  were  created 
to  be  destroyed — at  least,  so  his 
practices  indicated.  Johnny's  folks 
were  anxious  to  be  rid  of  Tige, 
and  at  last  they  decided  to  work 
upon  the  lad's  affections  with  lucre. 

"Johnny,"  said  his  father  one 
day,  "I'll  give  you  five  dollars  if 
you'll  get  rid  of  that  dog." 

Johnny  gasped  at  the  amount, 
swallowed  hard  at  thought  of  Tige, 
and  said  he  would  think  it  over. 

The  next  day  at  dinner  he  made 
the  laconic  announcement:  "Pa,  I 
got  rid  of  Tige." 

"Well,  I  certainly  am  delighted 
to  hear  it,"  said  the  father. 
"Here's  your  money;  you've 
earned  it.  How  did  you  get  rid  of 
the  nuisance?" 

"Traded  him  to  Bill  Simpkins 
for  two  yellow  pups."  answered 
Johnny. — Lippincott  's. 


In  time,  no  doubt,  all  kinds  of 
geese  will  fly  south  in  the  fall,  ex- 
cept the  very  timidest,  who  will 
always  go  by  rail,  probably. — Puck. 


IT'S  IN  THE  AIR. 
'  VVliat  on  eartti  are  you  doine  with  those  electric  fans  .^" 
'  Preparing  for  to-morrow's  spin,  my  dear." 

—New  York  Herald. 


THE    PA   NDEX 


151 


DAY  CURE' 

PILES 

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152 


THE    PANDEX 


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Mr.  Edison 


says: 


READ 

every  -word  of 
this  straight- 
for-ward  offer. 


"I  want  to  see  a  Phonograph 
in  every  American  home." 

The  ptaonoeraph  is  Mr.  Edison's  pet  and 
hobby— the  only  one  of  his  wonderful 
inventions  of  which  today  he  holds 
active  control. 


Buys  This 
Improved 
EDISON 

Outfit  No.  5 

$27.50  for  Edi- 
son outfit  No.  5, 
far,  far  superior  to 
the  highest  priced 
imitations    of    the 
genuine  Edison. 

^A  and  upward 
•^iVfor  other 
Edison  outfits. 


i^ 


FREE  TRIAL 


Send  no  money  —  no  deposit  —  no  C.  0.  D.  —  If  after  4S  hours '  free  trial  in  your  oHun 
home  the  Edison  does  not  fully  satisfy  yott  and  all  your  family,  return  outfit  AT 
OUR  EXPENSE —  an  offer  open  to  every  responsible  person  in  the  United  States. 

$  ^  .50  a  Month 


Comnarisonfl  Drove  ***"  »biiolute.  unquaiifled  nuperiorltT 
vumparivunv  pruvc  ^^  ^i^,,  genuine  Edison  phono^ntph 
ftnd  the  genuine  Edison  gold  moulded  recordH.  Mr.  Edison's 
patents,  AS  the  reader  probably  knows,  are  the  phonograph 
patents.  At  the  remarkable  price  now  msLdeon  the  great  hkllson 
outfit  No.  5— total  cost  of  •27.60— and  other  genuine  Edison  out- 
fits for  914.20  and  upward  —  why  ehou'd  anybody  choose  the 
Inferior  Imitation  talking  machines,  costing  as  much  or  eren 
much  more  than  the  genuine  Edison ! 

No  Imitator  Is  allowed  to  infrlnfre  on  either  the  original  or 
the  later  Udlson  patents.  Hence  the  imitation  machines  are 
made  In  all  kinds  of  peculiar  ways  to  ^et  around  the  patent  laws, 
though  detracting  from  the  real  vatue  of  ihe  phonograph.  I^Ir. 
Edison  orcoiirse  covered  the  [^ood  polntH  of  the  phonograph  by 
his  patents;  it  is  the  only  one  of  h]»  inventloDs  In  which  he  Is 
stlU  actively  Interested,  working  dally  in  the  phonograph  lab- 
oratory. And  we  need  not  argu«  with  you  aa  to  the  merits  of 
Mr.  Edison's  invention  compared  with  the  work  of  some  other 
"Inventor"  or  "inventors," 

We  want  toprot'f  fo  you  by  this  remarkable  free  trial  offer 
what  everybody  In  the  talking  machine  business  openly  or 
■ecretly  admits  about  the  wonderful  superiority  of  Hr.  Edison's 
own  Initrument. 


5 


buys   the   great   outfit    No.    5.    and   t^ 
costs  you  ag  little  as  if  you  paid  cash 
(not  even  Interest  on  payments)   totsl 
cost  only  $27.50. 

fJO  O^Ti'tt^  a  W/^#»Alr  *°*^  upward  for  other 
cJV  «-CtIL9  A    W  CCi\  genuine  Edison outflta. 

No  discount  for  cash  ^^  ^'•^^  '^^^  purchasers  are  tak- 
IXO  aiSCOUnr  lOr  Casn  ,„g  advantage  of  tbia  offer  to  ae- 
cure  the  finest  Improved  Edison  outfits  at  present  prlcas,  that 
we  aie  often  asked  for  some  cash  distiount.  We  must  Inform  you 
that  the  prices  at  which  we  now  sell  on  time  are  already  so  low 
(the  lowest  allowed  under  the  patent  laws)  that  we  cannot  give 
you  anything  off  for  cash.  If  you  prefer,  send  cash  In  full  after 
i8  hours*  free  trial  In  your  home.  No  reapontibU  party  need 
send  any  cash  with  order. 


By  making  this  offer  it  is  unnecessary  to  Aoht  imitators  in  court,  for 
they  simply  cannot  compete.  You  get  the  benefit  in  the  rock-bottom 
price   and  easy-payment   terms  on   the  finest  genuine  Edison  outfits. 


You  cannot  Imaiplne  how  much  pleasure  you  and  your  family,  old  and  younK.  will  g^et 
from  the  genuine  Edison  until  you  have  tried  it  in  your  own  home.  Waltzes,  two-steps, 
minstrel  shows  and  grand  opera.  Perfect  reproduction.  The  improved  Edison  phono- 
graphs are  no  ordinary  automatic  entertainers,  but  musical  Instruments  of  highest  merit. 


WRITE  for  Catalog 

You  need  not  bother  with  wrltlnK  a  letter.    Just  write  your  name  and  addresa     ^  <^ 
plainly  on  coupon :  put  the  coupon  in  an  envelope  and  mail  it  today.      Edison  cata-    ^  >p 
Iocs,  special  circular  on  the  new  style  improyed  Edison  outfits  and  Edison  record  cata-  >  ^^  ^ 


no  money  /y^  »,- 
down.  Wouldn't  you  like  to  try  the  new  sty  le  Edison  phonograpb  '  ^jSy  ^   » 

Frederick  Babson  /  ^"^^^^^^ 

149-150  Michigan  Av*.  *      o'^'V^'^Sv*' 


loff  will  be  mailed  free  prepaid.    Remember,  frte  trial- 
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Some  Thoughts  About  The   Pandex 


From  a  New  York  Newspaper  Man 

W.  J.  Lampton,  inventor  of  the  famous  "Yawp"  Verte* 


Pandex  came  and  I'm  here  to  say  that  it  is  the  best  yet  along 
general  reading  lines.  I  don't  know  what  you  are  doing  in  ex- 
tending its  circulation,  but  it  seems  to  me  that  you  should  build 
it  up  into  the  1 00  thousands.  As  a  magazine  for  the  people 
who  live  beyond  the  daily  paper  zone,  it  leads  all  and  should  be 
in  every  farmer's  house.  I  showed  it  to  a  Swiss  editor  who  is 
here  seeing  the  country  and  learning  about  us,  and  he  will  write 
you  about  having  it  sent  to  him,  not  in  exchange,  but  for  his  $1 .50. 


From   the   San  Francisco 
Chronicle 


The  January  Pandex  of  The  Press  is  crowded  with  readable 
matter,  as  December  was  rich  in  noteworthy  news.  The  Pres- 
ident's message  is  printed  in  full,  and  the  editor  announces  that 
any  one  who  wishes  the  message  in  a  separate  pamphlet  may 
get  it  by  sending  1 0  cents  in  stamps  to  the  publisher.  This  is  a 
sensible  scheme  for  any  one  who  wishes  to  preserve  a  copy  of 
the  message  in  convenient  form.  The  main  topics  that  are  dis- 
cussed in  this  number  are  the  war  against  trusts,  the  coal  famine, 
the  Japanese  school  question,  the  financial  outlook,  the  Panama 
canal  and  ships,  etc.  The  editor's  comment  is  strong  and  pithy 
and  the  cartoons  and  other  illustrations  throw  amusing  side  lights 
on  the  news.  The  Pandex  is  by  all  odds  the  most  readable  of 
the  magazines  and  it  is  indispensable  to  the  busy  man  who  wishes 
to  keep  posted  on  the  News  of  the  world. 


From  a  Subscriber  in  Seattle 


J.  p.  Martin,  Real  Estate 


I  am  highly  pleased  with  The  Pandex.  It  is  more  than  all  the 
other  magazines  put  together  for  a  man  with  limited  time  to  de- 
vote to  current  events. 


THE  PANDEX  OF  THE  PRESS 


Edited  by  Arthur  I.  Street 


INDEX    TO    CONTENTS 


Series  II. 


FEBRUARY.  1907 


Vol.  V.  No.  2 


COVER — Wall  Street   Snuggery — Adapted  from 
Chicago    News 

frontispiece: — voted      for      It. — New      York 
World. 

EDITORIAL — From  State  to  Religion 153 

FEW  DAYS   OF   FELLOWSHIP 162 

No  Eviction  Christmas  Eve 162 

Poor  and  Wealthy  Get  Money 162 

Cincinnati  Men  Receive  Gifts 163 

$50,000    by    Special    Train 163 

Santa  Claus  in  Baltimore 164 

J51. 230.294    Given    to    Charity 166 

Europe's    Christmas    Cheer 166 

Christmas  Strilte  in  Schools 168 

Condemns    Christmas    Feeds 169 

T.    VESUVIUS    ROOSEVELT— Verse    and    Car- 
toon     170 

HARRIMAN     VS.    ROOSEVELT  172 

Congress  Ready  for  a  Fuss 173 

Must  Use  His  Big  Stick.  . .' 173 

Democrat  to  the  Defense 173 

President    Right;    No    Row 174 

Charged   with   "Fatuous   Meddling" 174 

Fine,    McCutcheon     '175 

Will    Break    Message    Habit 176 

Fines  and  Jail  Scare  Railways 176 

Root    for    Senator 178 

Gompers    Cries    Fraud 178 

Dare  Not  Revise  Tariff 179 

"Thru"  It  Shall   Be 179 

"The    Beloved,    Exalted    Roosevelt  ' 180 

FIGHTING    "THE    MEDDLER." 

Harriman   Leads   Forces 180 

Criticism    Resented    by    President 184 

LABOR  AT  THE  PLAY 185 

ROCKEFELLER  AS    "KING   OF   THE   REPUB- 
LIC"        189 

VERSE. 

A    Wail    192 

Story  of  the  Rich  Man 192 

PRICES,    FUEL,    AND    WEATHER 193 

May  Cost  Many  Lives 193 

Famine  Felt  in  Canada 194 


Starvation    Behind    Famine 196 

Fuel    Famine   a  Conspiracy 196 

Southwest   Losing   Millions 196 

Shippers   Partly   to   Blame 197 

Hill,  J.  J.,  on  Coal  Famine 198 

High  Prices  for   Every  Necessity 198 

HUMOR      204 

SEVEN  MONTHS  AT  SEA  WITH  A  DRY  DOCK    205 

THE    GOLDEN    BAIT   OF   NEVADA 206 

HARRIMAN'S     DEFEAT    OF    HILL 209 

VERSE     210 

STATE  RIGHTS  VS.  STATE  DUTIES 211 

Democrats    See    a    Live   Issue 211 

Root   Explains  Talk 212 

Chicago  to  Lead  World 212 

May   Amend  Crime   Laws 214 

Slot-Machines    Tax    Bill 214 

Some  Proposals  in  Colorado 214 

Reforms   Strong  in   West 215 

New   Anti-Tipping   Bill 216 

Big  Year  for  Legislatures 216 

"State  Rights"  Go  to  Court 218 

Hughes  Blames  Laws  for  Evils 218 

Texas   Car   Shortage    Remedy 219 

Ohio  Liquor   Law  to    Stand 219 

Square  Deal  in  Pennsylvania 219 

Sovereign  State  not  a  Nation 219 

Manitoba    for   Public    Telephones 220 

Owe   City   Enormous   Debt 220 

Fight    on    Municipal    Plant 220 

Municipal   Plant   a   Success 222 

Bryan's   Reply  to   Root 222 

Europe  on  States'   Rights  Fight 222 

Protectionism   Followed   Civil    War 223 

Folk  Wants  a  Lot  of  Things 223 

HEROES    OF   THE    PHILIPPINES 224 

VERSE     228 

CHAPTER      IN      RAPID      TRANSIT      TOLD      IN 
CARTOONS .  ,  ,    229 

RELIGION  AS  AN  ISSUE 233 

Vatican  Issues  a  Note 233 

Pope  Would  Be  a  Martyr 234 

Evangelizing    the    World 234 

Ministers  Will  Edit  Paper 235 

War  on  Sunday  Theaters.' 235 

Fight   for   Open    Sunday 23S 


Church  Wins   in  Porto  Rico 235 

Pulpit  the  Coward's  Castle 236 

Man  Superior  to  Commerce 236 

It's  a  Moral  Problem 238 

Church    Neglects   Labor    238 

Legislation   No  Cure   for   Ills 239 

Puritan  Day  In   Boston 239 

Union  of  All   the  Protestants 240 

Confucius  Promoted    240 

Madhl  to  Reconquer  Egypt 240 

Services   in  Many  Languages •. 241 

Daniel   II,   Latest   Prophet 241 

Scientist    Exposes    "Miracle" 242 

Why  Sam  Jones  was  a  Clown 242 

Saving    Souls    at    101 243 

SEPARATION   ACT — FULI-   TEXT 243 

"I,ORD    OF  THE   ■WORLD,   ROI^Ij   OVEHl   ME"..  2H 

BETWEEN    SEX  AND   DUTY 253 

De    Raylan's   Sex    Known . 253 

Wife  Beat  De  Raylan 254 

Madman    Poses   as   Woman 256 

Senorlta    Dressed    as    Tramp 258 

First   to  Hold   Indiana   Office 258 

Women    in    Postal    Service 258 

Women    Happy   Without    'Vote 259 

Corelli  Calls  Woman  Names 259 

Luxury-Loving  Wives   Crush    Souls 260 

Fight  to  Separate  Elections 260 

Names   Woman    Deputy    Sheriff 260 

Women  Outgrowing  Men 260 

Trade  Schools   for  Girls 261 

How  Women  Waste  Millions 261 

Labor   Laws   for   Women 261 

Hotel  for  Women  a  Failure 262 

Paper    Published    by    Women 262 

Woman's    Brain    for   Sale 264 

Sees  Good  in  Race  Restriction 264 


Question   of  Courage 265 

French    Women   and   Corsets 265 

Nine  Years  to  Malte   a   Dress 265 

Down  With  the  Broom 266 

Cannes    Feels    Man    Famine 266 

Woman   Moonshiner    266 

Stare  at  Weil-Known  Women 267 

Jilted  Because  of  Beauty 268 

His    "Tootsy    Wootsy" 269 

Girl   Wife  Traded  for  Them 269 

Sisters  In  Duel  for  Love 269 

THE   "NEW   MAN"      270 

FAMOUS    DUEL    ON    MISSISSIPPI    SAND 272 

VERSE     276 

A  YEAR'S   EXTRAVAGANCE   IN   NEW   YORK.  278 

TALE    IN    CARTOONS 282 

THE   HUNTER,   THE   ANIMAL   AND   THE  RE- 
VENGE      286 

Killed   a  Silver   Fox 286 

Wild   Dogs  of  India 286 

Monster    Wildcat 287 

Tigers  Reared  by  Dogs 287 

Cat  Hunts  Like  Bird   Dog 287 

Mouse  That  Robbed  Railroad 287 

Fought   Snakes   Three   Hours 288 

Fiddling  Charms  Wolves 288 

To   Domesticate  Eight   Foxes 288 

Monopoly   on    Chickens 390 

Eagle  Attacks  Hunter 292 

Hunting    Jaguars    In    Mexico 292 

Dogs   as  Holiday   Gifts 295 

Hotel   for  Dogs   Pills   Need 298 

Ontario's   Great    Hunting    Record 300 

Real  Fish  Story 300 

Man   With   a   "Night  Eye" 302 


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^  ORCHARD  AND  FARM,  the  most  handsomely  executed  farm  publication  in 
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q  THROUGH  ITS  COLUMNS  during  the  year  1907  we  shall  be  delighted 
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and  where  flowers  never  fade. 

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AND  FARM,  every  vital  item  of  interest  to  the  agriculturist  and  live  stock 
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NAME 

STREET  

CITY STATE 


Pleas«  mention  The   Pandex  n-hen  vrrltinff  to   Advertisers. 


154 


THE     PANDEX 


The  Senate  Demanded  an  Explanation  and  Got  It. 
— St.  Louis  Globe-Democrat. 


directed  himself,  finds  it  requisite  to  elabor- 
ate his  messages  to  Congress  until  they 
become  sermons  in  political  and  social 
morality.  This  is  why  Governor  Hughes, 
pursuing  the  precedent  set  by  President 
Roosevelt  when  he  first  entered  the  White 
House,  has  followed  an  earnest  inaugural 
address  on  the  philosophies  of  modern  gov- 
ernmental methods  with  a  notice  to  all  per- 
sons, influential  and  otherwise,  that  what 
business  can  not  be  transacted  with  the 
Chief  Executive  of  the  State  in  the  open 
chamber  has  no  right  to  claim  the  secrecy 
of  locked  doors  or  the  privilege  of  favored 
consideration.  This  is  why  the  Speaker  of 
the  lower  house  of  the  Pennsylvania  Legis- 
lature, contemplating  the  venal  record  of 
preceding  state  administrations  and  legis- 
latures, made  a  candid  and  apparently  most 
sincere  appeal  to  his  fellow  members  to 
"play  the  game  above  board."  to  justify  the 
popular  confidence,  to  elevate  honorable 
considerations  above  those  of  personal  bene- 
fit or  corrvipted  pledge. 


forces  in  order  to  raise  the  level  of  cost 
much  beyond  the  level  of  the  increase  in 
wage  or  other  emolument  which  they,  as 
masters  of  the  situation,  are  willing  to  pay. 


Conscience 

vs. 

Practice 


Indeed,  tho  the  declaration 
of  common  will  has  ex- 
pressed unqualified  support 
of  the  men  in  public  office 
who  govern  by  the  rule  of  higher  standards, 
and  tho  prosecutions  have  been  inaugurated 
in  every  section  of  the  country  against  the 
systems  of  extortion  by  which  a  limited 
group  pirate  and  absorb  the  energies,  earn- 
ings, and  accumulations  of  the  general 
public,  the  factor  of  selfish  acquisition  has 
still  so  trenchant  a  hold  iipon  the  impulses 
and  extortions  of  those  who  are  in  the  ad- 
vance that  the  leaders  of  reform  begin  to 
realize  the  necessity  of  assailing  the  ideals  of 
conduct  and  of  seeking  to  create  a  new  re- 
lationship between  the  consciences  of  heart 
and  the  practices  of  competitive  existence. 
This  is  why  the  President  at  Washington, 
to  achieve  the  large  ends  to  which  he  has 


A 

Preacher 
Governor 


This  is  why,  too,  the  golden 
state  of  Colorado,  altho  it 
has  since  named  as  its  rep- 
resentative in  the  Senate  a 
member  of  one  of  the  most  absolute  and 
grinding  trusts  in  the  United  States,  acceded 
to  the  candidacy  of,  and  installed  in  power, 
a  preacher-governor  so  church-devoted  that 
he  must  needs  have  his  inaugural  ceremonies 
performed  in  the  clerical  edifice  in  which  he 
made  his  first  public  success. 


The  Spirit 

of 
Compromise 


Furthermore,  it  is  the  reason 
why  the  animated  contro- 
versies and  warfare  of  Con- 
gress and  of  business,  such 
as  the  Brownsville  affair  or  the  rivalry  of 
Hill  and  Harriman,  or  the  strike  of  the  train- 
men, which  seem  at  the  moment  of  their 
crises  so  threatening,  pass  away  shortly  into 
a  superior  spirit  of  compromise  and  resolu- 
tion. 

Ardently  antagonistic  to  the  President  tho 
Senator  Foraker  may  seem,  and  spokesman 
tho  he  is  suspected  of  being  for  the  Vested 


THE    PANDEX 


155 


¥4/  li 


UNCLE     SAM    GROWS    TALLER. 
Or  Maybe  the  Money  Power  Is  Shrinking  Some. 


-Indianapolis   News. 


156 


THE    PANDEX 


Interests  which  seek  the  President's  over- 
throw, he  did  not  fail  to  perceive,  at  the 
crucial  instant,  that  the  issue  of  the  Browns- 
ville affair  was  beyond  the  reach  of  his 
forensic  eloquence  and  that  its  final  adjudi- 
cation would  lie,  not  in  the  matter  of  the 
tecnnical  right  or  non-right  of  the  Com- 
mander-in-Chief of  the  Army  to  dismiss 
summarily  troops  virtually  guilty  of  the  most 
dangerous  insubordination,  but  in  the  larger 
question  of  the  moral  responsibility  of  those 
who  witness  and  refuse  to  divulge  crime  of 
whatsoever  degree. 


Adjusting 
for  the 
People 


Bitter  tho  the  antagonisms 
of  Mr.  Hill  and  Mr.  Harri- 
man  may  be  in  their  anti- 
thetic conceptions  of  the 
profession  and  obligations  of  railroading, 
both  know  that  the  use  of  arms  in  the  fight- 
ing for  rights-of-way  along  the  Columbia 
River  and  the  exerting  of  "undue  influence" 
upon  the  municipal  councils  of  the  cities  of 
Puget  Sound  for  the  sake  of  protecting  or 
securing  terminal  privileges  are  a  far  de- 
parture from  the  trend  of  the  times  and  an 
alienation  of  their  individual  interests  from 
the  sympathies  of  the  public  or  the  indul- 
gence of  the  public's  administrators.  And, 
accordingly,  they  make  their  mutual  peace 
upon  the  basis  of  at  least  an  outward  mani- 
festation of  fellow  feeling  and  they  moderate 
their  franchise  demands  to  a  poinj  as  little 
in  conflict  as  they  can  render  them  with 
the  spirit  of  concession  and  generosity 
which  the  public  is  beginning  to  find  more 
to  its  liking  and  more  to  its  general  benefit 
than  the  older  zest  of  grab  and  confiscation. 
However  much  the  men  who  handle  great 
industries  may  resent  the  constant  aggres- 
sions of  Labor  and  the  constant  pressure  for 
an  increasing  share  of  the  product  of  work 
and  enterprise,  a  trainmen's  strike  is  not  al- 
lowed to  expand  into  the  magnitude  of  a 
strike  of  the  coal  miners  because  the  lesson 
has  been  assimilated  that,  after  all,  if  the 
laborers  can  show  with  any  degree  of  fair 
front  that  the  inequality  of  financial  favor 
incident  to  an  increasing  of  dividends  upon 
capital  stock  disproportionate  to  the  increas- 


on 
Expediency 


ing  of  dividends  upon  the  efficiency  and 
faithfulness  of  labor  is  in  violation  of  the 
better  principles  of  humanity,  there  is  no 
reasonable  possibility  of  holding  out  against 
Labor's  demands. 

Financially,  commercially,  po- 
Building  ntically,  the  axis  of  interest 
thus  shifts  from  the  expe- 
dient to  the  ethical.  The 
nation  has  lived,  almost,  upon  the  founda- 
tion of  the  expedient  ever  since  the  Civil 
"War,  when,  as  Miss  Tarbell's  valuable 
articles  in  the  American  Magazine  have  so 
clearly  shown,  economic  policies  were  de- 
vised without  the  slightest  idea  of  ever  be- 
coming permanent  or  of  being  economically 
defensive,  yet  which  have  since  fastened 
themselves  upon  the  country  with  a  grip 
almost  as  tenacious  as  patriotism  itself.  The 
high  tariff  schedules  were  made  to  provide 
a  revenue  whose  need  was  as  extraordinary 
as  it  was  imperative.  They  were  framed 
under  utterly  abnormal  and  impassioned 
conditions  wherein  those  who  were  without 
honesty  or  honor  molded  the  form  of  laws 
to  their  own  selfish  ends.  And,  unhappily, 
they  imbued  the  political  concepts  of  the 
people  with  the  belief  that  that  impost  policy 
is  best  which  brings  in  the  income  in  the  swift- 
est possible  manner  without  regard  to  the 
opportunities  it  affords  for  fraud  and  per- 
sonal aggrandizement.  They  imbued  the  in- 
dividual standards  of  conduct  and  of  re- 
lationship with  the  Government  with  the  be- 
lief that  wherever  the  people  can  be  made 
to  aid  the  cause  and  prosperity  of  the  indi- 
vidual, there  is  neither  vice  nor  error  in  the 
business  policy  that  drives  the  opportunities 
thus  opened  to  the  furthermost  limit. 


Distorting 

the 
Corporation 


And  under  the  guidance  of 
the  thoughts  thus  instilled, 
American  conditions  have 
grown  on  to  the  unfortunate 
and  perilous  situation  with  which  President 
Roosevelt  and  his  aides  are  now  battling. 
Instead  of  adhering  to  the  liberties  and  bene- 
fits of  Democracy  because  of  the  more  equit- 
able distribution  of  opportunity  and  acquisi- 


THE    PANDEX 


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THE    CAR    SHORTAGE    SEASON. 
The  Dream  of  the  Railway  Official. 


— Chicago  Inter-Ocean. 


158 


THE    PANDBX 


tion  which  Democracy  should  guarantee,  the 
dominating  elements  have  fought  for  Democ- 
racy's  retention  and  exalted  its  greatness 
because  of  the  play  it  gives  to  the  stronger 
to  outmaneuver  the  weak,  and  for  the  more 
unscrupulous  to  put  beneath  their  power  those 
less  able  than  themselves  to  grasp  the  van- 
ishing coins  or  to  preserve  intact  the  re- 
sults of  their  own  labors.  Sheltered  by  a 
system  designed  to  scatter  evenly  among 
workmen  and  employer  the  differences  be- 
tween the  costs  of  labor  abroad  and  labor  at 
home,  the  masters  of  industry  have  juggled 
the  giant's  share  of  the  fruits  into  their  own 
pockets.  And,  successful  in  this,  they  have 
extended  the  same  methods  into  the  wide 
field  which  may  be  said  to  be  the  distinguish- 
ing feature  of  the  current  century,  namely, 
the  field  of  corporations  and  syndicates. 
Where  the  valuable  and  wisely  legislated  in- 
stitution known  as  the  corporation  might 
have  been  employed,  as  in  theory  it  is  in- 
tended to  be,  to  protect  the  small  owner  to 
the  same  degree  that  the  larger  one's  su- 
perior ownership  protects  him,  the  aim  has 
been  chiefly  to  consolidate  and  fortify  the 
station  of  the  majority  stockholders,  to  as- 
sure increasingly  the  supremacy  of  those 
who  aspire  to  it,  and  to  rob  the  minority  of 
such  force  as  belonged  to  them,  by  virtue  of 
individuality,  before  they  submitted  to  the 
leveling  dictates  of  the  forms  of  law. 


Forgetting 

the  Purpose 

of  Trade 


Steel  plant  and  railroad,  oil 
refinery  and  meat-packing 
house  alike  have  been 
aborted  Into  the  creating  of 
power,  wealth,  and  benefit  for  restricted 
groups  of  men,  akin  in  lack  of  conscience  or 
sympathetic  in  the  greed  of  superiority.  The 
transportation  problem,  which  should  by  its 
very  nature  as  a  public  utility  be  handled 
solely  for  the  good  it  works  to  the  com- 
munity in  general,  has  been  approached  and 
manipulated  to  give  unnatural  ascendency 
and  reckless  authority  to  those  who  rise  to 
the  command.  The  slaughtering  of  live  stock 
and  the  making  of  its  innumerable  products 
and  by-products  into  commodities  for  gen- 
eral consumption  have  been  distorted  until  the 


primary  purpose  of  accommodation  has  be- 
come chiefly  a  game  in  imposture  and  wage 
slavery,  in  order  that  one  man's,  or  a  few 
men's,  ambitions  for  vast  wealth  and  vaster 
distinction  may  be  achieved  without  limita- 
tion. 

That  business,  whatsoever  its  sort,  has  its 
first  genesis  in  social  need,  and  derives  its 
quality  and  its  real  permanence  from  the  ex- 
tent to  which  it  fulfils  actual  social  exchange, 
has  been  almost  forgotten.  The  simple 
elements  that  exist  in  barter,  that  establish 
men's  reputations  in  the  small  circles  of  im- 
mediate friendships  within  which  they  move 
— branding  them  with  marks  of  fairness  or 
clothing  them  in  the  shame  of  universal  dis- 
esteem — are  eliminated  from  the  larger  fight 
which  begins  when  the  commercial  office  is 
reached  or  trade  and  finance  are  conducted 
over  the  wire  or  thru  the  mails. 


Principles 

of 
Personal  Life 


Men,  in  the  narrow  limits  of 
personal  and  friendly  con- 
tact, sacrifice  themselves  and 
their  comfort  and  wishes, 
rather  than  cheat  their  fellows  or  lie  and 
steal  from  those  who  dwell  near  them.  Mr. 
Rogers,  of  the  Standard  Oil,  as  Mr.  Lawson 
has  testified,  has  nothing  but  personal 
charm,  generosity,  and  human  sympathy 
when  among  those  whom  he  knows  and  for 
whom  he  cares.  Mr.  Rockefeller  has,  of  late, 
been  ardently  defended  for  his  personal 
piety  and  simplicity  by  a  British  clergyman 
who  was  warned  against  becoming  subject  to 
his  domination  by  accepting  the  pastorate 
of  the  church  to  which  Mr.  Rockefeller  is 
one  of  the  leading  contributors. 


Lose 

the   Sense 

of  Truth 


But  outside  and  away  from 
the  sphere  of  home  and  close 
associates,  these  men  lose 
their  sense  of  truth  and 
honor ;  they  put  off  the  garb  of  sincerity  and 
take  on  that  of  expediency.  They  guide 
themselves  by  the  modern  adaptation  of  the 
principle  which  carried  the  institution  of  the 
Jesuits,  first  to  great  power,  and  then  to 
ignominous  overthrow,  namely,  the  principle 
that  the  end  jiistifies  the  means.  Their 
philosophy  reiterates  the  tenets  of  Machia- 


THE    PANDEX 


159 


BRYAN    OUTDONE. 


— Washington  Post. 


160 


THE    PANDEX 


velli;  and  it  points  to  the  unprecedented 
prosperity  of  the  country  to  prove  the  sub- 
stance and  worth  of  such  contemplations 
when  put  into  action.  Prosperity  becomes 
to  them  like  an  ancient  estate  such  as  Mach- 
iavelli  counseled  thru  his  "Prince"  to  erect 
upon  an  artificial  basis  of  intrigue  and  politi- 
cal duplicity.  Or  it  is  a  fetich  at  the  shrine 
of  which  they  worship;  and  the  interference 
of  a  President  with  any  of  the  sacred  proc- 
esses by  which  it  has  been  builded  provokes 
their  retaliatory  resentment  to  such  an  ex- 
tent that  they  seize  upon  and  magnify  every 
incident  of  his  administration  that  may  pos- 
sibly redound  to  his  discredit  or  ultimately 
lead  to  his  deposition  from  office.  They  use 
their  organs  of  publicity  to  confound  his 
reputation  for  veracity  in  the  controversy 
with  the  Storers.  They  agitate  the  issue  of 
State  Rights,  even  tho  it  threatens  the  prog- 
ress of  their  expanding  trade  in  the  Orient, 
when  they  think  that  by  so  doing  they  can 
unfasten  his  hold  upon  the  votes  of  the 
Pacific  Coast,  or  avert  his  growing  popular- 
ity in  the  States  of  the  South.  They  ridicule 
the  frequency  of  his  congressional  messages, 
and  delight,  as  with  the  exultancy  of  youth, 
when  they  put  a  temporary  quietus  vipon  his 
advocacy  of  Simplified  Spelling. 


A  Voice 

of 
Warning 


It  is  only  when  confronted 
with  the  specter  of  the  ob- 
secrated  Bryan,  or  the  ab- 
horred Hearst,  as  an  alter- 
native, that  they  pause  in  their  reverences, 
and  wonder  how  it  is  that  not  every  one 
bows  with  them,  or  that  a  servitor,  hitherto 
so  faithful  as  Secretary  Shaw,  should  warn 
the  country  that  there  is  something  hollow, 
inflated,  and  perishable  in  the  image  which 
they  have  set  up.  To  a  surprising  degree 
their  senses  remain  closed  to  the  apparently 
unstayable  advance  of  socialism,  whose  fun- 
damental impulse  is  the  desire  to  re-estab- 
lish the  principles  of  common  humanity,  to 
rebestow  upon  society  the  reign  of  decent 
comradeship  and  spontaneous  common  love. 
Like  the  German  Emperor,  they  are  faced 
with  an  electoral  upheaval  greater  than  any 
that  has  yet  taken  place  within  the  n.ation. 


greater  by  far  than  that  which  returned 
Cleveland  to  the  Presidency  in  1892 ;  yet  they 
still  make  playthings  of  so  much  of  the 
public  as  is  willing  to  believe  it  can  grow 
suddenly  rich  along  the  pavements  of  Wall 
Street;  they  still  continue  to  seek  to  drive 
from  power  such  able,  tho  not  always 
credit-worthy  men,  as  James  J.  Hill,  by  wrest- 
ing the  control  of  the  St.  Paul  from  his 
grasp,  as  they  wrested  that  of  the  Illinois 
Central  from  Stuyvesant  Fish.  They  watch 
the  waxing  potency  of  Labor  in  its  ever 
more  frequent  demands,  and  they  glower 
at  it  with  the  withering  indignation  of  in- 
jured and  insulted  right.  Even  in  places 
so  far  away  as  San  Francisco,  where  they 
have  long  stood  in  wicked  coalition  with  the 
wicked  managers  of  Labor's  political  organ- 
ization, they  talk  of  establishing  a  daily 
newspaper  to  break  the  back  of  all  the 
unions. 


Need 

of 

New  Morals 


Nothing  seems  to  call  them 
again  to  the  simpler  ways, 
the  fairer  ways,  the  better 
ways,  which  they  are  only 
too  glad  to  follow  in  private,  which  they 
are  only  too  imperative  in  impressing  upon 
their  children  and  requiring  of  all  the  public 
except  themselves  when  engaged  in  business. 
Commercially  and  financially  they  are  cut 
loose  from  the  moorings  of  morality.  The 
incentive  of  gain  has  become  greater  than 
the  incentive  of  virtue.  The  acquisitions  of 
the  day  have  got  out  of  proportion  to  the 
more  permanent  possessions  which  outlast 
decay  or  accident,  and  are  yet  ready  to  be 
at  hand  and  in  use  when  monetary  panic  be- 
falls or  bankruptcy  chases  away  the  tinsel 
and  the  accoutrements  of  thrift. 


Impulses 

of  Higher 

Religion 


What  they  need  to  bring 
them  out  of  the  obsession, 
to  rehabilitate  the  elements 
that  will  make  them  over 
into  the  average,  the  worthy,  the  unob.jur- 
gated  men  they  once  were,  is  the  deep, 
thrilling  impulse  that  proceeds  only  from 
some  manner  of  religion — not  a  religion, 
necessarily,  such  as  any  of  those  which  now 


THE    PANDEX 


161 


exist,  but  one  which,  like  Christianity  when 
it  supplanted  the  worship  of  the  Roman  Em- 
perors, is  big  enough,  clear  enough,  simple 
enough,  ordinary  enough  to  be  assimilable  by 
every  class  of  people,  to  provoke  response  in 
every  fashion  of  mind,  to  arouse  passionate 


adherence  in  every  line  of  avocation.  It  must 
be  a  religion  that  will  teach  men  that  they  are 
something  more  than  themselves,  and  that 
the  greater  life  is  that  which  is  lived  in  the 
widest  possible  sphere,  not  of  money  and 
of  gain,  but  of  fellowship  and  human  unity. 


THE    REAL    SIX-DAY    RACE. 


-New   York  American. 


162 


THE    PANDEX 


HOLIDAY 


SEASON  PROVOKES  AN 
UNPRECEDENTED   MANIFESTATION 
OF  PUBLIC  AND  PRIVATE  GENEROSITY. 


THE   SMILE    THAT    SHOULDN'T 
COME    OFF. 

Photographic  Tourist — "Hold  on!     I   want  to 
take  one  a  day  for  363  days,  and  all  like  that!  " 
— Adapted  from  Chicago  News. 


PROFIT-SHARING    AND    WAGE-INCREASES  TAKE 

THE  PLACE  OF  OLD-TIME   PHILAN- 

THROPY  AND  CHARITY. 


TO  an  extent  greater  than  in  any  previous 
holiday  period  since  the  earlier  days  of 
the  Republic,  the  Christmas  season  of  1906 
witnessed  a  public  endeavor  to  distribute  the 
largesses  and  joys  of  prosperous  living.  And 
this,  too,  not  so  much  in  form  of  philan- 
thropy, of  dinners  and  trees  and  charitable 
donations  for  the  poor,  as  in  the  sharing  of 
mercantile  profits  and  the  division  of  the 
products  of  labor.  At  least  for  the  few  days 
of  the  year  thus  represented,  the  spirit  of  a 
broader  humanity  prevailed,  and,  pos- 
sibly set  an  example  which  will  do  much 
toward  working  social  betterment  in  the 
future. 

NO  EVICTION  CHRISTMAS  EVE 


Justice  Refuses  to  Sign  Warrants  to  Dispossess 
the  Poor. 
Even  the  courts  appreciated  the  spirit  of 
the  season,  as  was  manifested  in  the  follow- 
ing pathetic  incident  as  described  in  the 
New  York  Herald : 

When  Justice  Edgar  Lauer  reached   the  Mu- 


nicipal Court,  in  East  Fifty-seventh  Street,  he 
found  an  unusually  large  number  of  poor  per- 
sons from  the  East  Side  who  had  been  served 
with  .summonses  in  dispossess  proceedings.  Sor- 
row and  fears  showed  on  almost  every  face,  until 
Mr.  Lauer  said: 

"If  all  of  you  weeping  women  and  children 
will  have  patience  I  will  try  to  gladden  your 
hearts.  It  is  the  .judgment  of  this  court  that 
every  one  of  you  shall  keep  on  decorating  your 
Christmas  trees  and  have  a  happy  Christmas, 
for  I  have  decided  to  sign  no  warrants  at  this 
season,  but  to  give  you  time  to  pay  your  rents 
or  obtain  other  quarters.  I  am  sure  that  after 
these  remarks  no  landlord  or  agent  will  insist 
upon  any  of  you  being  thrown  into  the  street 
on  this  bitter  cold  day,  the  eve  of  a  merry  Christ- 
mas. ' ' 


POOR  AND  WEALTHY  GET  MONEY 


Pittsburg    Institutions    Declare     Dividend     for 
Stockholders   and   Workers. 
What  the  profit-sharing  disposition  was  is 
shown  in  the  following  from  the  New  York 
Herald : 

Pittsburg,  Pa. — Mill  worker,  bank  clerk,  and 
financier  shared  alike  in  special  distributions  of 
wage  and  stock  dividends  declared  by  the  most 


THE     PANDEX 


163 


important  interests  in  Pittsburg.  Special  Christ- 
mas distributions  were  made  to  wage  earners  in 
nearly  all  the  steel  and  iron  mills  in  the  Pitts- 
burg district,  ranging  from  5  to  10  per  cent  of 
the  monthly  payroll,  while  in  the  financial  dis- 
trict the  leading  banking  institutions  paid  em- 
ployees from  20  to  100  per  cent  of  their  respec- 
tive monthly  stipends. 

Mill  workers  on  monthly  and  semi-monthly 
pay  received  their  salaries  for  the  full  month  of 
December,  and  this,  together  with  the  many 
premiums,  is  estimated  to  have  caused  a  dis- 
tribution of  nearly  $30,000,000  in  the  Pittsburg 
district. 

The  shopping  districts  that  afternoon  presented 
the  spectacle  of  one  huge  struggling  sea  of  hu- 
manity and  at  midnight  department  stores  were 
still  disposing  of  the  remnants  of  their  depleted 
stocks. 

An  extra  dividend  of  turkeys  was  declared  in 
many  of  the  industrial  establishments.  It  has 
been  the  custom  in  prosperous  years  to  distribute 
turkeys  among  mill  and  electrical  workei-s  on 
Thanksgiving.  This  was  done  this  year  and  was 
repeated  again  on  Christmas.  Turkeys  are  sold 
here  for  27  cents  a  pound,  and  as  the  birds  given 
the  will  workers  averaged  twelve  pounds  apiece, ' 
this  special  dividend  calls  for  a  substantial  finan- 
cial expenditure  in  plants  employing  from  2000 
to  5000  men. 

The  Farmers'  Deposit  National  Bank  declared 
a  special  Christmas  dividend  of  1  per  cent  on 
its  new  capitalization  of  $6,000,000;  this  means 
a  gift  of  $60,000  to  stockholders. 

The  Union  Trust  Company  declared  a  Christ- 
mas dividend  of  $6  a  share,  making  dividends  for 
the  year  66  per  cent.  The  Colonial  Trust  Com- 
pany declared  a  special  Christmas  dividend  of 
1  per  cent;  the  Lincoln  National  Bank  declared 
a  special  dividend  of  $2  a  share,  and  many  other 
financial  institutions  offered  similar  holiday  pres- 
ents to  their  stockholders. 

The  First  National  Bank  gave  its  employees 
10  per  cent  of  a  month's  salary  as  a  Christmas 
present.  Other  institutions  gave  presents  of 
from  5  to  100  per  cent  on  monthly  salaries. 


CINCINNATI  MEN  RECEIVE  GIFTS 


Employees  in  All  Lines  Made   Happy  by   Ad- 
vanced Pay  or  Dividends  on  Salaries. 

The  extension  to  the  West  of  the  same 
manner  of  dividing  up  the  earnings  as  was 
followed  in  Pittsburg  is  reflected  in  the  fol- 
lowing from  the  same  paper  as  the  above : 

Cincinnati,  Ohio. — The  homes  of  thousands  of 
workers  in  this  city  have  been  made  happier 
by  the  liberality  of  employers,  who  have  dis- 
tributed extra  wages,  dividends  and  other  gifts. 

Many  of  the  railroads  several  weeks  ago 
granted  increases  in  wages  that  came  in  time  to 
add  to  the  Christmas  funds  of  their  workers. 
Scores  of  smaller  employers  remembered  their 
helpers  with  gifts  of  varying  kinds  and  values. 


All  of  the  bankers  in  the  city  granted  a  di- 
vidend of  2  per  cent  of  the  annual  salaries  to 
their  assistants  and  clerks.  The  only  exception 
was  the  Western  German  Bank,  which  made  its 
gift  of  good  will  on  the  basis  of  4  per  cent.  The 
Cincinnati  and  Suburban  Bell  Telephone  Com- 
pany gave  the  young  women  in  its  employ  6  per 
cent  on  their  yearly  pay  and  remembered  each 
man  on  the  payroll  with  a  turkey  and  a  quart  of 
oysters. 

The  Cincinnati  Traction  Company  will  follow 
its  custom  of  former  years  by  having  two  big 
celebrations  in  Music  Hall  later  in  the  season. 
Immense  trees  will  be  burdened  with  gifts  for 
all  of  the  employees  and  their  wives  and  chil- 
dren. The  affair  will  last  two  days,  so  that  every 
man  will  have  an  opportunity  to  attend. 


$50,000  BY  SPECIAL  TRAIN 


McHarg  Sends  a  Real  Santa  Claus  Over  Virginia 
and  Southwestern  Railway. 

More  striking  and  dramatic  than  almost 
any  other  incident  of  the  season  was  the  fol- 
lowing, also  from  the  New  York  Herald : 

Bristol,  Tenn. — Henry  K.  McHarg,  a  wealthy 
New  York  man,  generously  remembered  all  em- 
ployees of  the  Virginia  and  Southwestern  Rail- 
way, which  he  recently  sold  to  the  Southern  Rail- 
way. He  presented  farewell  gifts  aggregating 
nearly  $50,000  in  cash. 


FATHER'S   CHRISTMAS  LEG. 

— St.  Louis  Globe-Democrat. 


164 


THE     PANDEX 


Heads  of  departments  each  received  a  check 
equal  to  one  year's  salary,  while  all  other  em- 
ployees received  the  equal  of  one  month's  pay. 

The  company  sent  a  special  train  to  deliver 
the  checks  to  the  men  along  the  road.  The  con- 
ductor was  attired  as  Santa  Claus  and  the  train 
was  designated  in  all  telegraphic  train  orders  as 
the  'Santa  Claus  train,'  and  given  the  right  of 
way  over  all  others. 

This  is  the  second  time  in  recent  years  Mr. 
McHarg  has  distributed  thousands  of  dollars  in 
presents  among  his  employees.  When  he  sold  the 
Atlantic,    Knoxville    and    Northern    Railway    he 


This  was  especially  so  in  the  main  telephone 
exchange,  where  every  girl  in  the  'hello  row' 
was  the  recipient  of  presents  galore.  Most  of 
the  presents  from  subscribers  were  in  the  form 
of  checks  or  cash.  Besides  the  money  there  were 
boxes  of  candy,  handkerchiefs,  writing  paper, 
fans,  rosaries,  gloves,  calendars,  pictures,  and 
flowers.  One  girl  received  $40  in  cash  from  sub- 
scribers whom  she  has  served  in  the  past  year. 

A  Lombard  Street  liquor  dealer  sent  down  a 
case  of  whisky  to  be  divided  among  the  girls. 

With  the  merry  Yuletide  here  comes  increased 
pay  for  the  local  employees  of  the  Pennsylvania 


GETTING    READY! 


-St.  Louis  Republic. 


presented  his  manager,  John  B.  Newton,  with 
$25,000.  Mr.  Newton  received  a  liberal  share 
this  time. 


SANTA  CLAUS  IN  BALTIMORE 


Telephone    Girls    Get    Many    Presents,    While 
Wages  Are  Increased. 

In  Baltimore  the  story  was  as  follows  in 
the  New  York  Herald : 

Baltimore,  Md. — No  city,  perhaps,  has  more 
to  be  thankful  for  than  Baltimore,  for  there  were 
signs  of  prosperity  everywhere. 


Railroad,  the  Standard  Oil  Company,  and  for  all 
of  the  trainmen,  engine  drivers,  and  yardmen  of 
the  Western  Maryland  Railway. 

During  the  year  all  the  employees  of  the  United 
Railways  received  an  increase  in  wages  and  the 
Typographical  Union  won  the  eight-hour  day. 

The  brewery  companies  have  granted  increased 
wages  and  the  eight-hour  day.  The  horseshoers 
are  now  getting  more  pay.  The  old  scale  was 
$14.15,  while  the  new  rate  is  $16.17.  The  car- 
penters of  the  city  have  succeeded  in  establishing 
the  eight-hour  day  and  now  receive  $2.50  in- 
crease a  week,  while  the  can  makers  received  an 
increase  of  50  cents  a  day. 


THE    PANDEX 


165 


m 


"  'TWAS  THE  WEEK  BEFORE  CHRISTMAS  AND  ALL  THROUGH  THE  TOWN 
EVERY  CREATURE  WAS  STIRRING  AROUND  AND  AROUND." 

— Chicago  Tribune. 


166 


THE     PANDEX 


$51,230,294  GIVEN  TO  CHARITY 


Marshall   Field,    With   $8,000,000    for   Museum, 
Led  the  Contributors. 

With  such  liberality  in  the  gift  part  of  the 
year  as  is  exhibited  by  the  above  items,  the 
possibilities  of  the  ensuing  year  as  a  whole 
become  an  absorbing  subject  of  speculation. 
For  comparison,  the  following  summary  of 
the  philanthropies  of  1906  as  estimated  by 
the  Indianapolis  News,  is  instructive: 

Philadelphia,  Dec.  22.— One  hundred  and  fifty- 
three  thousand  three  hundred  and  eighty-four 
dollars  and  eleven  cents  a  day !  That  is  the  phil- 
anthropic tribute  which  the  year  now  passing  has 
paid  to  mankind's  betterment  and  relief  from 
suffering.  The  twelvemonth's  total  of  $51,230,- 
294  is  impressive,  even  to  those  who  may  have 
followed  the  course  of  such  annual  records,  and 
have  so  become  accustomed  to  eight-figure  giving. 

No  record  has  been  kept  of  the  many  small 
gifts,  made  daily,  which  undoubtedly  would  raise 
the  year's  aggregate  by  fully  $10,000,000,  nor 
the  contributions  to  the  suffering  Jews  of  Russia, 
to  the  famine-stricken  provinces  of  Japan,  to  the 
homeless  and  hungry  of  San  Francisco  and  Val- 
paraiso and  to  the  Italian  sufferers  from  the  fury 
of  Vesuvius,  whose  total  probably  exceeded 
$5,000,000. 

None  of  the  old  world's  charities  is  included 
in  this  record — American  only  being  given.  For- 
eign benefactions  in  1906  probably  equaled  those 
of  the  United  States,  making  the  grand  total  of 
the  world  more  than  $100,000,000. 

Here  are  some  of  the  gifts  made  by  foreigners : 
Estate  of  'Sam'  Lewis,  London,  to  general  chari- 
ties, $15,000,000;  five  prominent  Germans,  in 
honor  of  the  Kaiser's  silver  wedding,  $10,000,- 
000;  Pedro  Alvarado,  Mexico,  to  the  poor  of  his 
country,  $10,000,000;  Alfred  Beit,  South  Africa, 
mainly  educational  causes,  $10,000,000;  Princess 
Matternich,  France,  miscellaneous  charities,  .$5,- 
000,000;  John  Crowle,  London,  to  the  temper- 
ance cause,  $2,500,000;  William  Imre,  London, 
general  charities,  $1,500,000;  an  anonymous  Pole, 
to  endow  the  Warsaw  Orchestra,  $1,000,000; 
Princess  of  Monaco,  to  found  Paris  marine  in- 
stitute, $1,000,000;  Lord  Inverclyde,  London,  va- 
ious  marine  charities,  $600,000;  Montfiore  Levi, 
Brussels,  to  aid  consumption  fight,  $500,000; 
Oscar  Bischoffscheim,  London,  various  charities, 
$500,000. 

$18,264,350  for  Education. 

More  than  a  third  of  the  year's  grand  total  in 
the  United  States  has  gone  to  the  advancement 
of  education.  Fifty-nine  colleges  and  universities 
and  twenty-one  institutions  of  the  secondary 
class  received  $5000  or  more. 

Following  education  the  benefactions  of  1906 
rank:  To  galleries,  museums,  and  societies  of 
kindred  aims,  $11,029,340;  to  homes,  hospitals, 
and  asylums,  $5,719,053,  with  practically  the  same 
sum  ($5,610,681)  to  miscellaneous  charities.   Va- 


rious gifts  made  not  in  cash,  but  'officially' 
valued,  amounted  to  $5,448,000;  church,  works  of 
one  kind  or  another  received,  $3,047,075;  and 
$1,316,795  was  spent  for  library  building  or  en- 
dowing. 

A  study  of  these  figures,  in  connection  with  the 
similar  totals  of  the  past  six  years,  shows  that 
1906  has  fallen  behind  each  of  those  predecessors, 
with  the  sole  exception  of  1900.  The  year  1901 
still  holds  the  'record.'  The  benefactions  for 
these  years  have  been  approximately:  1900,  $47,- 
500,000;  1901,  $107,360,000;  1902,  $94,000,- 
000;  1903,  $95,000,000;  1904,  $62,000,000; 
1905,  $76,100,000. 

Woman's  Share  and  the  Honor  Roll. 

The  detailed  lists  show  that  American  woman- 
hood is  playing  a  great  part  in  this  work,  but  it 
is  worth  special  notice  that  no  less  than  eleven 
of  these  givers  have  passed  the  $100,000  mark. 

That  larger  'Roll  of  Honor,'  where  one  may 
set  apart  the  names  of  those  who  have  given  in 
the  millions,  gives  from  its  eleven  items  a  total 
of  practically  seven-tenths  of  the  whole  year's 
aggregate— $36,966,148.  This  includes  Mr. 
Anonymous,  who  has  put  his  hands  into  his  vari- 
ous pockets  to  the  tune  of  $1,508,000. 

Those  who  contributed  $1,000,000  or  more  are : 

Marshall  Field,   Chicago    $8,000,000 

Charles  T.  Yerkes,  New  York 6,655.000 

Andrew  Carnegie,  New  York 6.108,148 

John  D.  Rockefeller,  New  York 4,425,000 

P.  A.  B.  Widener,  Philadelphia 3,000,000 

William  Markuardt,  Fallis,  Okla 3,000,000 

Daniel  B.  Shipman,  Chicago 1,150,000 

Albert  Willcox,   New  York 1,110,000 

Otto  Young,  Chicago    1,000,000 

James  D.  Phelan,  San  Francisco 1,000,000 


EUROPE'S  CHRISTMAS  CHEER 


Bountiful  Feeding  During  French  Celebration — 
Britain's  Titanic  Plum  Pudding. 

Christmas,  as  experienced  abroad,  is  par- 
tially reflected  in  the  following  from  the 
New  York  Sun : 

The  consumption  of  Christmas  cheer  in  vari- 
ous European  cities  has  set  a  Frenchman  with 
an  odd- taste  in  statistics  figuring.  He  indulges 
in -some  appalling  calculations,  but  he  also  gives 
a  merry  idea  of  the  way  in  which  the  festival 
is  observed  in  the  Old  World. 

Of  course  he  begins  with  Paris.  Christmas  Eve 
is  the  great  time  there,  and  the  reveillon,  or 
watch  night — which  they  hold  a  week  earlier  than 
New  Yorkers — is  the  feature.  At  midnight  the 
gay  city  is  as  animated  as  at  noonday.  The  deli- 
catessen stores  and  the  grocers,  as  well  as  the 
cafes  and  restaurants,  are  wide  open  and  doing 
a  land  office  business. 

Golden  hued  pates,  poultry  roasted  to  a  turn, 
all  sorts  of  meats  in  jellies  tempt  buyers  who  are 
going  to  end  the  evening  with  a  feast  at  home. 
The  rotisseries,  or  roasting  establishments,  are 
all  aglow.    They  are  not  unlike  the  Coney  Island 


THE    PANDEX 


167 


^(^v-^i^iS;^^^^'^''-';  ■'■;''■■■  '  ■"  ;:■  ?;  ■  ^■ 


^f{^r^a^i 


A  MERRY  CHRISTMAS  DEPENDS  LARGELY  UPON  WHERE  YOU  LIGHT. 

— Chicago  Tribune. 


168 


THE     PANDEX 


furnaces  at  which  rolls  of  beef  are  kept  turning 
on  horizontal  bars.  But  they  are  huge  affairs, 
each  with  several  horizontal  bars  and  each  bar 
has  four  or  five  roasts  on  it — chickens,  ducks, 
turkeys,  geese,  rabbits,  and  game. 

During  the  night  of  Christmas  Eve,  1905, 
Paris  is  credited  with  devouring  in  public  or 
private  feasts  400,000  pounds  of  beef,  veal,  and 
mutton;  57,200  pounds  of  pork  in  various  forms, 
350,000  pounds  of  poultry,  20,000  pounds  of 
game,  136,000  pounds  of  butter,  140,000  pounds 
of  cheese,  380,000  pounds  of  fish  and  shell  fish, 
1,530,000  eggs,  and  2,100,000  oysters. 

Evidently  Paris  did  not  oo  hungry.  The  statis- 
tician refuses  to  figure  on  tlie  ocean  of  liquor  that 
was  consumed,  but  he  mentions  that  one  leading 
restaurant  sold  600  bottles  of  champagne  and  that 
its  total  receipts  for  the  night  were  26,000  francs, 
or  $5200. 

Next  in  order,  the  British  plum  pudding  is 
discussed.  The  writer  dwells  on  the  picture  as 
it  is  carried  into  the  dining  room  at  the  close  of 
the  family  dinner,  with  the  lambent  blue  flame 
of  the  blazing  brandy  playing  all  around  and 
over  it.     Then  comes  the  appraisal. 

If  all  the  plum  puddings  of  all  the  families  in 
England  were  united  in  one  great  sphere  it  would 
have  a  diameter  of  nearly  thirty-five  miles.  The 
ingredients  are  calculated  as  follows:  42,800,000 
pounds  of  bread  crumbs  (the  crumbs  of  800,000 
four-pound  loaves),  2,800,000  pounds  of  raisins, 
2,800,000  pounds  of  suet,  26,000,000  eggs,  700,- 
000  pounds  of  almonds,  500,000  pounds  of  cinna- 
mon, 1,500,000  nutmegs,  3,200,000  citrons,  330,- 
000  quarts  of  brandy  besides  minor  ingredient?. 
He  forgets  to  give  estimates  on  the  currants, 
sugar  and  milk  used. 

The  goose  is  the  staple  of  the  German  Christ- 
mas. As  Christmas  approaches  whole  trainloads 
of  geese  converge  upon  Friedrichsfelde,  a  vil- 
lage near  Berlin,  which  is  the  great  goose  mar 
ket  of  Germany.  Thence  they  are  redistributed 
to  the  ovens,  spits,  and  braising  pans  of  the  em- 
pire. Berlin  devoured  400,000  of  them  on  Christ- 
mas Eve,  1905. 

Nowhere  is  the  feasting  more  hilarious  than 
at  Naples.  It  takes  place,  mostly,  in  the  open 
air.  Turkeys  are  in  great  favor,  but  fish  is  the 
characteristic   Neapolitan   viand. 

On  December  23  and  24  every  year  a  long  pro- 
cession of  wagons  streams  into  the  city,  laden 
with  eels  which  come  all  the  way  from  the  la- 
goons of  Comacchio  on  the  Adriatic  Coast.  Oth- 
ers are  brought  by  boats  from  Corsica.  The 
total  amounts  up  to  something  like  3,000,000 
pounds  of  fish,  all  of  which  is  cooked  in  oil,  well 
flavored  with  garlic  in  the  Italian  way. 

No  one  is  so  poor  in  Naples  that  he  does  not 
feast  at  Christmas.  Those  who  live  from  hand 
to  mouth  all  year  make  sure  of  plenty  at  this 
time.  They  begin  to  save  for  it  in  the  preceding 
March,  depositing  with  certain  provision  dealers 
small  sums  varying  from  one  to  four  cents  a  day. 
When  the  festival  comes,  they  have  sums  saved 
varying  from  about  $4  to  $15.  According  to  the 
amount  they  receive  a  basket  of  eatables  more 
or  less  well' stocked.     A  three-cent  daily  deposit 


from  March  30  to  December  24  means  a  total  of 
$8.31. 

For  this  amount  the  basket  contains  thirty- 
four  articles,  among  which  are  thirty  pounds  of 
flour,  thirty  pounds  of  macaroni,  two  pounds  of 
beef,  two  pounds  of  eels,  two  pounds  of  lard, 
chestnuts,  hazelnuts,  figs,  apples,  tomatoes,  an- 
chovies, cheese,  fresh  or  dried  fish,  pickles,  olives, 
a  live  turkey  and  a  bottle  of  '  rosolio, '  a  pink  cor- 
dial with  a  flavor  of  roseleaf  much  beloved  of 
the  Neapolitan  palate.  With  a  little  cheap  wine, 
the  possessor  of  such  a  basket  and  his  family 
may  feast  almost  continuously  for  a  couple  of 
days. 

The  statistician  winds  up  with  a  couple  of  in- 
stances of  eccentricity  in  Christmas  feasting. 
He  tells  of  a  rich  Brazilian  in  Paris  who  gave  a 
midnight  dinner  last  year  to  six  friends  which 
cost  him  $756.  The  only  instructions  he  gave 
to  the  traiteur  were  that  everything  served  should 
be  the  most  expensive  that  it  was  possible  to  ob- 
tain. 

An  Englishman  varied  the  idea  by  ordering  a 
summer  dinner  for  Christmas  day  at  the  Savoy 
in  London.  Covers  were  set  for  thirteen  and 
the  bill  was  $2600,  just  $200  a  plate.  The  feast 
opened  with  melons,  which  were  charged  at  $55. 

The  asparagus  cost  $65  a  bunch;  a  great 
bouquet  of  cherries,  which  was  the  ornamental 
feature  of  the  dessert  represented  $90.  The 
windup  was  a  bottle  of  brandy,  put  away  in 
1789,  which  cost  $60. 


CHRISTMAS  STRIKE  IN  SCHOOLS 


Hebrew  Protest  Against  Observance  of  Festival 
Keeps  Thousands  From  Studies. 

A  suggestive  religious  phase  of  the  holiday 
season  is  reflected  in  the  following  from  the 
New  York  Herald : 

Attendance  was  decreased  from  fifty  to  sixty 
per  cent  one  day  in  the  schools  in  the  heart  of 
the  East  Side  on  account  of  the  protest  by  the 
orthodox  rabbis  and  the  Hebrew  press  against 
the  Christmas  celebrations. 

Opinions  of  parents  differed  in  degree.  Some 
of  them  not  only  permitted  their  children  to  go 
to  such  exercises  as  were  colorless  as  far  as  any 
religious  significance  was  concerned,  but  even 
went  themselves.  Between  these  two  extremes 
the  opinion  was  registered  by  schools,  which 
showed  a  falling  off  from  ten  to  thirty  per  cent  in 
attendance. 

Exhortations  to  the  Hebrew  pupils  to  go  on 
strike  had  been  spoken  and  printed  since  the  pre- 
vious Saturday,  when  it  became  evident  that  the 
Committee  on  Elementary  Schools  did  not  intend 
to  take  any  action  with  regard  to  the  Christmas 
observances,  other  than  to  warn  principals  and 
teachers  to  be  careful. 

In  ultra-orthodox  households  children  were  or- 
dered not  to  go  to  school.  In  several  tenements 
in  Rivington  Street,  where  there  is  a  strong  Rou- 
manian   and   Polish   influence,    the    housekeepers 


THE    PANDEX 


169 


and  janitresses  were  stationed  with  brooms  at 
the  doors,  with  requests  to  drive  back  all  young- 
sters who  would  attempt  to  go  to  the  forbidden 
observances.  With  the  natural  perversity  of . 
childhood,  a  few  of  the  pupils  ran  a  blockade  at 
the  back  doors  and  arrived  breathless  in  their 
classrooms. 

There  was  a  much  larger  proportion  of  boys 
absent  than  girls  throughout  all  the  institutions. 
The  girls,  who  had  bought  new  frocks  and 
learned  recitations  and  songs,  seemed  to  have  pre- 
vailed on  their  parents  to  let  them  take  part  in 
the  much-discussed  programs. 


CONDEMNS  CHRISTMAS  FEEDS 


Vicar  of  Burtonwood  Thinks  Spiritual  Aspects  of 
the  Day  Are  Ignored. 

In  view  of  the  tendency  to  get  away  from 
the  purely  charitable  aspect  of  philanthropy 
to  the  wider  region  wherein  liberality  spends 
itself  in  sharing  of  products  and  profits  at 
all  seasons  and  under  all  circumstances,  the 
following  condemnation  of  "Xmas  feeds," 


as  taken  from  the  New  York  Sun,  is  of  un- 
usual interest : 

London.— The  Rev.  A.  M.  Mitchell,  vicar  of 
Burtonwood,  Lancashire,  who  recently  censured 
the  action  of  the  Rev.  Mr.  Goodchild,  of  New 
York,  in  giving  performances  in  his  church  as 
counter  attractions  to  the  Sunday  theatrical  per- 
formances, now  lashes  the  popular  observance  of 
Christmas.    He  says: 

"Gorge  and  surfeit  make  Christmas  to  a  ma- 
jority. The  spiritual  aspect  of  the  festival  is 
conveniently  and  unblushingly  ignored  in  favor 
of  worship  at  the  kitchen  altar. 

"The  kitchen  altar  as  the  sacred  shrine  of 
Christmas!  What  number  of  knees  bow  low  be- 
fore it  which  are  too  stiff  to  bend  before  God  and 
the  altar  of  love.  A  bird's  carcass,  a  joint  of 
beef  and  a  piece  of  swine's  flesh  constitute  the 
pivot  of  Christmas  joy. 

"If  our  goui-mandizing  Christmas  customs 
ceased  nominal  Christians  would  discontinue 
their  observance  of  the  festival.  Eat  and  eat 
well  is  the  creed  of  all  sorts  and  conditions  of 
Christians.  There  is  no  difference.  As  is  the 
aristocracy  so  is  the  democracy.  Like  priest  like 
people ! ' ' 


THE    CANDY   HEART— GUARANTEED    FOR 
ONE  DAY. 
— St.  Louis  Globe-Democrat. 


170 


THE    PANDEX 


T.  VESUVIUS  ROOSEVELT. 

Copyrighted  by  Collier's  Weekly. 

— Reproduced  by  Special  Permission. 


THE    PANDEX  171 

T.  Vesuvius  Roosevelt 

By  WALLACE  IRWIN 

'TpHE  ordinary  hill  which  remains  forever  still, 

-*■  All  covered  o'er  with  specimens  of  botany, 

Is  hugely  safe  and  sane;  but  its  heights  seem  rather  plain 

And  its  silence  breeds  political  monotony. 
I  myself  prefer  a  mount  with  a  crater  as  its  fount. 

Dropping  firebrands  like  the  thunderstorms  of  Pluvius — 
There  is  something  half  satanic  in  conditions  so  volcanic, 

Yet  we're  proud  of  our  Political  Vesuvius. 

tVith  a  curious,   sulfureous 

Rumbling,   grumbling  roll  of  thunder, 
Teddy's  going  to  erupt — 
Stand  from  under  I 

"IT /"HERE  the  grafter  sleeps  content,  suddenly  the  air  is  rent 
'^ '  With  a  blast  like  that  which  buried  Herculaneum; 

Railway  lobbies  cough  and  choke  in  a  cloud  of  flame  and  smoke, 

And  the  Conscript  Fathers  get  it  in  the  cranium. 
Now  Chicago  beef  is  shook,  now  the  poor  old  Spelling-Book 

Shouts:    "  Have  mercy,  sire!  your  heat  will  crack  the  shell  o'  me!" 
Now  the  mountain  heaves  its  shoulders  and  upheaves  a  ton  of  boulders. 

While  the  sparks  descend  and  roast  the  luckless  Bellamy. 

With  a  hectic,   apoplectic 

Howling,   growling  roll  of  thunder, 
ITeddy's  going  to  blots  up — 
Stand  from  under! 

'"p^HOUGH  there's  sometimes  scarce  a  puff  from  his  lid,  that's  just  a  blufF, 

-"■  For  his  calmer  moments  never  mean  security, 

And  the  prophets  yell:   "  Look  out!  he's  intending  for  to  spout — 

There'll  be  trouble  in  the  very  near  futurity." 
No,  we  can't  foresee  just  what,  but  his  crater's  getting  hot. 

And  the  coals  will  soon  be  dropping,  as  they  must,  again 
Singeing  up  the  Tariff's  tatters  and  the  mossy  old  Standpatters — 

There's  no  telling  lohere  Vesuvius  will  bust  again. 

]Vith  a  jouncing,    nation-bouncing. 

Bumping,   thumping  roll  of  thunder, 
'Ceddy's  going  for  to  spout — 
Stand  from  under! 


Copyrighted  by  Collier's  Weekly. 

— Reproduced  by  Special  Permission. 


172 


THE    PANDEX 


SANTA    KNOWS    WHAT    WE    NEED. 


Harriman  vs.   Roosevelt. 


-Detroit  Journal. 


MAN  WHO  HAS  RISEN  TO  THE  SUPREMACY  OF   THE  TRANSPOR- 
TATION WORLD  APPEARS  TO  BE  AT  THE  HEAD  OF  A 
WIDESPREAD  MOVEMENT  TO  BREAK  THE 
POWER  OF  THE   PRESIDENT. 


ALTHO  the  Christmas  season  provoked 
an  unprecedented  display  of  fellow 
feeling  and  of  willingness  to  distribute 
more  evenly  the  products  of  industry — or, 
perhaps  for  this  very  reason — the  big  forces 
which  stand  at  the  head  of  the  productive 
and  intermediary  agencies  of  the  times  seem 
to  feel  that  the  time  has  come  to  administer 
a  check  to  the  national  administration  which 
insists  upon  criticism  and  restraint  of  exist- 
ing business  methods.  Marshaling  once 
more  the  factors  and  instrumentalities  they 
have  so  often  employed  before,  and  rely  hi  g 


upon  the  traditional  popular  prejudice 
against  third  terms  for  Presidents,  they  ap- 
pear to  have  inaugurated  a  campaign  cal- 
culated finally  to  overthrow  Mr.  Roosevelt 
and  his  policies.  On  this  occasion,  they  are 
under  new  generalship,  that  of  the  man  who 
has  been  showing  an  invincible  supremacy 
in  the  world  of  business.  And,  as  this 
man's  will  and  purpose  have  been  as  imper- 
ious in  their  sphere  as  President  Roosevelt's 
have  been  in  theirs,  there  is  a  joining  of 
personal  issue,  which  promises  to  become  of 
most  dramatic  interest. 


THE    PANDEX 


173 


CONGRESS  READY  FOR  A  FUSS 


Members  Had  New  as  Well  as  Old  Scores  to 
Settle. 
Of  course,  the  principal  field  of  war  on  the 
part  of  this  new  enemy  of  the  President  is 
Congress,  which  in  the  past  has  been  all  too 
pliant  a  tool  of  the  selfishness  of  Business. 
How  the  field  was  utilized  was  shown,  in 
part,  in  the  following  from  the  Philadelphia 
Inquirer  shortly  after  the  opening  of  the 
current  session: 

Washington,  D.  C,  January  1. — Congress  will 
begin  the  actual  work  of  the  short  session  on 
Thursday.  All  indications  point  to  a  great  deal 
of  friction  and  pulling  and  hauling,  from  start 
to  finish.  There  are  some  important  bills  on  the 
calendar  which  must  be  disposed  of.  Their  pas- 
sage will  be  contested  at  every  stage.  Organized 
labor  will  be  on  hand  to  resume  the  flglit  of  last 
session.  Great  financial  interests  concerned  in  the 
anti-immig:ration  bills,  the  Ship  Subsidy  Bill,  and 
the  Philippines  Tariff  Bill  will  look  out  for  their 
welfare. 

Pacific  Coast  interests  will  watch  the  Chinese 
exclusion  modification  act  closely  and  fight  it  at 
every  turn.  And  all  this  is  to  be  done  between 
times  of  passing  the  great  supply  bills  of  the 
nation,  whose  proper  consideration  alone  shoulcl 
consume  all  the  time,  it  is  claimed  by  some. 

A  row  with  President  Roosevelt  is  thought  to 
be  certain.  It  will  start  with  the  Brownsville  af- 
fair, will  be  intensified  if  the  Santo  Domingo 
treaty  is  attempted  to  be  revived,  and  will  be  a 
kind  of  continuous  performance  throughout  the 
session.  Very  sensitive  upon  the  subject  of  al- 
leged executive  encroachment,  still  chafing  over 
some  events  of  last  session,  not  in  a  very  good 
humor  over  the  flood  of  executive  recommenda- 
tions. Congress  figuratively  is  carrying  a  chip  on 
its  shoulder  and  looking  for  trouble. 

The  Brownsville  case  will  afford  a  vent  for  the 
relief  of  a  good  deal  of  the  pent-up  feeling 
against  the  alleged  tendency  of  the  executive  de- 
partment of  the  Government  to  exert  undue  au- 
thority. 


MUST  USE  HIS  BIG  STICK 


If  He  Does  Not  the  Present  Session  of  Congress 
Will  Do  Nothing. 

The  President's  method  of  meeting  the 
attack  is  suggested  in  the  following  from  the 
Indianapolis  News : 

Washington. — Unless  the  President  uses  his 
"big  stick"  this  session  of  Congress  will  not 
accomplish  anything  worthy  of  mention. 

It  is  the  determination  of  the  leaders  in  the 
Senate  and  House  to  make  it  a  do-nothing  session 
unless  the  President,  with  public  sentiment  be- 
hind him,  forces  legislation.     It  has  not  been  the 


expectation  of  the  President  that  he  would  get 
much  from  the  session,  but  there  are  a  few  things 
he  is  exceedingly  anxious  to  have  done. 

First  of  all  he  wants  the  Philippine  Tariff  Bill, 
decreasing  duties  on  the  products  of  the  Islands 
entering  the  United  States,  put  through.  So  far 
not  a  move  has  been  made  toward  getting  that 
bill  out  of  the  Senate  Committee  on  Insular  Af- 
fairs, and  the  inside  talk  about  the  Senate  is 
that  the  measure  will  not  be  considered. 

A  special  message  from  the  President  has 
asked  for  speedy  action  on  the  bill  to  confer  the 
right  of  American  citizenship  on  Porto  Ricans. 
It  is  significant  that  the  very  day  the  message 
reached  the  Senate  the  bill  was  reached  on  the 
calendar.  "Let  it  go  over  under  rule  9,"  said 
Senator  Kean,  of  New  Jersey,  and  over  it  went. 

There  is  a  tacit  understanding  among  the  legis- 
lative leaders  that  neither  the  bill  requiring  the 
publicity  of  campaign  affairs  nor  the  bill  to  pro- 
hibit corporations  from  contributing  to  campaign 
committees  shall  be  passed.  The  "practical"  poli- 
ticians are  opposed  to  both  measures. 

Senator  Smoot  is  not  to  be  unseated  unless  a 
distinct  understanding  among  the  leaders  on  the 
Republican  side  is  declared  no  longer  in  force. 
Excuses  will  be  found  for  postponing  a  vote,  and 
the  session  will  end  with  the  Mormon  senator  still 
in  his  seat. 


DEMOCRAT  TO  THE  DEFENSE 


Senator  Carmack  Charges  Foraker  With  Insincer- 
ity in  His  Attack  on  President. 
One  of  the  points  which  the  Opposition 
appeared  to  count  upon  for  weakening  the 
President's  power  was  the  discharge  of  the 
negro  troops.  But  this  very  soon  turned  its 
edge  back  upon  the  assailants,  especially 
when  it  served  to  bring  so  strong  a  Demo- 
crat as  Senator  Carmack  to  the  President's 
defense.    Said  the  San  Francisco  Chronicle : 

In  his  address  Senator  Carmack  gave  what 
he  regarded  as  the  real  purpose  of  the  agitation — 
an  attempt  to  unhorse  Roosevelt  as  the  Repub- 
lican leader.  He  said:  "It  seems  to  me  that 
there  is  something  else  behind  these  uncalled-for 
attacks  on  the  President  than  a  passion  for  Jus- 
tice and  for  law.  This  particular  act  of  the 
President  is  simply  the  occasion,  but  it  is  not 
the  cause  of  this  violent  and  concerted  attack  on 
the  administration.  The  President  has  done 
enough  in  all  conscience  to  alarm  every  real 
friend  of  the  constitution,  but  through  it  all  he 
has  had  the  united  and  enthusiastic  support  of 
all  the  senators  on  the  Republican  side. 

"It  is  by  the  best  acts  of  his  administration 
that  the  President  has  aroused  so  deadly  an  an- 
tagonism within  his  own  party.  He  might  have 
continued  to  trample  on  the  law  to  the  end  of 
time,  and  there  would  have  been  no  voice  of  pro- 
test if  he  had  not  otherwise  offended.  The  Presi- 
dent   has   made    the    mistake    of   compelling    his 


174 


THE     PANDEX 


party  to  break  with  its  old-time  friends,  to  turn 
its  guns  upon  its  allies  of  a  hundred  battles;  he 
has  brought  the  great  railways  and  trusts  to 
know  that  there  are  such  things  as  government. 
His  party  leaders  have  yielded  a  snarling  and 
reluctant  half-way  obedience  to  his  will,  biding 
time  and  opportunity  to  strike." 
•  He  told  the  Republican  senators  they  must 
make  choice  of  the  alternative  "either  to  renomi- 
nate President  Roosevelt  or  give  us  back  our 
platform. ' ' 

He  then  turned  his  attention  to  Foraker's  criti- 
cism of  Major  Blocksom  and  declared  that  "the 
Senator  from  Ohio  may  be  God  Almighty  to  the 
Republican  party  of  Ohio,  but  not  of  the  uni- 
verse. I  can  remember  with  what  frantic  energy 
he  used  to  wave  the  bloody  shirt,  a  shirt  dyed 
with  the  crimson  current  of  his  own  rhetoric;  I 
remember  how  he  used  to  go  raging  over  the 
land,  a  bifurcated,  peripatetic  volcano  in  peren- 
nial eruption,  belching  fire  and  smoke  and  melted 
lava  from  agonized  and  tumultuous  bowels.  I 
can  see  how  in  public  speeches  he  spattered  the 
gall  of  his  bitterness  upon  the  South,  until  I 
came  to  think  that  the  Senator  wished  all  the 
white  people  of  the  South  had  but  a  single  neck, 
that  he  might  sever  it  at  a  blow.  I  would  not 
have  to  go  back  forty  years,  or  make  any  inquiry 
into  the  Senator's  pedigree  to  prove  that  the 
Senator  from  Ohio  is  the  last  man  to  sit  in  judg- 
ment in  a  case  of  murder  where  a  negro  was  the 
murderer  and  a  southern  white  man  was  his  vic- 
tim. 

"But  I  will  not  do  the  Senator  such  gross  in- 
justice as  to  judge  his  heart  by  the  testimony  of 
his  own  mouth;  and  when  my  southern  friends 
ask  me  if  the  Senator  from  Ohio  is  really  as 
rabid  and  bitter  as  he  seems,  I  tell  them  no,  his 
ferocity  is  purely  oratorical ;  it  is  simply  the 
lingering  force  of  a  tyrannical  habit." 


PRESIDENT  RIGHT;  NO  ROW 


Fear  of  Clash  Over  Brownsville  Affair  Purely 
Imaginary,  Raymond  Says. 

Another  view  of  the  negro  affair  was  the 
following,  as  given  by  "Raymond"  in  the 
Chicago  Tribune : 

Washington,  D.  C. — There  is  not  the  slightest 
danger  now,  nor,  in  fact,  has  there  ever  been,  of 
any  real  clash  between  the  President  and  Con- 
gress over  the  Brownsville  affair.  There  has 
been  an  honest  difference  of  opinion  and  some 
heated  argument,  but  there  has  been  no  time 
when  the  cordial  relations  between  the  executive 
and  the  legislative  branches  of  the  Government 
have  been  in  danger  of  being  severed. 

There  are  sycophants  and  hangers  on  about  the 
White  House  who  have  reported  to  the  President 
direful  stories  of  threatened  doings  in  Congress. 
There  have  been  legislative  touts  and  lobby  loaf- 
ers who  have  sought  to  inflame  the  minds  of  dis- 
tinguished senators  and  representatives  with  the 
idea  that  the  President  was  defying  them,  and 


that  he  would  defy  them  to  the  limit  of  impeach- 
ment, no  matter  what  Congress  might  do  nor  how 
it  might  do  it. 

In  point  of  fact,  throughout  the  whole  of  this 
extraordinary  Brownsville  incident  the  President 
and  Congress  have  acted  strictly  within  their 
rights,  and  there  has  not  yet  been  any  evidence 
of  an  intention  on  the  part  of  either  to  interfere 
with  the  prerogatives  of  the  other. 


CHARGED  WITH  "FATUOUS  MEDDLING" 


J.  P.  Morgan's  Newspaper  Organ    Declares    the 
President's  Attitude  is  Ruinous. 

What  is  generally  •construed  as  an  inside 
view  of  the  Opposition  sentiments  was  the 
following : 

New  York. — "Mr.  Roosevelt's  hatred  of  the 
railroads,  which  has  reached  the  proportions  of 
an  intellectual  obsession,  bids  fair  to  bear  sub- 
stantial fruit  in  the  not  distant  future.  Indeed, 
it  is  quite  certain  that  we  shall  all  have  to  pay 
deeply  for  the  sins  of  the  railroads." 

With  these  words  the  Sun,  controlled  by  J. 
Pierpont  Morgan,  introduces  a  bitter  editorial 
attack  upon  the  President,  and  voices  the  feel- 
ings of  the  great  railroad  magnates  of  the  land. 
It  continues: 

"The  transportation  rates  of  the  United 
States  are  the  lowest  in  the  world  and  are  a 
scientific  wonder.  There  is  no  page  in  the  his- 
tory of  commerce  that  is  so  wonderful  as  that 
which  records  the  fall  in  the  cost  of  railroad 
transportation  during  the  last  thirty-five  years. 
Natural  causes  brought  it  about,  and  if  natural 
causes  are  not  checked  in  their  operation  by  fatu- 
ous and  ignorant  meddling  rates  will  go  lower 
yet.  If  they  are  checked,  and  there  is  a  reckless 
and  mischievous  effort  now  on  foot  to  do  so,  then 
disaster  will  ensue  as  surely  as  the  night  follows 
the  day,  and  with  disaster  will  come  increased 
cost  of  transportation. 

"The  roads  are  between  Mr.  Roosevelt  and 
the  deep  sea.  The  gross  earnings  are  suffocat- 
ing them,  the  net  earnings  are  steadily  vanish- 
ing, and  behind  all  is  the  specter  of  an  intoler- 
able usurpation  which  means  only  bankruptcy 
and  disaster.  Communities  are  howling  for  coal; 
farmers  are  distracted  for  means  to  get  their 
grain  to  market;  merchandise  of  all  kinds  en- 
cumbers the  sidings  and  chokes  the  railroad 
yards,  and  only  open  weather  palliates  the  imme- 
diate prospect. 

"But  never  mind  the  railroads.  They  have 
earned  and  they  fully  deserve  the  punishment 
that  is  coming  to  them.  If  the  laws  are  not  en- 
forced we  must  make  new  laws.  But  what  we 
want  to  know  is,  How  does  a  paternal  and  illus- 
trious ruler  propose  to  provide  for  the  unem- 
ployed millions  who  will  presently  appeal  to  hi? 
omnipotence  for  succor?" 


THE    PANDEX 


173 


CAN  HE  MAKE   THEM   SAW  WOOD? 


— Indianapolis  News. 


FINE  McCUTCHEON,  SAYS  CONGRESS 


Overworked    Lawmakers    Laugh    at 
Cartoon. 


'Message' 


Nothing,  apparently,  bristles  Congress 
more  than  what  it  regards  as  the  President's 
attempts  to  preach  to  it.  One  phase  of  this 
preaching  is  reflected  in  the  following  from 
the  Chicago  Tribune,  apropos  of  a  cartoon 


by  McCutcheon,  which  is  printed  in  conjunc- 
tion with  this  symposium: 

Washing-ton,  D.  C. — McCutcheon 's  cartoon  in 
The  Chicago  Tribune,  descriptive  of  the  way  in 
which  the  President  has  flooded  Congress  with 
messages,  created  considerable  amusement  in 
Congress.  An  examination  of  the  Congressional 
Record  shows  how  cleverly  it  represents  the 
truth. 

The  two  houses  of  Congress  have  been  in  ses- 
sion exactly  twelve  days.     The  lower  house  has 


176 


THE     PANDEX 


been  in  session  fifteen  days,  but  usually  does  not 
receive  communications  from  the  President  when 
the  Senate  is  not  assembled.  Altogether  the 
President  has  sent  in  eighteen  messages,  an  aver- 
age of  one  and  a  half  for  each  complete  legislat- 
ive day. 

Three  Messages  Every  Two  Days. 
Here  is  the  list : 

Dec.  3. — Congress  convened. 

Dec.  4. — Message  on  the  treatment  of  criminals 
by  probation. 
Message  transmitting  the  annual  report  of  the 

Civil  Service  Commission. 
Message  on  control  of  the  yellow  fever. 
Message  on  church  claims  in  the  Philippines. 
Message  recommending    the    authorization   of 
the  President  to  dismiss  officers  of  the  navy 
without  trial. 
Dec.  5. — Message    recommending  legislation  for 

Alaska. 
Dec.  10. — Message  recommending  the  reimburse- 
ment of  the  owners  of  the  British  schooner 
Lillie. 
Message   transmitting    the    ordinances   of  the 

Executive  Council  of  Porto  Rico. 
Message  recommending  payment  to  Lieutenant 
Colonel  L.  K.  Scott,  United  States  Army,  for 
an  invention  used  by  the  army. 
Message  recommending  the  return  of  customs 
duties    collected    from    certain  British    im- 
porters. 
Message  recommending    an  appronriation  for 
the   payment    of   the   cable    company   whose 
wires  were  cut  by  Admiral  Dewey  during  the 
war  with  Spain. 
Dec.  11. — Message  describing  conditions  in  Porto 
Rico   and  recommending  citizenship  for  its 
people. 
Message  transmitting  the  report  of  the  Keep 
Commission  on  the  purchase  of  department 
supplies. 
Dec.  17. — Message  describing  conditions  on  the 
Isthmus  of  Panama. 
Message  concerning  revision  of  the  public  land 

laws. 
Message  recommending  reorganization   of  the 
naval  personnel. 
Dec.   18. — Message   transmitting    the    report    of 
Secretary  Metcalf  on  the  Japanese  questions. 
Dee.  19. — Message  on  the  discharge  without  honor 
of     three     companies     of     the     Twenty-fifth 
United  States  Infantry. 
Dec.  20. — Congress  adjourned  for  the  holidays. 

"The  President  has  given  us  enough  subjects," 
observed  one  member,  "to  keep  two  Congresses 
busy.  I  wonder  if  he  expects  anything  to  be 
done?" 


WILL  BREAK  MESSAGE  HABIT 


the  "message  habit"  by  allowing  the  press 
to  make  the  inferences  reflected  in  the  fol- 
lowing from  the  Cleveland  Plain  Dealer: 

Washington. — President  Roosevelt  has  taken 
heed  of  the  criticism  in  Congress  of  his  "message 
habit. ' '  There  is  a  fair  promise  that  hereafter 
the  Executive  will  not  so  freely  communicate  his 
views  to  the  legislators  on  topics  in  which  he  is 
interested  or  which  are  urged  upon  him  by  en- 
thusiastic champions  of  proposed  reform. 

Mr.  Roosevelt  is  not  sorry  that  senators  and 
representatives  have  criticized  and  found  cause 
for  laughter  in  his  message-writing  proclivities. 
He  knows  all  about  the  sharp  remarks  that  have 
been  made  and  has  read  some  of  the  newspaper 
articles  setting  forth  the  Congressional  comment 
on  messages  multitudinous  and  overlapping.  He 
is  glad  that  the  comment  has  got  into  print,  be- 
cause he  believes  it  will  be  the  means  of  ridding 
him  of  a  burden. 

Some  of  the  sharpest  critics  of  Mr.  Roosevelt's 
facility  in  letter  writing  have  been  the  same  men 
who  had  urged  him  to  indite  messages  on  sub- 
jects dear  to  them.  The  President  feels  that  it 
is  hardly  kindly  or  gracious  for  those  who  have 
had  their  wishes  gratified  in  the  one  instance  to 
be  quick  with  the  criticism  when  the  attempt  is 
made  to  gratify  the  wishes  .of  some  of  the  critic 's 
colleagues.  The  President  rather  rejoices  in  the 
publicity  that  has  been  given  Congressional  criti- 
cism. There  will  be  little  fuel  for  the  fire  from 
now  on,  and  some  men  will  get  chilled. 


FINES  AND  JAIL  SCARE  RAILWAYS 


The  President  Decides  to  Send  Fewer  Communi- 
cations to  Congress. 

Characteristically  the  President  promptly 
robbed  his  enemies  of  fire  in  the  matter  of 


Moody  Says  Corporations  Now  Promise  to  Obey 
Laws. 

Something  of  the  reason  for  the  financial 
anger  at  the  President  is  disclosed  in  the  fol- 
lowing from  the  Philadelphia  North  Amer- 
ican : 

Washington. — Granting  rebates  on  railroads  to 
large  corporations  in  discrimination  against 
smaller  shippers  has  virtually  ceased,  and  the 
I'ailroads  and  corporations  now  have  a  wholesome 
respect  for  the  law,  according  to  the  ofBeials  of 
the  Department  of  Justice. 

This  opinion  is  based  on  advices  from  many 
reliable  sources,  which  indicate  that  the  imposing 
of  heavy  fines  and  the  imprisonment  of  two  de- 
fendants have  frightened  those  who  have  hereto- 
fore violated  the  law  with  impunity. 

Attorney-General  Moody  is  in  receipt  of  let- 
ters nearly  every  day  from  railroad  officials  and 
officers  of  corporations  advising  him  that  they 
propose  to  observe  the  law.  United  States  dis- 
trict attorneys  throughout  the  country  have  also 
advised  the  Department  that  the  Elkins  anti- 
rebate  law  is  not  being  violated  on  an  extensive 
scale. 


THE    PANDEX 


177 


THE   PRESIDENT    SENDS   A   FEW    MESSAGES   TO    CONGRESS. 


178 


THE     PANDEX 


ROOT  FOR  SENATOR 


Secretary  Said  to  Be   Choice  of  the  President 
for  Piatt's  Shoes. 

Another  point  in  the  President's  adminis- 
tration of  which  the  Opposition  took  full 
advantage  was  the  issue  of  State  Rights, 
which  Secretary  Root  made  the  more  serious 
thru  a  speech  which  was  widel.y  miscon- 
strued. In  view  of  this  speech  of  Root's  and 
of  Root's  general  relationship  to  the  admin- 
istration, the  following  is  interesting.  It  is 
from  the  Washington  Post : 

Many  explanations  have  been  sought  for  the 
reluctance  of  Senator  Thomas  C.  Piatt  to  resign 
his  seat  in  the  Senate,  which  both  physically  and 
mentally,  by  the  best  testimony  of  his  friends, 
he  no  longer  is.  able  to  fill. 

Superficially  it  has  looked  to  political  ob- 
servers that  the  only  thing  a  man  of  Piatt's  ad- 
vanced age  would  consider  would  be  his  own 
convenience  and  pleasure.  But  beyond  and  be- 
hind this  change  in  the  personnel  of  a  United 
States  Senator  from  New  York  lies  an  interest- 
ing chapter  of  'high  finance.'  The  final  page 
will  not  be  written  until  the  battle  of  two  great 
contending  financial  forces  which  seek  to  domi- 
nate the  election  of  Piatt's  successor  has  been 
fought  out  decisively. 

There  are,  of  course,  two  great  financial  com- 
binations contending  for  control,  not  only  in  the 
field  of  railroad  supremacy  in  the  United  States, 
but  also  in  relation  to  the  financial  domination 
of  various  other  extensive  industrial  and  com- 
mercial enterprises,  as  well  as  the  majority  in- 
fluence in  the  next  Republican  National  Conven- 
tion. What  may  be  described  as  'premature'  re- 
ports of  President  Roosevelt's  aspirations  after 
he  shall  leave  the  White  House  have  a  material 
influence  in  this  regard. 

There  is  no  doubt  that  a  movement  has  already 
begun  to  render  impossible  the  election  of  Mr. 
Roosevelt  as  a  Senator  from  New  York  when  his 
term  in  the  White  House  has  expired.  It  is  not 
necessary  in  this  connection  to  narrate  the  vari- 
ous questions  of  controversy  which  have  arisen 
between  Mr.  Roosevelt  as  Chief  Executive  and 
not  only  the  corporations  and  trusts  on  the  other 
hand,  but  the  combined  individualities'  of  various 
candidates  for  the  Republican  nomination  to  suc- 
ceed him.  It  is  easily  imaginable  that  if  Mr. 
Roosevelt  as  President  can  defy  Congress  to  a 
standstill,  can  assert  unequivocally  that  he  will 
refuse  to  enforce  laws  enacted  by  the  Congress 
if  not  in  accord  with  his  own  ideas  of  right  and 
public  welfare,  in  this  course  he,  as  a  political 
individual,  has  stored  up  for  himself  trouble  im- 
measurable in  the  future. 

Recent  reports  of  E.  H.  Harriman's  alleged 
willingness  to  rehabilitate  Benjamin  B.  Odell  in 
supremacy  in  New  York  politics  is  regarded  here 
as  only  one  factor  in  the  great  game  of  the  polit- 
ical financial  giants  which  will  become  more  ap- 


parent as  the  months  develop  between  the  pres- 
ent time  and  the  next  Republican  National  Con- 
vention. There  is  high  authority  for  the  state- 
ment that  the  Rockefeller-Harriman  interests  in 
the  financial  world  which  just  now  are  seeking 
to  throttle  the  Morgan-Hill  interests  in  the  rail- 
road world  are  determined  to  force  the  nomina- 
tion of  Charles  W.  Fairbanks,  the  present  Vice- 
President,  as  the  next  Chief  Executive  of  the 
Nation. 

Politics  to-day,  as  all  readers  know,  depends 
largely  upon  the  game  of  finance  as  played  be- 
tween the  moneyed  kings.  Piatt  and  Depew  are 
Morgan  pawns  in  the  United  States  Senate.  Root 
also  would  be  a  Morgan  pawn.  Cortelvou,  who  is 
to  be  the  Secretary  of  the  Treasury  on  March  4, 
if  confirmed  by  the  Senate,  will  be  another  Mor- 
gan pawn.  Long  months  ago  the  Republican 
national  organization  cut  loose  from  the  Rocke- 
feller-Harriman outfit  and  made  its  political  bed 
with  that  of  the  Morgan-Hill  interests.  There  is 
in  this  statement  perhaps  an  intimation  of  why 
Leslie  M.  Shaw  will  retire  from  the  Cabinet  on 
March  4. 

Mr.  Roosevelt,  who  believes  in  his  own  right 
that  he  is  the  leader  of  the  Republican  organiza- 
tion of  New  York,  has  determined  that  Elihu 
Root  shall  be  the  next  United  States  Senator 
from  New  York — that  is  to  say,  according  to 
advisers  of  the  President,  who,  of  course,  wish 
it  to  be  understood  that  the  President  shall  not 
be  quoted.  Timothy  L.  Woodrufl',  Prank  S.  Black, 
J.  Sloat  Fassett,  and  all  the  others  who  had  be- 
lieved that  they  might  be  in  the  running  for 
Senator  when  "Old  Man"  Piatt  should  quit,  will 
have  their  trouble  for  their  pains  if  the  Ad- 
ministration program  is  carried  out.  Roosevelt 
insists  again,  it  is  said,  that  Root  shall  be  the 
next  Senator  from  New  York  if  Piatt  is  to  give 
up  his  toga.  There  is  the  hitch  in  the  problem 
of  Piatt's  resignation  from  the  Senate.  Piatt 
personally  does  not  prefer  Root.  Many  Repub- 
licans will  remember  the  night  of  the  'Amen 
Corner'  dinner,  when  Piatt  was  the  guest  of 
lionor  and  Root,  as  Secretary  of  War,  made  an 
effusive  reponse  to  a  toast  in  Piatt's  honor. 

Root  for  years  had  been  Piatt's  factional 
enemy  in  the  Republican  organization  in  New 
York.  He  had  been  a  'reformer'  in  organiza- 
tion politics.  When,  after  making  his  flattering 
speech  in  Piatt's  honor,  Piatt  was  asked  what 
he  thought  of  Root's  effort,  he  replied:  "In 
vino  Veritas,"  but  Piatt  has  not  long  to  serve  in 
public  or  private  life. 


GOMPERS  CRIES  FRAUD 


Says  Ship-Subsidy  Petitions  Are  Forgeries  De- 
vised by  a  Corrupt  Gang. 
That  there  is  ample  ground  for  the  fear  of 
disclosure  and  punishment  on  the  part  of  the 
moneyed  interests  is  evident  from  the  fol- 
lowing from  the  Washington  Post: 

In  the  January  issue  of  the  American  Feder- 
ationist,  the  official  organ  of  the  American  Fed- 


THE    PANDEX 


179 


eration  of  Labor,  President  Samuel  Gompers 
makes  the  charge  that  the  petitions  signed  by 
labor  organizations  urging  the  passage  of  the 
ship-subsidy  bill,  that  were  poured  in  upon  Con- 
gress just  before  the  holidays,  were  obtained 
through  fraud. 

Mr.  Gompers  devotes  several  pages  to  a  dis- 
cussion of  this  subject  and  tells  how  the  matter 
was  investigated  and  the  alleged  fraud  proven. 
He  says  that  in  all  the  country  ' '  there  is  not  a 
more  corrupt  gang  than  the  well-organized  coterie 
who  engaged  in  the  scheme  to  'promote'  ship- 
subsidy  legislation."  He  says  the  promoters  of 
this  proposed  legislation  were  well  aware  of  the 
attitude  of  organized  labor  on  this  bill  and  un- 
dertook to  deceive  members  of  Congress  and 
labor  organizations  through  practices  that  have 
laid  some  of  them  liable  to  prosecution  in  the 
courts. 

From  Mr.  Gompers'  recital  it  appears  that 
the  request  that  labor  organizations  sign  and 
transmit  these  petitions  to  Congress  was  repre- 
sented to  have  been  initiated  by  the '(Marine  Trades 
Council  of  the  City  of  New  York.  Believing  that 
this  organization  had  not  taken  a  part  in  this 
matter,  Mr.  Gompers  tells  how  he  instructed 
General  Organizer  T.  E.  Flynn,  of  Cleveland, 
Ohio,  to  go  to  New  York  and  investigate  the 
whole  subject,  cautioning  him  to  be  sure  of  his 
facts  and  make  a  full  report. 

This  report  was  submitted  to  Mr.  Gompers  un- 
der date  of  December  13,  1906.  Mr.  Flynn  re- 
ports that  copies  of  the  petitions  to  be  signed 
were  sent  throughout  the  country  in  the  name  of 
the  Marine  Trades  Council,  and  that  "after  their 
examination  by  the  delegates  of  the  council  they 
denied  absolutely  their  authorization.  A  reso- 
lution to  this  end  was  unanimously  adopted  by 
the  council." 

Mr.  Flynn  says  he  discovered  the  printer  of  the 
documents,  who  declined  to  make  public  the  name 
of  his  customer.  The  matter  was  taken  before 
the  District  Attorney  of  the  City  of  New  York, 
who  summoned  the  printer  and  others  and  ob- 
tained the  information.  Mr.  Gompers  names  as 
the  alleged  guilty  person  a  man  in  Cleveland. 
The  entire  lot  of  petitions  and  documents  are 
shown  by  Mr.  Gompers  to  be  forgeries. 

DARE  NOT  REVISE  TARIFF 


Republican    Leaders    Fear    Changes    Would   Be 
Fatal  to  Party  Success  in  Next  Campaign. 

The  one  line  along  which  as  yet  the  ad- 
ministration of  Mr.  Roosevelt  pleased  the 
Vested  Interests  is  shown  in  the  following 
from  the  Chicago  Tribune : 

Washington,  D.  C— In  spite  of  vigorous  pro- 
tests by  the  agricultural  implement  men  of  the 
West  and  the  shoe  and  leather  manufacturers 
of  the  East,  there  will  be  no  step  taken  toward 
tariff  revision  during  the  life  of  the  present  or 
the  next  Congress. 

It  may  be  that  President  Roosevelt  next  year 
will  think  it  wise  to  refer  to  the  tariff  revision 


sentiment,  but  there  is  not  the  slightest  chance 
of  ■any  attempt  by  Congress  to  change  the  exist- 
ing schedules.  Even  the  men  who  are  in  favor 
of  tariff  revision  admit  that  the  time  has  now 
gone  by  when  it  can  be  safely  undertaken  from 
a  political  point  of  view.  If  the  tariff  was  to  be 
revised  at  all  it  should  have  been  done  at  the 
long  session  of  the  present  Congress.  In  that 
way  conditions  would  have  been  adjusted  to  the 
new  rates  long  before  the  next  Presidential  elec- 
tion, and  there  would  be  no  question  at  that  time 
as  to  whether  the  change  in  the  tariff  was  good 
or  bad. 

Serious  Demands  for  Revision. 

There  have  been  some  serious  demands  made 
for  tariff  revision  within  the  last  six  months  or 
year  which  have  not  reached  the  public.  Speaker 
Cannon  and  other  prominent  Republican  leaders 
have  at  one  time  or  another  met  representatives 
of  various  important  industries  which  claimed 
they  are  being  discriminated  against  under  the 
existing  tariff  schedules.  The  shoemen  of  Mas- 
sachusetts have  a  thorough  organization,  and 
they  have  presented  the  cause  of  free  hides  not 
only  to  their  own  delegation  but  to  influential 
Republicans  from  other  sections  as  well.  The 
protest  of  the  agricultural  implement  men  is  not 
a  new  one.  It  has  been  presented  privately  to  the 
President  and  to  a  number  of  Republican  leaders. 

There  will  be  no  legislation  in  Congress  until 
after  the  next  Presidential  election,  whether  the 
President  recommends  it  or  not.  There  is  a  good 
deal  of  tariff  revision  sentiment  scattered  about 
the  country,  but  the  trouble  is  it  is  not  cohesive. 
The  Massachusetts  men  want  free  hides,  but  the 
Western  cattle  growers  paw  the  ground  when 
such  a  thing  is  even  suggested.  The  people  in 
the  treeless,  semi-arid  belt  of  the  Middle  and 
Southern  West  have  presented  a  petition  for  a 
reduced  rate  on  lumber,  but  the  representatives 
from  Washington,  Oregon,  and  the  panhandle  of 
Idaho,  where  they  still  have  valuable  forests, 
can  not  be  induced  to  look  at  the  situation  from 
the  same  point  of  view.  The  Southerners  who 
were  once  rampant  free  traders  are  now  gradual- 
ly becoming  protectionists  all  along  the  line  in- 
stead of  for  their  own  local  products. 

In  coming  to  their  decision  regarding  the  tariff, 
which  practically  is  positive  now,  the  Repub- 
lican leaders  are  united  in  the  belief  that  it 
would  be  political  suicide  for  them  to  attempt 
to  touch  the  tariff  schedules  at  the  next  session 
of  Congress,  either  at  an  extra  session  or  other- 


"THRU"  IT  SHALL  BE 


"Who    Asked    Government    to    Interfere,    Any- 
way?" Say  the  Simplified  Spellers. 

"Although  Congress  nailed  'Thru'  along  with 
the  other  simplified  words  to  the  mast  on  Fri- 
day," said  Dr.  I.  K.  Funk,  "the  work  of  keeping 
the  'three  hundred'  in  style  will  go  merrily 
along,  and  in  the  course  of  time  our  efforts  in 
this  great  saving  of  time  and  energy  in  letter- 
writing  will  be  appreciated." 

Dr.  Funk,  of  the  Funk  &  Wagnalls  Company; 


180 


THE    PANDEX 


Henry  Holt,  the  publisher,  and  Charles  Sprague, 
president  of  the  Dime  Savings  Bank,  who  are  a 
committee  to  stimulate  the  use  of  the  simplified 
form  of  spelling,  asserted  that  their  ardor  had 
not  diminished. 

"We  never  asked  that  the  National  Govern- 
ment," said  Dr.  Funk,  "assist  us  in  the  under- 
taking. To  have  the  National  Government  take 
up  the  simplified  spelling  at  this  time  would  only 
be  putting  the  cart  before  the  horse.  What  we 
must  first  do  is  to  prevail  upon  the  business  men 
to  adopt  it  in  their  letter  writing,  and  in  this 
way  the  new  method  will  get  a  steadfast  grip 
and  unconsciously  all  will  gradually  drop  in 
Une." 

The  Missionary  Review,  the  Literary  Digest 
and  the  Circle,  three  publications  of  the  Funk 
&  Wagnalls  Company,  observe  the  simplified 
spelling,  and,  unless  the  authors  object,  it  is  also 
observed  in  the  books  printed  by  that  company. 
— New  York  World. 


"THE  BELOVED,  EXALTED  ROOSEVELT' 


Morocco's  Sultan   Can  Give  Cards  and  Spades 
When  It  Comes  to  'Jollying.' 

Washington. — President  Roosevelt  has  received 
a  letter  from  the  Sultan  of  Morocco  expressing 
gratitude  for  the  appointment  of  Samuel  R. 
Gummere  as  Minister  to  Morocco.  The  letter  is 
written  in  Arabic. 

The  Sultan  addresses  the  President  as  "The 
Beloved,  the  Most  Cherished,  the  Exalted,  the 
Most  Gracious  Friend,  Most  Honored  and  Excel- 
lent President  of  the  Republic  of  the  United 
States  of  America,  who  is  the  pillar  of  its  most 
important  affairs,  the  most  celebrated  preservier 
of  the  ties  of  true  friendship,  the  faithful  friend, 
Theodore  Roosevelt." 

Minister  Gummere,  the  letter  says,  will  be 
shown  every  courtesy  and  attention  by  the  Gov- 
ernment of  Morocco. — New  York  World. 


FIGHTING  "THE  MEDDLER" 


HARRIMAN  LEADS  THE  WALL  STREET  FORCES  IN   THE  EFFORT 
TO  OVERTHROW  PRESIDENT  ROOSEVELT. 


AN  INTIMATE  glimpse  of  the  ambitions 
and  fighting  plans  of  the  Business 
leader,  Mr.  Harriman,  was  given  recently  in 
Pearson's  Magazine,  from  which  the  follow- 
ing is  an  extract: 

In  an  article  in  Pearson's  Magazine  for  Janu- 
ary, James  Creelman  tells  some  news  about  Presi- 
dent Roosevelt's  fight  to  smash  the  control  of 
Wall  street  in  the  National  Government.  He 
writes : 

"In  the  back  rooms  of  Wall  Street  Theodore 
Roosevelt  is  known  as  a  meddler.  Pale,  wrinkled 
captains  of  speculation  and  great  arch  million- 
aires, upon  the  waving  of  whose  hands  the  tide 
of  prices  rises  or  falls,  will  tell  you  to-day  bitter- 
ly that  he  is  the  most  meddlesome  President  the 
country  has  ever  had,  either  in  peace  or  war, 
and  that  his  meddling  has  unsettled  the  existing 
order  and  loosed  upon  the  American  continent 
wild  forces  of  political,  economic,  and  social  revo- 
lution. 


"Mr.  Roosevelt  is  a  meddler.  It  is  in  his  blood. 
He  has  been  a  meddler  since  boyhood.  He  has 
meddled  with  the  predatory  elements  of  life, 
four-legged  and  two-legged;  the  crack  of  his 
rifle  in  the  West  has  been  no  more  destructive 
than  the  whisk  of  his  official  pen  in  the  East; 
he  has  trailed  his  game  as  faithfully  in  Wall 
Street  as  in  the  mountains  of  Colorado  or  the 
Dakota  Bad  Lands;  nor  has  he  failed  to  bring 
down  the  big  beasts  of  polities. 

"It  is  not  so  many  weeks  since  Edward  Henry 
Harriman,  president  of  the  Union  Pacific  Rail- 
road Company  and  overlord  of  countless  Ameri- 
can corporate  combinations  representing,  literal- 
ly, a  billion  of  dollars,  said  privately  that  Presi- 
dent Roosevelt  must  be  got  rid  of  politically  at 
any  cost.  Mr.  Harriman  is  a  Republican  and 
has  secretly  exercised  great  power  in  his  party. 
Preferred  Bryan  or  Hearst. 

"  'But  if  you  put  Roosevelt  out  of  power,  you 
will  have  to  take  Bryan  or  Hearst.  Are  you  pre- 
pared for  that!' 

"  'Yes,'     said     Mr.     Harriman,    passionately. 


THE    PANDEX 


181 


FRENZIED    RAILROADING. 


— Duluth    News    Tribune. 


182 


THE     EANDEX 


'I'll  take  Bryan  or  Hearst  rather  than  Roosevelt. 
We  can  not  be  worse  off  than  we  are  now  with 
that  man  in  the  White  House.  I'll  take  any  one 
rather  than  Roosevelt;  for,  if  it  comes  to  that, 
we  can  get  at  the  other  crowd.' 

"Mr.  Roosevelt  has  meddled  with  financial- 
political  plans  of  Mr.  Harriman  and  his  accom- 
plices— therefore  the  forked  fingers  and  the  hissed 
anathema  maranatha. 

"Mr.  Harriman  is  the  successor  of  Jay  Gould 
in  the  field  of  manipulative  finance.  He  is  a 
small,  spectacled  man,  with  a  large  forehead  and 
slight,  narrow  chin.  He  has  deep-set  gray  eyes 
and  a  dark-skinned,  expressionless  face.  His 
jaws  are  short  and  wide;  his  nose  is  straight, 
thin,  and  pointed. 

"He  looks  like  a  Frenchman  of  the  small  pro- 
fessional type.  His  manner  is  cold  and  dry.  But 
for  the  lines  of  muscular  contraction  on  either 
side  of  the  chin,  ninning  almost  from  the  cor- 
ners of  the  secretive  mouth  to  the  thin,  wiry 
neck,  and  an  occasional  bunching  of  muscles  at 
the  tight-gripped  angles  of  the  jaws,  it  would  be 
hard  to  reconcile  the  weakness  of  Mr.  Harri- 
man's  dwindling  lower  face  with  the  terrific 
force  which  he  sometimes  displays  in  his  cease- 
less struggle  for  money  and  power. 

Harriman  Tempting  Hill.  ^41^' 

"Mr.  Harriman  is  a  man  of  black  vindictive- 
ness  and  remarkable  energy.  He  can  fight  open- 
ly, but  his  great  strokes  are  delivered  in  secret. 
On  the  day  of  the  great  'corner'  of  Northern 
Pacific  stock,  when  Wall  Street  staggered  under 
the  blows  of  the  contending  Harriman  and  Mor- 
gan forces  and  thousands  of  men  and  women 
were  ruined  in  a  few  hours,  Mr.  Harriman  sat 
on  a  sofa  in  New  York  and  tempted  James  J. 
Hill,  president  of  the  Great  Northern  Railroad 
Company,  to  surrender  stock  control  of  the 
Northern  Pacific  line,  promising  to  pay  for  the 
treachery  by  making  him  president  of  the  Union 
Pacific   Railroad  Company. 

"  'Then  there  will  be  two  railroad  men  in  the 
country — Cassatt  in  the  East  and  Hill  in  the 
West,'  said  Mr.  Harriman,  watching  the  massive 
countenance  of  Mr.  Hill  for  a  sign  of  weakness. 

"That  was  a  critical  moment  in  the  history  of 
the  country,  for  upon  Mr.  Hill's  answer  hung 
the  whole  future  of  transcontinental  traffic  in 
America. 

"Mr.  Hill  told  Mr.  Harriman  that  the  owner- 
ship of  the  Northern  Pacific  line  by  the  Union 
Pacific  interests — a  device  to  destroy  competition 
— was  forbidden  by  law,  and  declared  that  the 
thing  could  not  be  done. 

Tried  It  Himself. 

"Yet,  forgetting  that  memorable  scene,  Mr. 
Hill  later  on,  in  company  with  J.  Pierpont  Mor- 
gan, attempted  to  unite  the  Great  Northern  and 
the  Northern  Pacific  lines  in  one  ownership 
through  the  Northern  Securities  Company — the 
very  thing  in  principle  which  he  had  warned  Mr. 
Harriman  against  as  a  lawless  act — and  -  when 
President  Roosevelt  interfered  with  the  at- 
tempted monopoly  and  smashed  it  in  the  courts. 


Mr.  Hill,  too,  cursed  him  as  a  meddler,  a  dema- 
gogue, a  reckless  enemy  of  private  wealth. 

' '  So  that  to-day  the  Harrimans  and  Hills  and 
Rockefellers  and  all  their  like  are  planning  the 
end  of  Rooseveltism,  and  the  cry  of  predatory 
Wall  Street  is  that  the  President  has  deserted 
those  who  raised  him  to  honor  and  power  and 
has  become  a  desperate  enemy  of  legitimate  busi- 
ness, a  menace  to  prosperity,  a  fomenter  of  class 
hatred — in  short,  that  he  is  a  violent  radical 
who  stole  into  office  disguised  as  a  conservative. 

"But  J.  Pierpont  Morgan  knows  that  he  can 
go  to  the  White  House  and  be  as  welcome  as 
Chief  Stone,  of  the  Brotherhood  of  Locomotive 
Engineers,  but  not  any  more  welcome.  Mr. 
Rockefeller  knows  that  he  can  get  as  fair,  but 
not  fairer,  hearing  from  the  President  as  John 
Mitchell,  of  the  United  Mine  Workers. 

Fair  Play  for  All. 

"The  President  has  stuck  to  the  idea  which  he 
uttered  on  a  railroad  train  in  California  two 
years  ago. 

"  'What  message  shall  I  take  to  organized 
labor?'  asked  one  of  his  heartiest  supporters. 

"  'Take  this  message  to  organized  labor,'  he 
said,  clenching  his  hand  and  leaning  forward : 
'I  intend  to  give  a  square  deal  to  oreanized  labor 
and  to  unorganized  labor  and  to  capital,  too.' 

"This  last  fierce  struggle  for  mastery  began 
when  Mr.  Roosevelt  was  Governor  of  New  York. 
The  corporations  opposed  the  nomination  of  Mr. 
Roosevelt  for  Governor  of  New  York,  but  the 
popularity  earned  before  the  trenches  of  Santi- 
ago made  his  nomination  and  election  inevitable. 
Besides,  Wall  Street  could  not  bring  itself  to  be- 
lieve that  a  man  born  of  a  rich  and  distinguished 
family,  a  graduate  of  Harvard  University,  and 
an  associate  of  the  most  substantial  men  in  the 
community,  would  fail  to  recognize  the  estab- 
lished paramountcy  of  the  great  corporate  in- 
terests in  the  State  of  New  York. 

"They  had  a  rude  awakening  when  Governor 
Roosevelt  took  up  the  now  historic  franchise  tax 
law  [which  the  New  York  World  originated  and 
advocated. — Ed..]  and  persuaded  the  Legislature 
to  pass  it. 

Piatt's  Vain  Protest. 

"Senator  Piatt,  the  party  mouthpiece  and 
champion  of  Wall  Street,  was  stunned.  Mr. 
Morgan,  the  suzerain  of  Wall  Street,  was  in  a 
rage.  Mr.  Ryan  and  Mr.  Whitney,  representing 
the  street  railway  interests,  were  in  a  state  of 
angry  resentment. 

"Senator  Piatt  wrote  a  letter  to  Governor 
Roosevelt.  The  politician  who  brought  this  re- 
markable Piatt  letter  to  Mr.  Roosevelt  told  him, 
as  an  additional  reason  why  he  should  not  press 
the  franchise  tax  bill,  that  certain  great  cor- 
porate interests  not  affiliated  with  the  Republican 
party  had  contributed  $60,000  to  his  campaign 
fund. 

"Mr.  Roosevelt  replied  that  he  had  been  as- 
sured that  these  particular  interests  had  paid 
$100,000  into  the  campaign  treasury  of  his  op- 
ponent, Mr.  Van  Wyck.  The  politician  admitted 
that   that  was   probably  true,  but   that  if  such 


THE    PANDEX 


183 


measures  as  the  franchise  tax  bill  were  pressed 
too  far,  these  interests  would,  in  the  future,  con- 
fine their  large  contributions  to  the  Democratic 
party. 

"That  settled  it.  The  Governor  saw  at  once 
that  he  was  dealing  with  a  question  that  trans- 
cended all  party  lines,  and  was  face  to  face  with 
a  power  that  was  asserting  itself  against  people 
and  Government  alike.  He  struck  again  and 
again,  and  did  not  cease  until  the  franchise  tax 
was  a  fact,  and  not  a  theory. 

Morgan  Baffled. 

"The  Governors  of  six  Northwestern  States 
appealed  to  the  President  for  relief  from  the 
Northern  Securities  railroad  merger,  which  de- 
stroyed competition  between  the  Great  Northern 
and  Northern  Pacific  lines.  The  President  re- 
ferred the  matter  to  Attorney-General  Knox, 
with  instructions  to  deal  with  the  case  without 
fear  or  favor.  The  Attorney-General  reported 
that  the  merger  was  a  clear  violation  of  national 
law.     He  was  ordered  to  bring  suit  at  once. 

"Down  went  J.  Pierpont  Morgan  to  the  White 
House,  wrathful,  but  wary  of  the  President's 
temper. 

"  'It's  all  a  mistake,  Mr.  President,'  he  said, 
with  a  wave  of  his  hand.  'The  whole  thing  is 
simply  a  misunderstanding.  We  can  easily  com- 
promise the  matter.  Let  us  get  together  and 
there  will  be  no  difficulty  about  a  satisfactory 
compromise.' 

"Mr.  Roosevelt  bared  his  teeth. 

"  'I'm  afraid  that  you  do  not  understand  my 
viewpoint,  Mr.  Morgan,'  he  said.  'I  am  here  to 
enforce  the  laws  of  the  United  States.' 

"  'But  there  has  been  no  violation  of  law.' 

"  'Then  you  can  not  be  hurt.' 

"  'Yes;  but  the  affair  should  be  compromised.' 

"  'I  am  not  here  to  make  compromises,'  said 
the  President.  'There  can  be  no  compromise  in 
the  enforcement  of  the  law.' 

No  Favoritism  for  Either. 

"The  man  at  whose  nod  Wall  Street  smiled 
or  trembled  went  back  to  New  York  burning  with 
anger.  So  Samuel  Gompers  recently  retreated 
from  the  White  House  after  practically  threat- 
ening the  President  with  the  political  vengeance 
of  organized  labor. 

"Other  representatives  of  the  Morgan-Hill 
merger  interests  went  to  the  White  House.  At- 
torney-General Knox  was  present  with  the  Presi- 
dent. 

"'You  should  have  given  private  notice  be- 
fore filing  a  bill  in  the  courts  against  the  North- 
ern Securities  Company,'  said  one. 

"  'Why?'  asked  the  President. 

"  'We  were  taken  by  surprise  and  the  action 
of  the  National  Administration  suddenly  knocked 
the  prices  of  our  stocks  to  pieces  in  the  market. 
You  should  have  given  notice  for  the  sake  of  the 
innocent  widows  and  orphans  whose  money  was 
invested  in  stock.' 

"  'I  would  like  to  ask  you,'  said  Attorney- 
General  Knox,  heartlessly,  'whether  you  gave  ad- 
vance information  to  the  widows  and  orphans 
when  you  cornered  Northern  Pacific  stock?' 

"Again  the  President  showed  his  teeth. 


"  'The  Government  doesn't  give  notice,'  he 
said.  'When  it  believes  that  a  man  has  com- 
mitted a  crime,  it  arrests  him,  and  then  notifies 
him  of  what  he  is  accused.  Why  should  the 
Government  give  notice  to  one  man  and  not  to 
another?' 

They  Wanted  a  Chance. 

"  'But  you  might  at  least  have  notified  five  or     « 
six  of  the  biggest  men  in  Wall  Street.' 

"The  President  smiled  and, rubbed  his  hands 
together  softly. 

"  'I'm  afraid  that  the  little  men  would  not 
have  appreciated  it,'  he  answered  with  cruel 
gentleness. 

"  'I'll  say  this  for  the  President,'  exclaimed 
the  Attorney-General,  leaning  back  in  his  chair. 
'There  is  no  stock  ticker  in  the  White  House. 
That  might  as  well  be  understood  right  now.' 

"Whereat  the  President  had  to  struggle  to  sup- 
press his  laughter,  so  stricken  were  his  visitors 
by  the  unfeeling  remark. 

"Before  permitting  the  Government  to  regu- 
late freight  rates,  Mr.  Roosevelt  had  consulted 
the  most  experienced  railroad  men  in  the  country 
in  order  to  do  no  injury  to  legitimate  business. 
He  sent  for  President  Cassatt,  of  the  Penn- 
sylvania Railroad,  and  let  him  read  it. 

"  'It's  perfectly  sound/  said  Mr.  Cassatt 
heartily.  'I  approve  of  it.  I  see  no  reason  why 
the  Government  should  not  regulate  the  railroads. 
The  rebate  system  is  ruinous  as  well  as  unfair. 
The  Government  should  break  it  up  by  enforcing 
the  law  against  everybody.' 

"Then  the  President  asked  for  the  criticism 
of  President  Ripley,  of  the  Santa  Fe  system.  He, 
too,  indorsed  the  plan,  declaring  that  it  was  to 
the  interest  of  legitimate  railroad  enterprise  as 
well  as  the  general  public,  that  the  rebate  sys- 
tem should  be  ended,  and  all  discrimination  in 
favor  of  large  shippers  made  impossible  by  means 
of  enlarged  Governmental  powers  strictly  ap- 
plied. 

Morgan  Played  Politics. 

"But  Mr.  Morgan  opposed  the  President's 
recommendations  to  Congress.  He  could  see 
nothing  in  them  but  an  encouragement  to  the  en- 
croaching forces  of  radicalism,  a  vicious  med- 
dling with  vested  property  rights.  Living  in  the 
narrow  spaces  of  Wall  Street,  he  failed  to  see 
the  black  cloud  on  the  horizon  that  signalled  the 
approach  of  a  hurricane  of  popular  wrath. 

"There  was  a  meeting  of  railroad  presidents 
at  the  Metropolitan  Club  in  New  York.  Mr. 
Harriman  and  Mr.  Hill  were  there;  so  were  Mr. 
Cassatt,  of  the  Pennsylvania  Railroad;  Mr.  Rij)- 
ley,  president  of  the  Santa  Fe  system ;  Mr.  Spen- 
cer, president  of  the  Southern  Railroad  Company ; 
Mr.  Newman,  president  of  the  New  York  Rail- 
road Company,  and  several  others  of  the  most 
f)owerful  railroad  corporation  representatives  in 
the  country.  Mr.  Ripley  urged  that  the  railroad 
companies  should  throw  aside  all  minor  consid- 
erations, recognize  the  sound  reformatory  na- 
ture of  the  President's  ideas,  and  earnestly  sup- 
port and  promote  the  policy  of  Government  regu- 
lation of  railroad  rates  and  the  extinction  of  the 
rebate   system.     Mr.   Cassatt    also    pressed   the 


184 


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President's  plan  upon  his  associates.  But  the 
others  shook  their  heads  and  declared  their  un- 
alterable opposition. 

"Those  who  are  in  the  habit  of  doing  rever- 
ence to  the  judgments  of  "Wall  Street  might 
naturally  suppose  that  those  powerful  men,  rep- 
resenting hundreds  of  millions  of  dollars'  worth 
•  of  property  depending  upon  the  prosperity  and 
peace  of  the  Nation,  would  have  entered  into  a 
conflict  with  the  President  only  on  the  theory  that 
he  was  wrong  in  principle.  Alas,  that  was  not 
the  ground  of  their  opposition.  One  after  the 
other  said  frankly  that  the  railroad  interests 
could  beat  the  President  in  Congress,  and  that, 
as  they  did  not  have  to  make  concessions,  they 
should  stand  up  and  fight. 

"Now,  when  Mr.  Roosevelt  became  aware  in 
this  unmistakable  way  that  there  was  a  private 
power  in  the  United  States  which  held  itself  to 
be  greater  than  the  law  or  the  President  or  Con- 
gress, he  made  it  known  to  his  advisers  that  he 
considered  the  issue  thus  deliberately  raised  as 
a  direct  challenge  to  the  Nation. 

Publicity  His  Best  Weapon. 

"Mr.  Roosevelt  believes  in  publicity.  It  is  his 
sharpest  sword.  When  he  finds  a  corrupt  com- 
bination confronting  him  he  makes  the  matter 
known,  and  leaves  the  rest  to  public  opinion. 
No  man  can  whisper  a  threat  in  his  ears.  He 
opens  the  doors,  throws  up  the  windows,  calls 
in  the  crowd  and  shouts  the  secret  out.  It  is  this 
characteristic  that  embarrasses  the  stealthy  ad- 
venturers of  Wall  Street.  They  dare  not 
threaten.  It  will  be  in  the  newspapers  next 
morning. 

"No  other  President  was  ever  compelled  to 
face  such  an  alliance  of  money  power,  backed 
by  training  and  experience,  as  that  which  op- 
posed the  proposed  Bureau  of  Corporations.  Yet 
it  was  Mr.  Roosevelt's  consummate  ability  to 
recognize  opportunities  and  his  instinct  for  swift, 
ruthless  action  that  won  this  memorable  struggle. 

"John  D.  Rockefeller's  son  sent  a  telegram  to 
several  Senators  calling  upon  them  to  defeat  the 
President's  bill.  It  exposed  the  Standard  Oil 
Company's  desperate  interest  in  the  effort  to 
prevent  the  Bureau  of  Corporations  from  com- 
ing into  existence. 

"A  copy  of  this  amazing  telegram  fell  into 
Mr.  Roosevelt's  hands.  The  moment  he  read  it 
he  snapped  his  fingers,  leaped  to  his  feet  and 
cried,  'That  passes  our  ear  bill.' 

"So  great  was  his  joy  that  he  snapped  his 
fingers  repeatedly,  a  sound  as  of  a  whip  cracked 
over  beaten  curs,  and  laughed  aloud. 

"Without  a  moment's  delay  the  President 
sent  for  thirty  newspaper  correspondents  and 
gave  them  the  telegram.  In  an  hour  it  had  been 
flashed  to  all  parts  of  the  country.  The  Nation 
was  thoroughly  aroused  by  the  revelation. 


"That  very  day  Henry  H.  Rogers  and  John  i). 
Archbold,  the  formidable  and  arrogant  Rocke- 
feller regents  of  the  Standard  Oil  Company, 
went  to  Washington  personally  to  take  charge 
of  the  flght  against  the  President.  But  they  ar- 
rived only  to  find  that,  by  his  simple  device  for 
calling  the  sentiment  of  the  whole  country  to  his 
aid,  Mr.  Roosevelt  had  passed  his  bill.  Not  a 
Senator  dared  to  bat  his  eye  after  the  fatal 
Rockefeller  telegram  had  been  published. 

"  'Never  strike  till  you  have  to,'  says  the 
President,  'but  then  strike  as  hard  as  you  can.'  " 


CRITICISM  RESENTED  BY  PRESIDENT 


Washington  Says  Harriman  Merger  Probe  Is  Ac- 
tuated, by  Desire  for  Revenge. 

Washington,  D.  C. — E.  H.  Harriman  is  being 
punished  by  President  Roosevelt  because  Harri- 
man harshly  criticized  the  President. 

This  action  on  the  part  of  Harriman  is  de- 
clared, on  reliable  authority,  to  be  responsible  for 
the  investigation  which  will  be  begun  by  the 
Inter-State  Commerce  Commission  in  New  York 
January  4,  which,  it  is  believed,  will  lead  to  the 
dissolution  of  the  Harriman  railroad  merger. 

During  the  late  Congressional  campaign  Harri- 
man was  not  even  lukewarm  in  his  support  of  the 
Republican  ticket  and  he  supported  the  Hearst 
ticket  in  New  York.  Mr.  Harriman,  who  is  by 
no  means  an  admirer  of  Roosevelt,  not  only  de- 
clined to  contribute  to  the  Republican  Con- 
gressional campaign  fund,  but  he  went  to  a 
member  of  the  Republican  Congressional  Com- 
mittee and  told  that  ofiicial  what  he  thought  of 
President  Roosevelt. 

This  opinion  was  anything  but  complimentary. 
In  general,  Harriman  stated  that  Roosevelt  was 
a  firebrand;  that  he  was  irresponsible,  and  that 
his  Administration  of  the  office  of  President  had 
been  responsible  for  much  trouble  experienced  by 
the  business  world. 

The  member  of  the  Congressional  Committee 
lost  no  time  in  informing  Roosevelt  what  Har- 
riman had  said.  This  report  displeased  the 
President,  and  he  shook  his  fist  in  the  face  of 
the  member  of  the  committee  and  asked: 

' '  Did  Harriman  say  these  things  about  me  ?  " 

Upon  being  assured  as  to  the  truth  of  the 
statement,  the  President  said : 

"All  right;  I  will  attend  to  this  matter." 

Shortly  after  this  incident  the  Inter-State 
Commerce  Commission  ordered  an  investigation 
of  the  Harriman  merger,  and  it  is  declared  by 
the  Administration  that  all  the  power  at  its  com- 
mand will  be  exerted  to  bring  about  a  dissolution 
of  the  merger. — Pittsburg  Dispatch. 


THE     PANDEX 


185 


LABOR  AT  THE  PLAY 


IN  CHARLES  KLEIN'S  new  play,  "Daughters  of  Men,"  at 
the  Astor  Theater,  Capital  and  Labor  are  boldly  treated. 
The  Organizers  of  trusts  and  Leaders  of  labor  are  so  boldly, 
so  brutally  portrayed  that  the  New  York  World  asked  Samuel 
Gompers,  president  of  the  American  Federation  of  Labor,  and 
the  most  widely  recognized  labor  leader  in  the  country,  to 
see  the  play.    The  following  is  Mr.  Gompers'  review: 

The  "Daughter^  of  Men,"  now  playing  at  the  Astor  Theater,  is 
a  great  play.  Mr.  Charles  Klein  has  not  only  added  to  his  already 
well-deserved  reputation,  but  he  has  also  performed  a  great  public 
service  in  the  presentation  of  that  play,  and  particularly  its  pre- 
sentation at  a  theater  where  the  attendance  is  usually  made  up  from 
the  theater-going  well-to-do  and  fairly  well-to-do  people. 

Having  been  asked  to  review  the  play,  "The  Daughters  of  Men," 
and  record  my  opinion  of  its  merits,  if  I  were  asked  to  epitomize  its 
salient  features,  I  would  say  that  it  is  a  play,  clean,  intensely  in- 
teresting, of  a  high  moral,  public  purpose  with  its  characters  at  once 
boldly  and  clearly  as  well  as  delicately  brought  out. 


186 


THE     PANDEX 


/^ 


I 


I 


s 


The  play  opens  with  a  room 
in  the  Fifth  Avenue  mansion  of 
the  millionaires,  Crosbys,  who 
are  principal  owners  in  and  di- 
rectors of  one  of  the  large  coal, 
iron  and  transportation  com- 
panies, of  which  so  many  exist 
in  our  time. 

Grace  Crosby  (Miss  Effie 
Shannon),  sister  of  Mathew  and 
Reginald  Crosby,  and  niece  of 
Richard  Milbank,  the  tempor- 
arily retired  director  of  the 
company,  and  its  chief  owner, 
is  deeply  in  love  with  John 
Stedman.  Stedman,  while  so- 
cially and  financially  the  equal 
of  the  Crosbys,  has  been 
^  won  over  to  the  cause  of 

^^         labor  and  the  people,  and 
o        at  the  opening  of  the  play 
is    the    leader   of   the    or- 
ganized   workingmen   who 
are   engaged  in   strike  in 
all  the  company's  enterprises.  ' 

Grace  attended  several  meetings  and  listened  with  growing  in- 
terest to  the  graceful  oratory  and  earnest  pleadings  of  Stedman,  and 
learned  to  respect  and  finally  to  love  him,  to  love  him  for  his  sin- 
cerity and  the  cause  he  so  beautifully  portrays.  The  love  of  Grace 
Crosby  and  John  Stedman  is  of  the  highest  and  most  ennobling  char- 
acter. It  is  the  love  of  and  for  the  good  and  the  true  man  and 
woman. 

Their  love  and  their  characters  are  put  to  severe  tests,  by  reason 
of  their  affiliations,  their  families  and  the  divergent  paths  resulting 
particularly  from  the  strike.  In  addition  to  the  human  interest  and 
labor  features  of  the  play,  it  is  a  beautiful  and  thrilling  love  story. 
In  the  second  act  the  strike  is  at  its  crucial  point  for  both  sides. 
The  men  are  living  on  little,  and  the  directors  of  the  company  are 
on  the  verge  of  financial  ruin.  The  leaders  of  the  striking  work- 
men's organization  are  pitting  the  hungry  stomachs  of  the  men 
against  the  dire  straits  in  which  they  know  the  company  to  be. 
Something  is  impending.  Unless  either  or  both  bend  a  break  must 
come  somewhere. 

The  manner  in  which  Mr.  Klein  worked  up  to  the  situation  which 
brought  about  the  meeting  of  the  board  of  directors  of  the  company 
and  the  leaders  of  the  workmen  is  not  only  happy  but  indeed  little 
short  of  ingenious.  Miss  Crosby  being  forbidden  by  her  family  to 
see  Stedman  and  not  seeing  him  for  weeks,  visits  his  room  at  an 
'unconventional  hour.'  She  makes  this  visit  to  plead  with  him  to 
end  the  strike,  which  she  urges  he  has  fought  more  relentlessly  be- 
cause she  has  been  compelled  to  give  him  up. 

Louise  Stolbeck  (Miss  Dorothy  Donnelly),  the  daughter  of  Louis 
Stolbeck,  a  theorist  and  revolutionist  and  member  of  the  workmen's 
leaders,  loves  Stedman.     She  is  jealous  of  and  hates  Grace  Crosby. 


I 


THE    PANDEX 


The  scene  between  Louise  Stolbeck  and  Grace  Crosby  is  beyond 
doubt  one  of  the  strongest  and  of  the  deepest  human  interest,  not 
only  in  this  play,  but  of  any  play  I  have  seen  in  many  years.  The 
ribaldry,  frivolity,  hate,  anger,  passion,  bravado,  daring,  anguish, 
and  despair  are  all  portrayed  by  Miss  Donnelly  with  a  sincerity  so 
convincing  as  to  thrill  her  audience  to  the  very  core. 

It  is  not  my  purpose  to  speak  of  the  ability  of  the  company,  of 
the  exceedingly  capable  players  which  interpret  their  several  parts. 
I  could  not  resist  the  temptation  to  express  my  great  appreciation 
and  the  evident  great  appreciation  of  the  audience  of  Miss  Don- 
nelly's splendid  work. 

Quite  apart  from  the  sterling  character  of  John  Stedman,  the  hero 
of  the  play,  there  are  two  characters  the  very  antitheses  of  each 
other.  One,  Mathew  Crosby,  the  other  James  Burress.  In  one 
feature  alone  are  they  similar,  the  dogged  determination  to  dominate. 
Crosby,  the  member  of  the  "Federated  Companies,"  whose  men  are 
on  strike;  Burress,  one  of  the  "Federated  Brotherhood." 

Crosby  typifies  that  cold-blooded,  determined  man  who  looks 
upon  the  masses  of  workei-s  as  so  many  instruments  to  yield  him  and 
his  their  labor  for  his  own  personal  aggrandizement,  who  has  no 
conception  that  the  labor  and  the  man  are  one;  who  is  scornful  of 
the  fact  that  the  laborer  is  human,  that  he  has  the  same  loves  and 
affections,  duties  and  obligations  to  himself;  that  he  is  made  warm 
by  the  same  summer  sun  and  chilled  by  the  same  winter's  blast,  and 
that  after  all  the  laborer  is  a  human  being  with  a  soul  and  heart 
as  well  as  possessing  the  power  to  produce  wealth. 

Crosby  is  the  cold,  cruel  type  of  man  who  could  witness  with  in- 
difference and  without  turning  scarcely,  without  the  quiver  of  a  lip 
or  causing  a  tremor  in  his  entire  being,  the  crushing  of  human  hearts 
and  human  souls.  He  is  bereft  of  all  moral  responsibility  and  con- 
science for  the  well-being  of  his  fellows. 

Burress,  on  the  other  hand,  is  that  type  of  brutal  ignorance 
brought  about  by  the  worst  conditions  under  which  workmen  toil 
for  just  such  employers  as  Crosby. 

Such  as  Burress,  thanks  to  the  growing  power  of  the  labor  move- 
ment, are  fast  disappearing  from  any  position  of  influence  in  the 
real  labor  movement  of  our  time.    He  has  been  fed  upon  the  cold  in- 


188 


THE     PANDEX 


i 


difference   and   brutal   course   of   the   Crosby  regime,   and   he   would, 
out  of  sheer  force  of  powei-,  annihilate  Crosby  upon  the  first  impulse. 

Mathew  Crosby  would  put  to  work  all  the  secret  machinations 
which  money  could  employ.  He  would  not  stain  his  hands  even 
though  he  would  his  deadened  conscience  with  human  blood.  He 
fights  with  the  rapier,  Burress  with  the  battle-axe. 

The  "Daughters  of  Men"  is  a  tribute  to  the  well-ordered  trades 
union  movement  of  America  as  understood  and  represented  by  the 
American  Federation  of  Labor.  It  demonstrates  that  labor,  to  be 
respected  and  to  have  consideration  given  to  the  attainment  of  the 
rights  to  which  it  is  entitled  and  to  the  abolition  of  the  wrongs  from 
which  it  has  suffered,  must  organize  and  possess  power. 

The  assertion  of  the  aged  Richard  Milbank,  the  temporarily  re- 
tired chief  of  the  board  of  directors  of  the  Federated  Companies, 
that  he  will  resume  his  old  position  of  authority,  that  he  is  in  ac- 
cord with  Stedman,  with  the  intelligent,  kind-hearted  McCarthy, 
president  of  the  workmen's  organization,  that  both  Stedman  and 
McCarthy  realized  that  it  is  not  only  power,  but  consideration  and 
love,  that  will  win — it  is  Milbank 's  splendid  declaration  that  helps 
in  the  magnificent  denouement  when  he  says : 

"A  little  sentiment  and  a  little  compromise  is  an  absolute  neces- 
sity— damn  it,  let's  be  human!" 

Lines  Gompers  Listened  to  in  the  Play. 

MILBANK — Mathew,  I  don't  want  to  even  criticize;  you  and 
Thedford  are  handling  the  Federated  properties  very  skilfully.  The 
dividends  are  splendidly  large  and  all  that,  but  the  workmen  were 
more  satisfied  with  their  lot  in  your  father's  day.  I  don't  know — 
you  young  business  men  are  all  business.  There's  no  sentiment,  no 
compromise.  Good  God,  we're  only  here  for  a  hundred  years,  more 
or  less.  Can't  something  be  done  for 
the  men?  I  thought  when  I  retired 
from  business  that  I  should  be  free  from 
responsibility,  that  I  should  enjoy  peace 
and  happiness — instead  of 
which  what  happens?  At  this 
moment  over  a  million  men  are 
arrayed  against  us  in  a  struggle 
for  supremacy;  my  nephew 
married  to  a  woman  who 
squanders  his  patrimony  and 
disgraces  our  family  name;  and 
my  niece  in  love  with  a  stump 
orator  who  publicly  denounces 
us — our  business  methods — our 
very  existence.  A 
pretty  kettle  of  fish. 
And  you  two  stand 
there  like  a  pair  of 
obeli.sks. 

MATHEW  (To 
Stedman) — You,  the 
leader  of  a  band  of 
malcontents  whose 
sole  purjiose  in  life 

(Continued  on-page  189) 


THE    PANDEX 


189 


is  to  sow  seeds  of  discord  among  the  working 
classes,  to  get  them  to  rebel  against  established 
conditions!  You,  an  agitator,  the  friend  of  Jem 
Burress,  an  Anarchist  of  the  worst  type  1 

STEDMAN — The  great  masses  are  utterly 
ignorant  of  the  real  conditions  of  life  and  they 
need  some  one  in  whom  they  trust  to  show  how 
to  progress  without  destroying  everything  in  their 
eagerness  to  attain  their  object.  If  I — if  I  re- 
sign my  position  in  the  Interstate  Federation  and 
become  a  corporation  lawyer- — if  I  help  the  cor- 
poration to  evade  the  law  as  your  uncle  has  sug- 
gested— don't  you  see  how  it  would  hurt  the 
cause — of  the  people.  It  would  look  as  though 
none  of  their  leaders  could  be  trusted — as  if  we 
were  as  lacking  in  sincerity  as  the  men  we  ac- 
cuse. 

BURRESS  (To  Martin)— You  needn't  mister 
me.  I  know  who  you  are,  and  I  want  to  tell 
you,  my  friend,  right  here — if  you  ask  me  to 
sign  any  more  petitions  opposing  the  action  of 
the  General  Council  you'll  lose  your  standing. 
See?  I  don't  want  to  interfere,  understand — 
all  men  have  equal  rights  and  privileges,  but  we 


want  no  anarchy — no  kickers — you  trust  your 
leaders,  don't  you? 

STOLBECK— We  know  more  than  you  do  or 
we  wouldn't  be  leaders.  Instead  of  studying 
your  Bible,  study  your  Karl  Marx — your  Jack 
London — ^your  Eugene  Debs — and  you  will  know 
something,  too. 

LACKETT — Intellectual  energy,  my  dear  fel- 
low, is  what  qualifies  a  man  for  leadership.  We 
have  intellect,  plus  energy — you  men  have  energy 
but  nothing  to  direct  it— you  must  follow  those 
who  have. 

BURRESS — ^We  have  an  equal  right  to  hap- 
piness and  we  claim  that  right.  Our  political 
democracy  is  a  mask  behind  which  industrial 
plutocracy  tries  to  hide  itself.  We  produce 
everything  and  get  nothing — you  produce  nothing 
and  get  everything. 

M'CARTHY— Come  now,  we've  got  this  far 
— let's  go  on — leave  the  question  of  recognition 
to  the  last. 

BURRESS — No — we  have  them  whipped  now 
— the  bottom  is  out  of  the  stock  market — there 
is  nothing  doing  and  we've  got  'em  going,  I  tell 
you. 


Rockefeller  as  "King  of  the  Republic" 


MAXIM   GORKY  PUBLISHES   AN    IMAGINATIVE    INTERVIEW    WITH 
THE  MASTER  OF  AMERICAN  BUSINESS. 


STUNG  by  unceasing  criticism  and  appar- 
ently astonished  that  his  character  and 
motives  should  be  impugned,  Mr.  Rockefeller 
comes  before  the  public  more  and  more,  either 
thru  a  regular  press  agent  or  thru  his  own 
power  to  command  attention,  in  the  light  of 
his  religious  piety,  his  personal  companion- 
ableness  and  his  other  attributes  which  are 
inconsistent  with  the  black  lines  in  which  he 
has  been  painted  hitherto.  Here,  however, 
follows  an  imaginary  view  of  the  Oil  King 
as  Maxim  Gorky  sees  him.  It  is  from  the 
New  York  American: 

London. — Maxim  Gorky  has  begun  the  publica- 
tion of  a  series  of  imaginative  interviews  here. 
The  first  is  entitled  "One  of  the  Kings  of  the 
Republic. ' ' 

"The  steel  kings,  petroleum  kings,  and  all 
other  kings   of  the  United   States   have   always 


been  confused  in  my  imagination, ' '  writes  Gorky. 
"I  couldn't  think  of  such  persons  as  being  or- 
dinary men." 

Then  Gorky  depicts  his  conception  of  the 
American  millionaire  as  a  Gargantuan  person  of 
extraordinary  appetite,  with  an  inordinate  desire 
to  possess  everything  in  the  world.  From 
Gorky's  description  of  his  millionaire  it  is  easy 
to  see  that  he  is  personifying  John  D.  Rocke- 
feller. 

"Face  of  a  New-Bom  Child." 

"My  astonishment  may  be  imagined,"  says 
Gorky,  "when  I  found  that  this  millionaire  is 
one  of  the  simplest  of  men.  In  an  easy  chair 
before  me  sat  this  long,  thin,  old  man,  who 
clasped  his  wrinkled  hands  on  his  waist. 

' '  The  withered  skin  of  his  face  was  carefully 
shaven.  His  lower  lip,  drooping  in  tired  fashion, 
disclosed  a  pair  of  well-made  jaws,  with  golden 
teeth.  His  upper  lip  is  cleanly  shaven, 
bloodless  and  thin,  and  clung  close  to  his 
teeth,  hardly  moving  when  the  old  man  spoke. 
His  lusterless  eyes  have  no  brows,  and  his  head 
was  bald.      It   seemed    as    if  this  face    lacked 


190 


THE     PANDEX 


skin.  Ruddy,  motionless,  and  shining  as  it  was, 
it  reminded  one  of  the  face  of  a  newborn  child. 
It  was  hard  to  determine  whether  this  human 
being  was  beginning  life  or  approaching  the 
end." 

Makes  Money  to  Make  More. 

After  expressing  his  astonishment  on  learning 
that  the  millionaire  ate  frugally,  Gorky  con- 
tinues : 

"  'Then,  what  do  you  do  with  your  money?' 
I  asked.  He  shrugged  his  shoulders  and  an- 
swered:    'I  make  more  money  with  it.' 

"  'Why?'  I  asked. 

"  'To   make   still   more,'   he   answered. 

"  'Why?'  I  repeated. 

"He  leaned  toward  me  and  asked,  'Are  you 
mad?' 

"  'And  you?'  I  answered,  interrogatively.  The 
old  man  bowed  his  head  and  muttered :  '  Strange 
man.  It  is,  perhaps,  the  first  time  I've  seen 
such  a  one.' 

"  'What  do  you  do?'  I  asked. 

"  'I  make  money,'    he  said,  bluntly. 

"  'How  do  you  make  money?'  I  asked. 

"  'Oh,'  he  said,  nodding,  'it's  very  simple.  I 
possess  railways.  Farmers  produce  goods.  I 
put  these  on  the  market.  Now  I  must  see  how 
much  money  to  leave  the  farmer  so  that  he  will 
not  starve,  and  will  continue  working,  and  I 
take  the  rest  as  my  tariff  for  transportation.  It 's 
very  simple.' 

"  'Are   the   farmers   satisfied?'   I   asked. 

"  'Not  all  I  think,'  he  said  with  childish 
simplicity,  'but  it  is  said  men  are  always  dis- 
satisfied with  everything.  There  are  funny  fel- 
lows everywhere  who  are  always  grumbling.' 

"  'Doesn't  the  Government  prevent  you?'  I 
asked  modestly. 

"  'The  Government?'  he  repeated  thought- 
fully. Then  he  nodded  as  if  a  fine  idea  sudden- 
ly had  struck  him.  'Ah,  the  people  in  Washing- 
ton? No,  they  don't  hinder  me;  they're  nice 
young  fellows;  some  belong  to  my  club,  but  I 
do  not  often  see  them,  so  I'm  apt  to  forget  them. 
No,  they  do  not  hinder  me,'  he  repeated,  and 
then  asked,  'Are  there  any  governments  which 
hinder  people  from  making  money?'  I  felt  eon- 
fused  in  my  heartlessness  and  his  wisdom. 

"Idealism  Doesn't  Work  Here." 

"  'No,'  I  said.  'You  see,  I  only  thought  gov- 
ernments sometimes  must  forbid  open  robbery.' 

"  'Ahem,'  he  said,  'that's  idealism.  It  doesn't 
work  here.  The  Government  has  not  the  right 
to  interfere  in  private  affairs.' 

"  'Then,  if  many  people  are  ruined  by  one,  is 
that  a  private  affair?'  I  asked. 

"  'Ruined?'  he  repeated.  'Ruined?  Yes,  if 
workmen  are  dear  and  if  they  strike;  but  there 
are  immigrants  here.  They  always  reduce  work- 
men's pay  and  take  the  places  of  strikers. 
When  there  are  enough  of  them  who  work  cheap- 
ly and  buy  necessaries  largely  everything  is  all 
right.' 

"He  became  somewhat  livelier.  His  harsh 
voice  sounded  more  quickly.  'A  good  govern- 
ment,'  he   went   on,   'is   a  necessity.     It   solves 


problems.  There  must  be  as  many  people  in  the 
country  as  I  need  in  order  that  they  buy  what 
I  want  to  sell.  There  must  be  so  many  work- 
men that  I  shall  not  lack  any,  but  not  one  too 
many.  Then  there  would  be  a  socialistic  gov- 
ernment. The  government  must  not  tax  peo- 
ple highly. 

"Soldiers  to  Enforce  Laws." 

"  'I  take  everything  the  people  can  give. 
That's  what  I  call  a  good  government.  It  is 
necessary  for  me  that  order  should  reign.  Gov- 
ernment at  small  cost  engages  various  phil- 
osophers, who  teach  people  at  least  eight  hours 
every  Sunday  to  obey  the  laws.  If  philosophers 
do  not  suffice,  they  use  soldiers.  The  method  is 
of  no  consequence,  but  the  result  is  important. 
The  consumer  and  workman  must  be  obliged  to 
keep  the  law,  that's  all.' 

"I  asked,  'Are  you  satisfied  with  the  present 
government?' 

"He  did  not  answer  immediately,  then  said: 
'  It  does  less  than  it  can  do.  I  say  immigrants 
must  be  allowed  to  come  in.  We  have  political 
freedom,  which  they  enjoy,  and  that  must  be  paid 
for.  Each  immigrant  should  bring  in  $500.  A 
man  with  $500  is  ten  times  as  good  as  a  man  with 
only  $50.  Tramps,  beggars,  invalids  and  other 
sluggards  are  not  wanted  anywhere.' 

' '  Enough  Americans  Now. ' ' 
"  'But  that  lessens  the  number  of  immigrants,' 
I  interposed.  The  old  man  nodded,  answering, 
'Yes,  I  propose  to  close  the  country  to  them 
altogether,  in  time.  Now  everybody  may  bring 
money.  It  is  useful  for  the  country.  Then  we 
ought  to  increase  the  time  required  for  becoming 
a  citizen.  Afterward  we  must  abolish  natural- 
ization altogether.  Let  those  work  who  want  to, 
for  the  Americans,  but  it  doesn't  follow  that 
they  ought  to  get  the  right  of  American  citizen- 
ship. There  are  enough  Americans.  The  Gov- 
ernment must  be  differently  organized.  All  mem- 
bers of  the  Government  must  be  stockholders  in 
industrial  undertakings,  then  they'll  understand 
the  country's  interests  quicker  and  easier.  Now 
I'm  obliged  to  buy  senators  in  order  to  convince 
them  of  several  details  necessary  to  me.' 

Tells  of  Religious  Belief. 

"Now  that  his  political  views  were  clear,  I 
asked  what  he  thought  of  religion. 

"  'Oh,'  he  replied,  clapping  his  knee,  'I  think 
religion  is  necessary  for  the  people.  I  believe  in 
it  entirely.  I  even  preach  myself  on  Sundays. 
I  say  to  them:  "Dear  brothers  and  sisters,  all 
this  life  is  an  empty  void.  If  we  do  not  love  our 
neighbor,  whoever  he  may  be,  don't  leave  your 
hearts  in  the  power  of  evil  spirits  of  envy.  Of 
what  should  you  be  envious?  Earthly  goods  are 
illusions,  instruments  of  the  devil.  We  must  all 
die.  Rich  and  poor,  kings,  miners,  bankers,  are 
sweeps  in  paradise.  Perhaps  the  miners  will  be 
the  kings,  and  the  kings  the  sweeps.  Don 't  listen 
to  men  who  arouse  sinful  feeling  of  envy  and 
show  you  the  poverty  of  one  and  the  riches  of 
another. 

"  'These  men   are   ambassadors   of  the  devil. 


THE    PANDEX 


191 


THE   TICKER  IN  RAILROADING 


MOT Tor 

'  WT/wr  NOT  m 

MeAttM    OR  FOfl. 
ANt  ^DY  clue's 


WML  STREET  OFFICE 
Ol'  THE 
GOLD  LUST  TWINS 


STEEL  CARS, EH? 

SAFE  But  Too  expen-  i 

SIVE.  they'd  CUT  OUR 
DIVIDENDS  IN  Two" 


The  Master  Pays  Too  Much  Attention  to  It. 


The  Man  Pays  Too  Little. 


— Chicago  Tribune. 


192 


THE    PANDEX 


Don't  listen  to  sermons  about  equality  and  other 
inventions  of  the  devil.  What's  the  meaning  of 
equality  here  on  earth?  Only  to  strive  to  equal- 
ize each  other  in  purity  of  soul,  to  bear  your 
cross  patiently.  Obedience  will  lighten  your 
burden.  Heaven's  with  you,  my  children;  you 
need   nothing  more.' 

"The  old  man  became  silent;  looked  at  me 
triumphantly,   his   golden   teeth   glittering. 

"  'You  understand  how  to  make  use  of  relig- 
ion,' I  observed. 

"  'Yes,  I  know  its  value,'  he  said.  'Religion 
is  necessary  for  the  poor.  I  like  it.  Religion  is 
an  oil.  The  more  we  oil  life's  machine  with  it, 
the  less  friction  we  will  have,  and  the  easier  will 
be  the  engineer's  work.' 

"  'You  think  you  are  a  Christian?'  I  asked. 

"  'Of  course,'  he  answered,  'but  I  am  an 
American  at  the  same  time,  and  as  such,  a  strict 
moralist. ' 

"Millionaires  Ought  to  Govern." 

"  'What  do  you  think  about  the  socialists?'  I 
asked.  'They're  servants  of  the  devil,'  he  re- 
plied. 'There  should  be  no  socialists  in  good  gov- 
ernment. They  originate  in  America.  People 
at  Washington  do  not  understand  their  task 
clearly.  They  ought  to  refuse  civil  rights  to 
socialists.  A  government  must  have  the  interests 
of  life  more  at  heart.  All  its  members  ought  to 
be  chosen  from  the  ranks  of  the  millionaires  to 
fight  socialists.  We  must  have  more  religion  and 
soldiers'  religion  against  atheism,  soldiers 
against  anarchy.  Krst  we  pour  the  lead  of  ec- 
clesiasticism  into  his  head.  If  that  doesn't  cure, 
then  soldiers  pour  lead  into  his  body.' 

Buys  Art,  Like  Poetry. 

"  'What  do  you  think  of  art?'  I  asked.  He 
looked  at  me  childishly.  'What  do  you  say?'  he 
asked.  '  I  asked  what  you  thought  of  art. '  '  Oh, ' 
he  answered,  quietly,  'I  don't  think  about  it.  I 
simply  buy  it.' 

"  'How  do  you  like  poetry?'  I  asked.  'I  like 
poetry  very  well,'  he  said.  'Life  is  jolly  when 
they  write  advertisements  in  verse.' 

"  'What's  your  favorite  book,  excluding,  of 
course,  the  check  book?'  I  asked.  'I  love  two 
books,'  he  said,  'the  Bible  and  my  general  ac- 
count book.    Both  raise  my  spirits. ' 

"I  stood  up  to  go.  'Tell  me,'  I  asked,  'what 
is  there  in  being  a  millionaire?' 

"  'It's  a  habit,'  he  answered. 

"  'Do  you  think  tramps,  opium  smokers,  and 
millionaires  belong  to  the  same  order  of  crea- 
tion,' I  asked.  That  offended  him  and  he  said: 
'You're  an  ill-mannered  person.' 

"I  started  to  leave.  'Are  there  any  super- 
fluous kings  in  Europe?'  he  asked.  'They're  all 
superfluous,'  I  said.  'I  should  like  to  hire  a 
couple  of  kings,'  he  said. 

"  'What  for?'  I  asked.  'For  fun,'  he  an- 
swered. 'What  do  you  think  it  will  cost  to  have 
two  kings  box  here  half  an  hour  daily  for  three 
months?'  " 


A    WAIL. 

Our  laws  are  being  Bryanized, 

and  Ryanized 
and  Zionized. 

Our  sports  are  being  candified 

or  dandified 
and  Andified. 

Our  art  is  all  a  mockery 

of  Bokery — 
Ccmstockery. 

Good   words   that   Shakespeare   credited 
are  edited 
and  Teddited. 

We're  cursed  with  Castellanity, 
insanity 
and  vanity. 

Our  industries  are  dustifled 

or  trustified 
or  bustified. 

Or  else  they're  superorganized 

and    Morganized 
and  gorgonized. 

But  courage!  heart,  and  do  not  fret; 
Depew  and  Piatt  are  with  us  yet. 

— New  York  Times. 


STORY  OF  THE  RICH  MAN. 

De  rich  man  eat  his  'possum. 

En  Latherus  at  de  gate; 
De  rich  man  say:   "Dis  'possum  good — 

I'll  set  up  wid  him  late!" 

De  Night,  hit  keep  a-comin' — 

De  shadders  creep  en  creep; 
01'  Latherus  so  hongry 

He  dunno  whar  he'll  sleep. 

De  rich  man  say:    "Dat  Latherus 

Hez  got  ter  go  his  ways ; 
I'll  sen'  him  ter  de  stockade, 

En  give  him  thirty  days!" 

En  den  all  er  a  sudden 

01'  Satan's  voice  he  know; 
He  says:   "Put  by  dat  'possum — 

Hit's  come  yo'  time  ter  go!" 

En  den,  whar  wuz  de  rich  man? 

Oh,  ever'  sinner  knows! 
He  in  de  fire  department 

Whar  dey  don 't  turn  on  de  hose. 

— Atlanta  Constitution. 


THE    PANDEX 


193 


COMBINATION  OF  THE  ELEMENTS  AND 

OF  COMMERCIAL  CIRCUMSTANCE 

AND    CONSPIRACY  TO  WORK 

HARDSHIPS  UPON  ALL 

CLASSES 


RAILROAD  CAR  SHORTAGE  GIVEN  AS  EXCUSE  FOR  A  FUEL 
FAMINE  IN  THE  MIDST  OF  SEVERE  WINTER.    UNINTER- 
RUPTED RISE  IN  PRICES  OF  NECESSITIES 
INCREASES  THE  SUFFERING 


IF  OBJECT  lesson  were  needed  to  impress 
the  critical  nature  of  the  issue  between 
Harriman  and  Roosevelt,  as  outlined  in  the 
preceding  symposium  in  this  issue  of  The 
Pandex,  the  amazing  conditions  in  the  west- 
em  coal  fields,  in  the  national  arena  of 
prices,  and  in  the  atmospheric  world  of 
climate  have  served  to  drive  the  considera- 
tion of  the  hour  home  to  everyone.  While 
the  "prosperity"  of  the  country  has  been 
creating  an  alleged  shortage  of  transporta- 
tion equipment  those  who  use  the  misfortune 
of  others  to  increase  their  own  wealth  have 
been  giving  the  car  shortage  as  an  excuse  for 
a  widespread  and  cruel  famine  and  advance 
in  prices  of  fuel ;  and  it  appears  to  have  mat- 
tered little  to  them  that  the  season  has  been 


unduly  cold  and  miserable.  Selfishness  has 
had  its  full  sway;  and  the  only  forceful 
enemy  of  it  has  been  the  redoubtable  occu- 
pant of  the  White  House. 

MAY  COST  MANY  LIVES 

Farmers  in  Northwest  to  Ask  for  Troops  to  Save 
Them  from  Freezing. 

Something  of  the  tragic  possibilities  of  the 
selfishness  in  the  coal  fields  was  reflected  in 
the  reports  of  the  New  York  World,  as 
follows : 

Minneapolis,  Dec.  14. — With  the  cold-wave 
signal  flying,  the  coal  shortage  in  the  Northwest 
becomes  not  only  a  cause  of  severe  suffering,  but 
an  absolute  menace  to  human  life. 

Glenburn,  N.  D.,  is  seriously  considering  an 
appeal  to   the  governors   of  North  Dakota  and 


194 


THE     PANDEX 


Minnesota  to  employ  the  state  militia  in  forc- 
ing the  movement  of  coal  trains.  Eveleth,  Minn., 
faces  darkness  and  suffering  through  deprivation 
of  coal  and  apprehensive  reports  have  come  from 
many  other  places. 

The  Glenburn  situation  is  summed  up  in  a 
statement  from  the  Glenburn  Commercial  Club 
as  follows : 

"The  dealers  advise  that  the  situation  is  en- 
tirely up  to  the  railroads,  as  shippers  are  unable 
to  obtain  ears  to  load  with  coal.    To-dav  we  will 


FAMINE  FELT  IN  CANADA 


Export  Coal  to  United  States  While  Hundreds 
Freeze. 

That  the  range  of  the  fuel  famine  was 
more  than  national  was  reflected  in  the  fol- 
lowing from  the  Chicago  Tribune : 

Ottawa,  Canada,  December  13. — In  the  discus- 
sion in  the  House  of  Commons    on   Saskatehe- 


The  Employer — Be  grateful!    See  how  I'm  raising  you  that  you  may  keep  up  with  my  In- 
creased-Cost-of-Living-Balloon. 

— International  Syndicate. 


wire  Governor  Searles  requesting  him  to  take 
up  the  matter  with  Governor  Johnson,  of  Minne- 
sota, and  if  necessary  call  out  the  militia  of  the 
two  states  to  run  coal  trains. 

"The  situation  all  through  this  section  is  des- 
perate, and  with  the  liability  of  blizzards  at  any 
time  many  may  freeze  to  death  if  fuel  is  not 
available  soon.  Farmers  are  already  coming  to 
town  with  reports  of  burning  sheds  and  other 
out-houses  for  fuel." 


wan's  coal  famine,  President  Roosevelts'  refer- 
ences to  government  ownership  in  his  recent  mes- 
sage to  Congress  were  cited  by  Mr.  Roche,  con- 
servative, as  an  example  Sir  Wilfrid  Laurier 
would  do  well  to  adopt  in  regard  to  Canada's 
vast  unworked  coal  areas  in  the  West. 

The  discussion  arose  in  a  motion  by  Mr.  Heron, 
conservative,  declaring  that  the  coal  lands 
owned  by  Canada  should  only  be  alienated  under 
such  conditions  as  would  insure  a  supply  of  coal 


THE     PANDEX 


195 


THE    MODERN    BLOCK    (HEAD)    SYSTEM. 
As  Some  Railroad  Companies  Appear  to  Apply  It. 

— Chicago  News. 


196 


THE    PANDEX 


to  the  people  at  all  times  adequate  to  their  re- 
quirements. It  was  shown  that  the  coal  famine 
had  caused  great  suifering  to  thousands  of  set- 
tlers, and  this,  coupled  with  the  scarcity  and 
heavy  cost  of  lumber  for  building,  resulting  from 
combines  and  the  car  famine,  had  brought  about 
conditions  so  serious  as  to  endanger  the  develop- 
ment of  the  country. 

Thousands  of  tons  of  Canadian  coal  were  being 
exported  from  the  Alberta  mines  to  the  United 
States  by  J.  J.  Hill  and  other  American  million- 
aires while  the  families  of  settlers  in  Saskatche- 
wan were  in  danger  of  freezing  to  death  for  want 
of  fuel.  The  majority  of  settlers,  even  the  com- 
paratively well  to  do,  are  forced  to  live  in 
houses,  according  to  Mr.  Heron,  that  do  not 
protect  them  from  the  weather. 


STARVATION  BEHIND  FAMINE 


Suffering  Northwestern  Cities  Faced  Shortage  in 
Food  Supply. 

Still  another  picture  of  the  scope  and  sig- 
nificance of  the  coal  shortage  was  shown  in 
the  following  in  the  Chicago  Record-Herald : 

Minneapolis,  December  19. — Danger  of  starva- 
tion is  now  added  to  the  horrors  of  the  fuel 
famine  in  the  Northwest.  The  already  inade- 
quate railroad  service  has  been  interrupted  by 
the  cold  and  blizzards  on  the  western  prairies, 
and  now  several  towns  are  not  only  suffering 
from  lack  of  fuel,  but  are  short  of  food.  The 
situation  at  Ambrose,  N.  D.,  is  declared  to  be 
desperate.  A  telegram  from  the  Citizens'  Com- 
mittee there,  received  to-day,  says: 

"Ambrose  is  without  coal  and  provisions. 
Twenty  cars  of  fuel  and  food  in  the  hands  of  the 
railway  company  must  be  brought  here  by  special 
train  at  once  in  order  to  relieve  the  situation  or 
great  suffering  will  result.  Have  wired  the  gen- 
eral manager  of  the  Soo  Line,  but  no  assurance 
of  relieving  present  needs  has  been  secured." 


FUEL  FAMINE  A  CONSPIRACY 

Commissioner  Declares  That  Northwest  Dealers 
Are  in  Plot  to  Boom  Coal. 

Up  to  the  time  that  The  Pandex  went  to 
press  nothing  conclusive  had  been  offered  in 
evidence  as  to  the  manner  in  which  the  coal 
shortage  was  brought  about,  but  the  general 
consensus  of  opinion  was  that  it  was  en- 
tirely artificial  and  uncalled  for.  The  fol- 
lowing from  the  New  York  Herald  reflected 
the  ofiScial  view  of  the  Interstate  Commerce 
Commission : 

Washington,  D.  C,  January  3. — "Throughout 
this   inquiry   the   thought    has    repeatedly   sug- 


gested itself  that  many  of  the  problems  pre- 
sented must  rest  in  the  character  and  intelli- 
gence of  the  railroad  managers — their  foresight, 
initiative  adaptability,  and  public  spirit." 

This  paragraph,  written  by  Commissioner 
Lane,  epitomizes  the  report  which  the  Interstate 
Commerce  Commission  has  rendered  to  the  Presi- 
dent on  the  subject  of  the  car  shortage  in  the 
Northwest. 

The  fuel  famine  in  North  Dakota  is  attributed 
to  a  conspiracy  of  wholesale  and  retail  dealers 
to  "maintain  prices  and  boycott  all  who  do  not 
agree."  The  indisputable  proof  which  the  Com- 
mission says  it  has  of  this  will  be  handed  to  the 
Department  of  Justice,  which,  it  is  expected,  will 
be  at  once  directed  to  bring  proceedings  under 
the  Sherman  Law  forbidding  combination  in  re- 
straint of  trade.  This  combination  operates  in 
North  Dakota,  Minnesota,  and  Wisconsin. 

The  fact  that  but  thirty-eight  per  cent  of  the 
grain  crop  of  North  Dakota  has  been  shipped  to 
market  and  that  millions  of  bushels  lie  under 
snow  on  the  fields  is  laid  to  the  policy  of  the 
railroads  of  the  Northwest,  including  the  Great 
Northern  and  Northern  Pacific,  in  showing  pref- 
erence to  long  hauls  and  in  subordinating  time 
of  transportation  to  tonnage  transported. 

Commissioners  Lane  and  Harlan  conducted 
the  investigation  at  Minneapolis  and  Chicago. 

Referring  to  the  report  that  the  coal  shortage 
was  due  to  the  presence  of  a  trust  or  combination 
between  dealers  in  coal  who  fixed  prices  in  the 
Northwest  and  refused  to  sell  to  'outsiders'  and 
'irregulars,'  the  report  says: 

"The  Commission  has  gained  indisputable 
proof  of  an  agreement  between  coal  dealers  to 
maintain  prices,  and  to  boycott  all  who  do  not  so 
agree;  but  there  is  no  evidence  at  all  justifying 
the  contention  that  this  combination  is  charge- 
able with  the  coal  shortage  prevailing  nor  that 
the  railroads  were  party  in  any  way  to  such  a 
conspiracy." 


SOUTHWEST  LOSING  MILLIONS 


Lumber,   Cotton,   and  Other  Products  Piled  Up 
at  Every  Siding,  Shippers  Say. 

Another  picture  of  the  extent  of  the  disas- 
ter wrought  by  the  fuel  famine  was  given-  as 
follows  in  the  St.  Louis  Republic : 

The  hearing  conducted  by  Interstate  Com- 
missioner C.  A.  Prouty,  assisted  by  P.  J.  Farrell, 
relative  to  the  general  freight  congestion,  brought 
out  statements  by  shippers  that  strikingly  re- 
sembled the  complaints  in  the  North  and  the 
Northwest  about  the  fuel  famine. 

While  the  reports  from  North  Dakota  and 
other  states  emphasize  physical  suffering  and 
want,  however,  the  testimony  at  the  hearing 
here  charged  the  railroads  with  responsibility 
for  great  financial  losses  to  farmers,  manufac- 
turers, cattle  men,  cotton  growers,  lumber  deal- 
ers, and  merchants.     The  relators  declared  that 


THE    PANDEX 


197 


WHAT    THE    FUEL    FAMINE  IS   COMING  TO 

— Bellingham  Bay  Herald. 


the  losses  caused  by  freight  congestion  are  ines- 
timable. 

The  car  shortage  in  Texas  has  paralyzed  the 
grain  industry  of  the  state  and  practically 
ruined,  in  several  instances,  dealers  and  growers, 
who  are  considering  the  advisability  of  discon- 
tinuing business,  according  to  the  testimony  of 
W.  0.  Brackett,  chairman  of  the  Arbitration 
Committee  of  the  Texas  Grain  Dealers'  Associa- 
tion. 

Mr.  Brackett  read  a  series  of  letters  from  firms 
in  various  cities.  He  blamed  not  only  the  lack 
of  transportation  facilities,  but  the  policy  of  cer- 
tain railroads  in  refusing  free  interchange  of 
cars  at  junction  points.  This,  he  stated,  causes 
the  most  aggravating  and  costly  delays,  and  he 
suggested  that  the  Commission  evolve  some 
method  by  which  it  may  be  eliminated. 

Mr.  Brackett  told  of  one  grower  in  Oklahoma, 
who  for  two  months  had  had  stored  in  temporary 
bins  on  the  ground  sixty  thousand  bushels  of 
corn,  representing  $20,000.  This  man  wrote  that 
he  expected  "comparative  ruin,"  as  he  was  abso- 
lutely unable  to  obtain  cars  in  which  to  ship  his 
crops  to  market,  and  must  hold  his  corn  until 
proper  transportation  is  available. 


SHIPPERS  PARTLY  TO  BLAME 


Chairman  of  Commission  Asserts  Roads  Can  Not 
Handle  Traffic. 

Distribution  of  fault,  of  course,  always  is 

to  be  found  in  any  crisis,  and  that  blame 

attaches  other  than  to  the  railroads  in  the 

car  shortage  is  set  forth  in  the  following 

from  the  Philadelphia  North  American: 

Washington. — Shippers  of  the  country,  accord- 
ing to  Chairman  Knapp,  of  the  Interstate  Com- 
merce Commission,  are  quite  as  much  to  blame 
as  the  railroads  for  the  shortage  of  freight  cars 
which  has  created  such  a  furore  throughout  the 
country  during  the  past  few  weeks. 

Judge  Knapp  said  that,  while  the  acute  stage 
has  been  passed  in  the  Northwest  and  in  the 
southwestern  states,  the  situation  is  still  very 
grave. 

"In  that  growing  region,"  said  the  Chief  Com- 
missioner, "prosperity  is  so  great  and  crops  so 
heavy  that  the  railroads  are  swamped.  They 
have  often  neither  cars  nor  track  facilities  to 
handle  the  traffic  offered  for  transportation.   But 


198 


THE    PANDEX 


lack  of  ears,  although  not  the  only  difficulty,  is, 
of  course,  the  greatest. 

"If  the  shippers  would  load  and  unload  cars 
with  less  delay,  the  car  shortage  question  would 
be  solved,  to  a  great  extent. 

"Co-operation  on  the  part  of  the  shipper  in 
avoiding  all  unnecessary  delay  in  loading  and 
unloading  is  absolutely  essential,  therefore,  to 
even  an  approximate  solution  of  the  vexatious 
problem  of  ear  shortage." 

In  fact,  since  Congress  has  called  upon  the 
Interstate  Commerce  Commission  to  suggest  leg- 
islation which  will  prevent  car  shortage,  and 
since  investigation  has  disclosed  the  responsi- 
bility of  the  shipper  in  the  matter  of  delays,  in 
order  to  eradicate  the  evil  it  would  seem  that  the 
National  Government  might  have  to  go  into  the 
business  of  regulating  shippers  as  well  as  rail- 
roads. While  this  may  seem  absurd,  yet  on  the 
face  of  the  returns  there  is  ample  ground  for  the 
statement. 


J.  J.  HILL  ON  COAL  FAMINE 


He  Says  That  a  Storm  and  Zero  Weather  at  First 
Delayed  Trains. 

An  ex-parte  view  of  the  whole  situation  is 
the  following  interview  with  James  J.  Hill, 
taken  from  the  New  York  Sun : 

Washington. — James  J.  Hill,  president  of  the 
Great  Northern  Railway  Company,  in  a  letter 
received  by  a  friend  in  Washington  throws 
additional  light  on  the  cause  of  the  alleged  coal 
famine  in  the  Northwest.    The  letter  says: 

"The  commission  was  here  and  after  three 
days'  investigation  they  found  that  in  a  very 
stormy  week,  with  the  thermometer  at  from 
thirty-five  to  thirty-eight  degrees  below  zero,  it 
was  difficult  to  move  trains  and  to  keep  open 
some  of  the  branch  lines.  Our  company  has 
moved  into  the  section  affected  this  year  nearly 
ninety  thousand  tons  more  coal  than  last  year. 
Yesterday  the  Commission  received  reports  from 
all  points  from  which  complaints  have  been  re- 
ceived to  the  effect  that  coal  was  being  supplied 
rapidly.  Speaking  for  the  Great  Northern,  I 
think  to-day  there  are  from  sixty  thousand  to 
eighty  thousand  tons  of  coal  in  loaded  cars  west- 
bound from  the  head  of  Lake  Superior  which  are 
rapidly  reaching  destination.  This  would  supply 
North  Dakota  at  the  rate  of  any  previous  con- 
sumption until  March  1,  but  the  people  in  that 
section  have  been  very  prosperous  and  those  who 
have  heretofore  used  local  lignites,  which  are 
mined  in  their  neighborhood,  have  changed  to 
better  qualities  of  coal." 

Mr.  Hill  enclosed  a  letter  which  he  had  re- 
ceived from  a  merchant  in  Staples,  Minn.,  in 
which  the  writer  said: 

"If  the  coal  dealers  in  the  Northwest  would 
prepare  for  winter  as  the  dry-goods  dealers  do 
there  would  not  be  such  a  howl  about  car  short- 
age.   I  buy  my  winter  stock  in  July,  August,  and 


September.  The  coal  man  waits  until  November. 
I  am  surprised  that  the  railroads  have  handled 
traffic  as  well  as  they  have,  considering  the  de- 
mands made  upon  them.  When  retail  coal  deal- 
ers refuse  to  lay  in  a  supply  of  fuel  early  the 
wholesale  dealer  should  sell  direct  in  car  lots  to 
the  consumer.  This  they  refused  to  do  in  the 
past.  It  would  be  the  solution  of  the  whole  prob- 
lem." 


HIGH  PRICES  FOR  EVERY  NECESSITY 


Universal  Cry  for  Relief  From  Additional  Bur- 
dens Upon  Reasonable  Existence. 

While  the  coal  situation  was  so  pressing, 
and  while  in  all  parts  of  the  country  people 
were  complaining  of  the  pinch  of  rising 
prices  and  the  inadequacy  of  the  rising 
wage,  the  New  York  World,  thru  its  mul- 
tiple correspondents,  was  able  to  present  the 
following  comprehensive  survey  of  the  Amer- 
ican field: 

Investigation  by  World  correspondents  in  all 
parts  of  the  country  as  to  the  increase  of  wages 
and  salaries  as  compared  with  the  increase  in  the 
cost  of  living  indicates  that  generally  the  wage 
increase  has  not  kept  pace  with  the  cost  of  the 
necessaries  of  life.  It  is  also  shown  that  while 
incomes  have  been  liberally  advanced  within  only 
recent  months,  the  cost  of  living  has  been  increas- 
ing for  five  or  six  years,  and  has  now  reached 
the  maximum  for  a  quarter  of  a  century. 

The  people  of  some  of  the  states  are  extremely 
prosperous  and  satisfied,  but  the  cry  from  nearly 
every  section  is  that  present  incomes  are  not 
sufficient  to  meet  the  reasonable  demands  of  liv- 
ing. 

Fails  to  Better  Conditions. 


Cleveland.— Despite  the  large  number  of  work- 
ing men  who  have  received  an  advance  in  wages 
in  the  last  year,  industrial  conditions  are  pro- 
nounced but  little  better  than  they  were  a  year 
ago.  According  to  reports  in  the  hands  of  Harry 
D.  Thomas,  secretary  of  the  United  Trades  and 
Labor  Council,  the  larger  cost  of  living  more  than 
counterbalances  the  increase  paid  to  union  men. 

In  order  to  equalize  the  differential  between 
the  cost  of  living  and  wages,  a  campaign  of  or- 
ganization is  being  conducted  with  the  intention 
of  uniting  the  independent  workers  and  strength- 
ening the  movement  for  better  conditions. 

Hoosiers  Ahead  of  Expenses. 


Indianapolis. — Experts  declare  that  the  ad- 
vance in  the  cost  of  living  is  going  on  in  such  a 
way  that  it  will  demonstrate  itself  in  the  figures 
of  future  statistics  in  an  alarming  manner.  At 
present,  taking  the  entire  state,  inquiry  shows  an 
average  advance  in  wages  of  about  ten  per  cent, 
and  an  advance  in  living  hardly  six  per  cent. 


THE    PANDEX 


199 


200 


THE     PANDEX 


Chicago  May  Come  Out  on  a  Level. 


Chicago,  December  26. — Professor  Albion  W. 
Small,  head  of  the  Sociology  Department  of  the 
University  of  Chicago,  says:  "Living  expenses 
are  higher  now  than  for  any  other  period  within 
twenty-six  years.  In  1881  they  reached  a  level 
in  many  channels  as  high  as  to-day.    Then  there 


from  every  city  in  the  state,  and  by  a  system  of 
points  has  worked  out  a  percentage  by  which,  in 
a  report  just  issued,  it  is  shown  that  the  net  in- 
crease in  the  price  of  these  commodities  is  ap- 
proximately 20.38  per  cent. 

A  comparison  of  prices  between  October  of  this 
year  and  the  corresponding  month  two  years  ago, 
shows  that  eighty-two  articles  of  food  show  an 


RUBBING  IT  IN. 


-Pittsburg  Gazette  Times. 


was  a  gradual  decline  until  ten  years  ago,  when 
the  advance  set  in.  During  that  time  the  wages 
of  skilled  labor  have  advanced  in  even  greater 
proportion  than  living  expenses.  The  wages  of 
unskilled  labor  have  not  had  the  same  advance. 
"For  the  last  three  years  the  railroads  have 
been  advancing  wages  of  employees  that  always 
have  been  paid  below  the  percentage  of  increase 
of  living  expenses,  and  this  year  the  indication 
is  that  the  increase  in  railroad  wages  will  equal 
the  percentage  of  increase  of  living  expenses." 

Foods  Cost  20.38  Per  Cent  More. 


Boston. — The  Massachusetts  Bureau  of  Statis- 
tics of  Labor,  investigating  the  increased  cost  of 
living,   has   obtained  prices    on    necessary  food 


increase  in  price,  fifty  a  decrease,  and  nine  no 
change.  In  the  increased  list  are  buckwheat,  rye 
and  Graham  flour,  black  tea,  cut  loaf  sugar,  mo- 
lasses, vinegar,  butter,  cheese,  eggs,  kidney  beans, 
rice,  sago,  meat  of  all  kinds,  several  varieties  of 
fish,  vegetables,  and  fruit. 

In  the  decrease  list  are  bread  and  pastry  flour, 
meal,  coffee,  green  and  mixed  tea,  cheaper  grades 
of  sugar,  the  better  grades  of  butter,  medium  and 
pea  beans,  split  peas,  starch,  oil,  pickles,  coal,  and 
wood. 

Rents  Up  in  Denver. 


Denver. — John  C.  Gallup  is  authority  for  the 
estimate  that  house  rents  have  increased  during 
the  past  year  in  Denver  about  eight  to  ten  per 


THE    PANDEX 


201 


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202 


THE     PANDEX 


cent.  The  cost  of  provisions  of  all  kinds  has 
been  also  materially  advanced  in  the  year.  Fuel 
is  about  the  same  as  in  1905.  Flour  is  slightly 
higher.  Sugar  and  meats  have  been  uniformly 
five  per  cent  hisrher  during  the  whole  year.  Some 
of  the  staple  meat  products  of  the  best  grades, 
especially  those  shipped  from  the  East,  have 
risen  eight  to  ten  per  cent.  Poultry  and  green 
truck  retained  the  high  prices  of  last  year  till 
Thanksgiving,  since  when  there  has  been  a  slight 
decrease.  Clothing  and  all  other  dry  goods  have 
not  decreased  any  from  the  marked  advance  of  a 
year  and  a  half  or  two  ago. 

Increase  in  Michigan  Only  Three  Cents. 


Detroit. — In  the  race  between  wages  and  the 
cost  of  living  in  Michigan  honors  went  to  the  lat- 
ter during  the  last  year.  The  Wolverine  State 
is  prospering,  as  the  great  increase  in  the  number 
of  employees  attests,  but  the  manufacturer,  capi- 
talist, farmer,  are  reaping  the  benefit  rather  than 
the  wage  earner  or  the  man  on  a  small  salary.  It 
is  estimated  that  the  increase  in  wages  for  the 
year  will  average  less  than  three  cents  per  day, 
obviously  an  insufficient  advance  to  meet  the  cost 
of  living. 

Wages  and  Cost  Unequal  in  Ohio. 


Cleveland. — Union  labor  in  Ohio  is  receiving, 
according  to  figures  by  H.  D.  Thomas,  secretary 
of  the  United  Trades  and  Labor  Council,  twenty 
per  cent  more  in  wages  than  they  were  five  years 
ago;  on  the  other  hand,  his  statistics  show  that 
provisions,  shoes,  clothing,  and  rents  have  ad- 
vanced more  than  thirty-five  per  cent  within  five 
years. 

Balance  Against  the  People. 


St.  Paul. — Incomplete  reports  of  the  State  La- 
bor Commission  show  that  the  increase  in  wages 
in  Minnesota  mines  and  factories  has  been  8  per 
cent  during  the  past  year,  mostly  in  the  mining 
and  lumbering  regions.  The  statistics  of  the  cost 
of  living,  says  the  Labor  Commission,  are  not  yet 
complete,  but  they  show  that  the  increase  in 
wages  has  not  kept  pace  with  the  increased  cost 
of  living,  not  mentioning  the  item  of  room,  flat, 
or  house  rent,  which  has  increased  tremendously. 

The  balance  is  against  the  workman,  trades- 
man, and  professional  man  by  a  five-per-cent  in- 
crease. Rents  have  advanced  twenty  to  twenty- 
five  per  cent,  though  building  operations  have  ad- 
vanced thirty-three  per  cent. 


Can't  Meet  Their  Expenses. 


Lewiston,  Me. — It  is  announced  by  the  mail 
agents  here  that  beginning  December  31  the 
wages  in  all  of  the  Lewiston  cotton  mills  will  ad- 
vance five  per  cent,  the  second  increase  of  wages 
in  these  mills  within  six  months,  as  last  August 
the  wages  were  voluntarily  advanced  five  per 
cent.  This  makes  a  total  of  ten  per  cent  increase 
during  the  last  half  of  the  year,  and  still  many 


of  the  employees  claim  that  their  income  is  insuf- 
ficient to  properly  support  their  families,  since 
the  cost  of  living  has  increased  double  the  in- 
crease in  wages. 

Many  of  the  operatives  are  running  behind 
this  winter,  and  hope  to  be  able  to  pay  next  sum- 
mer for  fuel  and  other  articles  now  being  bought 
on  credit. 

The  wages  in  the  Edwards  mills  at  Augusta, 
the  Biddeford  mills,  and  other  smaller  manufac- 
turing towns  have  been  recently  advanced,  mak- 
ing the  total  increase  for  the  year  about  ten  per 
cent.  In  all  of  these  places  careful  investigation 
shows  the  increase  of  living  to  be  not  less  than 
twenty  per  cent.  Many  of  the  mill  operatives 
have  gone  into  the  woods  to  work  this  winter  at 
good  pay  and  reduced  cost  of  living; 

Increase  in  Wages  Comes  All  at  Once. 


Milwaukee,  December  26. — Statistics  prepared 
by  Labor  Commissioner  J.  D.  Beck  show  that 
practically  all  of  the  increase  in  wages  in  Wis- 
consin in  the  past  ten  years  has  come  within  the 
past  three  months,  while  the  increase  in  the  cost 
of  living  has  been  gradual,  or  at  a  rate  of  a  little 
under  four  per  cent  a  year  for  the  past  five  years. 
The  increase  in  wages  per  man  since  1900  has 
been,  in  factories,  18.2  per  cent,  and  for  salaried 
employees  ten  per  cent.  The  cost  of  living  has 
increased  ten  per  cent  in  five  years. 

Big  Jump  Upward  in  Maine. 


Lewiston,  Me. — ^While  wages  to  employees  of 
the  leading  industries  of  the  state  have  been 
advanced  from  five  to  ten  per  cent  during  the 
past  year,  reliable  estimates  of  the  increased 
cost  of  living  place  the  increase  from  fifteen  to 
twenty-five  per  cent  higher  than  it  was  a  year 
ago.  Canned  goods,  fruits,  meats,  and  provisions 
of  all  kinds,  with  the  possible  exception  of  flour, 
have  advanced  upward  of  twenty  per  cent  dur- 
ing the  last  twelve  months;  clothing  is  from  fif- 
teen to  twenty  per  cent  higher,  and  all  other  ne- 
cessities ten  per  cent  or  more. 

Prices  High;  Wages  Not  EquaL 


Atlanta. — That  even  in  Atlanta,  the  most  pro- 
gressive city  of  the  state,  the  increase  in  wages 
during  the  past  year  has  not  kept  count  with  the 
increase  in  cost  of  living,  is  the  statement  of  ex- 
perts, while  the  rest  of  the  state  has  not  fared 
so  well  as  has  Atlanta.  All  over  the  state  the 
living  price  has  greatly  increased.  In  Atlanta 
rent  has  gone  to  the  skies,  and  both  luxuries  and 
necessities  in  food  have  vastly  increased. 

Nym  McCullough,  wholesale  merchant,  ^ays 
that  foodstuffs  are  far  more  expensive,  but  thinks 
that  the  increase  in  cost  of  living  is  only  slightly 
in  advance  of  the  increase  in  wages.  Mayor 
Woodward  declares  that  the  increase  in  both  has 
been  equal.  Jerome  Jones,  editor  of  the  Journal 
of  Labor,  says  that  within  the  last  five  or  six 
years  wages  have  increased  at  the  rate  of  twenty 
to  thirty-five  per  cent,  but  that  the  starting  point 


THE    PANDEX 


203 


was  unequal,  very  poor  wages  being  paid  before 
that  time.  He  says  that  rent  costs  at  least  five 
per  cent  more  in  Atlanta  than  in  Nashville,  and 
figures  an  increase  in  living  in  advance  of  the 
increase  in  return  for  work  done.  Everything 
costs  more. 

Costs  $1.66  Now  for  Tood  Once  Costing  $1.00. 

St.  Louis. — Inquiry  as  to  the  increased  cost  of 
living  among  merchants  of  all  kinds,  including 
those  who  fit  out  the  house  and  supply  the  table 
wants,  indicates  it  costs  as  much  now  to  feed 
three  persons  as  it  did  to  feed  five  persons  five 
years  ago.  In  other  words,  the  food  that  $1 
bought  five  years  ago  costs  $1.66  now. 

.    Virginia's  Increase  Pitifully  Small. 


it  may  be  said  that  the  purchasing  power  of  a 
dollar  is  not  so  gi-eat  to-day  as  it  was  the  first  of 
the  year,  notwithstanding  the  apparent  increase 
in  the  business  prosperity  of  the  state  and  of  the 
country. 

Prices  in  New  York. 


Richmond. — The  increase  in  wages  in  Virginia 
in  the  past  twelve  months  is  conservatively  esti- 
mated at  not  more  than  two  per  cent.  In  no. case 
has  there  been  an  increase  by  any  large  corpo- 
ration or  firm  in  excess  of  ten  per  cent.  Two 
railroads  have  announced  a  ten-per-cent  raise 
this  year.  One  or  two  large  manufacturing  con- 
cerns have  made  a  similar  announcement.  The 
greater  number  of  railroad  employees  and  fac- 
tory workers  have  received  no  increase  at  all.  If 
the  total  increase  in  the  few  instances  mentioned 
were  apportioned  among  all  the  men  and  women 
who  work  for  wages  the  average  increase  would 
probably  not  exceed  one  per  cent. 

The  cost  of  living,  the  cereals,  dairy  products, 
vegetables,  house  rents,  and  fuel  have  increased 
certainly  ten  or  fifteen  per  cent  in  twelve 
months.  In  this  city,  for  instance,  milk  is  re- 
tailing at  forty  per  cent  increase  over  the  year 
before,  and  wood  for  fuel  has  increased  nearly 
fifty  per  cent. 

Dollar  Buys  Much  Less  in  Hampshire. 


Concord. — According  to  figures  of  the  State 
Labor  Commissioner,  the  only  general  advance  in 
wages  in  the  state  during  the  year  has  been  in 
the  cotton  and  woolen  mills,  where  the  operatives 
have  been  granted  an  increase  of  ten  per  cent. 
In  other  industrial  lines  wages  remain  about  the 
same.  Laborers  employed  in  mill  and  at  other 
work  have  benefited  by  a  shortage  of  supply,  and 
have  thus  been  able  to  command  an  increase 
from  the  $1  per  day  to  $1.75,  and  in  some  cases 
$2. 

Estimates  furnished  by  large  retail  houses 
show  that  the  cost  of  living  has  gone  beyond  any- 
thing that  has  come  to  the  worker  in  the  way  of 
better  wages.  In  groceries  alone,  taken  as  a 
whole,  a  dealer  estimates  the  increase  during  the 
year  at  eight  per  cent.  In  beef  and  its  products 
the  margin  of  increase  has  been  small,  but  in 
pork  and  pork  products  there  has  been  a  heavy 
advance. 

Farm  products  are  held  at  a  somewhat  higher 
figure  than  at  the  commencement  of  the  year, 
but  by  reason  of  the  drought  conditions  butter 
and  eggs  are  now  quoted  at  figures  that  put  them 
beyond  the  reach  of  many  families.    To  sum  up, 


There  has  been  an  average  rise  of  twenty  per 
cent  in  the  price  of  food,  clothing,  and  building 
material  in  New  York  during  the  last  year.  Flour 
is  almost  the  only  article  of  food  that  has  de- 
clined. Fresh  and  salt  meats,  dairy  products, 
cotton  and  woolen  goods,  lumber,  furniture,  steel 
— all  have  gone  up  in  price  since  the  first  of  the 
year. 

The  following  table,  compiled  from  data  gath- 
ered by  the  Bradstreet  Company,  shows  the 
wholesale  prices  of  many  leading  articles  as  com- 
pared with  those  of  twelve  months  since.  The 
advance  in  the  wholesale  prices  has  been  less 
than  that  in  retail,  as  a  rule.  The  average  retail 
advance  has  been  twenty-five  per  cent: 

Commodity.  Dec.  1,  '06.  Dec.  1,  '05. 

Flour,  per  barrel $3.40  $3.85 

Beef,  per  pound 09  .08l^ 

Pork,  per  pound 09  •071/2 

Mutton,  per  pound IO14  -091/2 

Milk,  per  quart 041/2  .041 

Eggs,  per  dozen 37  .33 

Bread,  per  loaf 04  .04 

Pickled  beef,  per  barrel 13.50  11.50 

Bacon,  per  pound 09  .08 

Ham,  per  pound I31/2  -101/2 

Lard,  per  pound 09  .07 

Butter,  per  pound 30  .24 

Cheese,  per  pound 14  -13% 

Coffee,  per  pound O814  .O71/2 

Sugar,  per  pound ,047  .046 

Tea,  per  pound 17  .161/2 

Molasses,  per  gallon 30  .30 

Salt,  per  sack 93  1.00 

Potatoes,  per  barrel _. 1.50  2.50 

Apples,  per  barrel 1.50  2.50 

Tanned  leather,  per  lb 38  .38 

Raw  cotton,  per  lb 11  2-10  11  6-10 

Wool,  Australian,  per  lb 86  .85 

Print  clothes,  per  yard 03  9-10  .03  6-10 

Gingham,  per  yard 06%  .05% 

Pig  iron,  per  ton 26.00  18.87 

■Steel  beams,  per  ton 34.00  32.00 

Silver,  per  ounce 69%  .65i/g 

Copper,  per  pound 22%  .17  6-10 

Hard  coal  5.00  5.00 

Brick,  per  1000 5.25  9.00 

Window  glass,  per  box 2.42  1.91 

Pine  lumber,  per  1000  ft 32.00  26.00 

Timber,  per  1000  ft 22.00  20.00 

Alcohol,  per  gallon 2.47  2.51 

Wheat  and  rye  are  the  only  cereals  that  are 
cheaper.  That  was  due  to  the  enormous  crops 
of  those  grains.  Corn,  oats,  and  barley  are  all 
higher  priced.  Live  sheep  are  a  little  cheaper. 
Horses  are  $2.50  apiece  lower.  The  wholesale' and 
retail  prices  of  bread  are  the  same,  although  flour 
has  gone  down. 


204 


THE    PANDEX 


Alcohol  is  lower  but  whisky  is  higher,  due  to 
increased  consumption.  The  report  everywhere 
is  the  same — the  consumption  of  whisky  is  in- 
creasing. Mackerel  are  $7  a  barrel  higher.  Cod- 
fish has  gone  up  $1.50  a  barrel.  Rice  is  un- 
changed. Dried  beans  have  declined  from  $3.25  a 
bushel  to  $2.50.  Dried  peas  have  declined 
slightly.  Potatoes  are  considerably  lower.  Cran- 
berries are  lower;  peanuts  are  higher;  lemons 
are  the  same  as  a  year  ago.  The  California  earth- 
quake doubled  the  price  of  raisins  and  raised 
dried  currants  fifty  per  cent. 

Shoes,  owing  to  the  increased  cost  of  hides,  are 
now  fifteen  to  twenty  per  cent  higher  than  a  year 
ago. 

Ten  years  ago  cotton  was  worth  7  4-10  cents  a 
pound.  To-day  it  is  worth  II14.  Although  this 
is  a  slight  shading  down  from  the  price  a  year 
ago,  cotton  goods,  except  sheetings,  have  heavily 
advanced,  owing  to  an  alleged  combine  among 
the  big  mills.  The  same  is  true  of  woolen  goods. 
Wool  was  worth  less  than  5  cents  a  pound  in 
1906;  now  it  is  worth  8  6-10  cents.  Though  this 
is  a  rise  of  only  a  tenth  of  a  cent  a  pound  in  the 
last  year,  the  retail  cost  of  woolen  garments  has 
risen  on  an  average  fifteen  per  cent  within  eight- 
een months.  According  to  the  retailers,  the 
manufacturers  have  not  only  put  up  the  price 
all  they  thought  the  market  could  stand,  but  have 
skimped  on  the  size  of  the  garments.  Cotton  be- 
ing now  higher  than  wool,  there  is  less  than  the 
usual  amount  of  adulterating  woolen  goods  with 
cotton. 

The  advance  in  the  price  of  building  materials, 
coupled  with  the  general  advance  in  wages  in  New 
York  City,  has  nearly  doubled  the  cost  of  build- 
ing operations  in  the  last  five  years.  Many  skilled 
laborers  can  now  make  $40  to  $60  a  week  nearly 
the  whole  year  round.  This  applies  to  masons 
and  structural  steel  workers  especially.  Last  win- 
ter was  so  open  that  scarcely  a  day  was  lost  to 
the  contractors  and  their  men. 

The  beef  trust  has  boosted  up  cottonseed  oil 
per  gallon  from  27  to  44  cents.  All  naval  stores 
have  gone  up,  including  rosin,  turpentine,  and 
tar.  Chemicals  and  drugs  are  about  the  same 
price  now  as  a  year  ago.  Hops  are  cheaper,  rub- 
ber is  higher.  Tobacco  is  unchanged.  Paper  has 
gone  up.    So  has  hay. 

Thirty-six  Items  Cost  Twenty- four  Per  Cent  More. 


Philadelphia. — Commercial  reports  and  census 
figures  now  at  hand  show  a  general  increase  in 
the  state  in  the  cost  of  food-stuffs  amounting  to 
more  than  twenty-four  per  cent  upon  thirty-six 
items  of  food  rated  necessities.  In  Philadelphia 
there  has  been  marked  increases  in  house  rents, 
and  a  proposition  to  increase  the  tax  rate  from 
$1.50  per  $100  to  $1.65  per  $100  promising  still 
higher  rents. 


Not  Unlikely. 

Charley  Vaudeville  (at  the  classical  concert)  — 
This  music  by  the  old  composers  may  be  all 
right,  in  some  respects,  but  it  strikes  me  as  be- 
ing too  reminiscent. 

"What!" 

"Well,  I  seem  to  have  heard  snatches  of  it 
before,   somewhere. ' ' — Puck. 


The  Wasp  Waist  Again. 

Women,  it  is  reported,  are  returning  to  small 
waists.  There  are  one  or  two  of  our  acquaint- 
ances who  are  going  to  have  trouble  in  getting 
back. — Puck. 


Good  Old  Days. 

"I  can't  help  longing  for  the  good  old  days," 
said  the  engineer. 

"The  good  old  days?"  repeated  the  eminent 
oflBeial. 

"Yes;  the  time  when  the  work  of  building 
the  Panama  Canal  seemed  half  completed  when 
you  had  drawn  a  line  with  a  blue  pencil  across 
the  map  of  the  isthmus." — -Washington  Star. 


The  Anatomy  of  Jocosity. 

"I  say,  D'Orsay,  have  you  ever  heard  that 
joke  about  the  guide  in  Rome  who  showed  some 
travelers  two  skulls  of  St.  Paul,  one  as  a  boy 
and  the  other  as  a  man?" 

"Aw,  deah  boy — no — aw,  let  me  heah  it." — 
Boston  Transcript. 


When  We  Are  Civilized. 

Public  servants  will  devote  more  time  to  duty 
and  less  to  politics. 

Big  criminals  will  be  pursued  as  relentlessly  as 
little  criminals. 

There  will  be  truth  in  trade. 

There  will  be  more  art  and  less  commercialism. 

There  will  be  fewer  moral  cowards. 

There  will  be  greater  effort  to  obey  and  less 
effort  to  evade  laws. 

Wealth  will  be  less  arrogant. 

There  will  be  no  favored  classes. 

Pain  will  make  fewer  tyrants. 

Men  will  be  as  anxious  to  pay  debts  as  to  col- 
lect them. 

Advantage  will  not  be  taken  of  ignorance. 

Man  will  not  fear  the  truth. 

Hypocrisy  will  be  a  lost  art. 

Manhood  will  take  precedence  over  position. 

Men  will  not  submit  to  wrongs  to  avoid  effort 
and  trouble. 

There  will  be  as  much  patriotism  in  time  of 
peace  as  in  time  of  war. — H.  C.  F.,  in  Life. 


THE    PANDEX 


205 


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FIFTY-  SEVEN 
days  on  the  At- 
lantic, fifteen  days 
without  eating  at  a 
table,  three  days  sub- 
sisting on  hardtack  and 
canned  goods  because 
fires  could  not  be 
started  in  the  galleys; 
those  were  some  of  the 
trials  of  the  men  who 
took  the  United  States 

floating  drydock  Dewey  from  Newport  to 
Manila.  In  addition  to  these  physical  discom- 
forts, the  sailors  faced  death  with  their  ships 
on  more  than  one  occasion,  and  with  the  excep- 
tion of  two  weeks,  the  first  part  of  the  journey 
around  the  world,  the  trip  from  the  Chesapeake 
Bay  to  the  Canary  Islands  was  spent  in  a  con- 
stant struggle  with  some  of  the  worst  storms 
that  ever  ravaged  the  Atlantic. 

One  Cleveland  man  was  aboard  the  convoy, 
and  he  has  just  returned  from  Manila  after  a 
trip  that  lasted  ten  months.  J.  C.  Tressel  of  No. 
3080  East  Sixty-fifth  Street  enlisted  in  the  navy 
two  years  ago  as  a  third-class  electrician.  When 
the  Government  decided  to  send  the  Dewey  to 
Manila  and  undertake  a  feat  the  world  said  was 
impossible,  Tressel  was  serving  on  the  auxiliary 
ship  Glacier  as  a  first-class  electrician.  The 
Glacier  was  detailed  as  supply  ship  to  the  Dewey 
and  the  tugs  Potomac  and  Caesar,  and  accom- 
panied the  dock  and  the  tugs  to  the  Orient. 
Seven  months  were  consumed  in  the  trip  to 
Manila,  and  the  Glacier  cruised  home  by  way  of 
the  Suez  Canal,  stopping  at  all  the  important 
ports  en  route. 

The   newspapers   told   how   panicky  the   Gov- 


gJ^' 


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<m 


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-if 


^& 


,^^' r^.^^^>  ^^    ^'t -Cleveland 


■  '^i  T, 


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ifSv^^ 


'"'H.J: 


Plain  • 
Dealer. 


ernment  grew  when  the  dock  had  been  seven 
weeks  on  the  Atlantic  without  being  sighted  by 
passing  craft,  and  what  a  sigh  of  relief  went 
through  the  Navy  Department  when  at  last  a 
message  came  that  the  convoy  had  reached  Las 
Palmas  harbor  in  the  Canaries.  The  relief  was 
but  slight,  however,  when  compared  with  that 
experienced  by  the  oflBcers  and  men  on  board  the 
supply  ship  and  tugs.  The  forty  days  of  storm 
had  worn  them  out.  From  midnight  to  the  next 
midnight,  day  after  day,  it  was  a  constant  strug- 
gle against  winds  and  waves,  contrary  currents 
and  accidents  the  elements  caused. 

Fight  With  the  Elements. 

"For  hours  at  a  time,  in  the  worst  weather 
our  ship  careened  forty-five  degrees.  For  two 
weeks  it  was  impossible  to  eat  at  a  table  because 
no  matter  what  the  precaution,  nothing  would  re- 
main where  it  was  put,"  said  Tressel  a  few  days 
ago.  "Two  of  the  fourteen  days  the  seas  ran  so 
high  that  it  was  impossible  to  put  a  fire  in  the 
galley  stoves,  and  to  cook  food  was  impossible. 
Men  and  oflScers  ate  when  they  could  from  boxes 
of  hardtack  and  tins  of  prepared  food.  To  walk 
the  deck  meant  death  if  no  guiding  ropes  were 


206 


THE     PANDEX 


at  hand,  and  even"  then  it  was  sometimes  neces- 
sary to  crawl  on  hands  and  knees. 

"In  the  midst  of  the  worst  weather,  the  fifteen- 
inch  cable  attached  to  the  dock  broke  one  night 
at  midnight.  The  dock  could  not  be  located  by 
the  searchlights,  and  the  convoy  steamed  around 
for  hours  looking  for  the  tow.  It  was  daylight 
when  we  again  picked  up  the  dock,  and  then  it 
was  found  thirty  miles  away.  Its  immense  bulk 
had  taken  the  place  of  sails  and  the  wind  carried 
it  rapidly. 

"During  the  trip  across  the  Atlantic,  our 
fifteen-inch  cables  broke  five  times.  It  was  neces- 
sary to  stop  the  ship  and  pull  in  the  ends  for 
splicing,  and  in  a  rough  sea  the  task  was  not  a 
little  one.  The  dock  was  more  than  the  tugs 
could  manage,  and  on  occasions  it  threatened  to 
destroy  us.  In  one  collision  the  Glacier  was  so 
severely  wrenched  that  a  two-days'  delay  re- 
sulted. 

Blown  to  the  Equator. 

"When  we  reached  Las  Palmas,  after  having 
been  blown  several  hundred  miles  off  our  course 


and  running  as  far  south  as  the  equator,  we  tied 
up  for  supplies  and  a  fresh  breath  before  put- 
ting off  for  the  Mediterranean.  The  Mediter- 
ranean is  usually  quiet  enough,  but  we  struck 
one  of  the  worst  storms  there  we  had  experienced. 
We  got  to  the  Suez  and  took  two  days  to  run 
through.  At  Port  Said  our  captain  was  warned 
not  to  attempt  to  run  through  the  Indian  Ocean, 
as  typhoons  and  hurricanes  had  been  frequent. 
We  had  already  lost  so  much  time  that  the  of- 
ficers thought  we  could  not  wait,  so  we  entered 
the  Red  Sea.  There  the  water  was  as  quiet  as  a 
mill  pond,  and  we  only  had  one  stirring  experi- 
ence in  the  Indian  Ocean.  The  sea  was  smooth 
and  we  were  making  good  time,  but  one  after- 
noon the  lookout  discovered  three  water  spouts 
running  toward  us.  The  call  was  sounded  and 
the  guns  manned,  the  intention  being  to  shoot 
the  spouts  and  break  them  up  before  they  reached 
us.  About  half  a  mile  away  they  were  exhausted, 
and  the  only  difficulty  we  had  with  them  was  a 
solid  sheet  of  water  that  fell  about  two  inches 
deep  over  everything." 
— By  Rae  D.  Henkle  in  Cleveland  Plain  Dealer. 


THE  GOLDEN  BAIT  OF  NEVADA. 


EXTRAORDINARY  THIEVING  BY   THE   MINERS  OF  TONOPAH 

AND  GOLDFIELD  AND  THE  RELUCTANCE  OF  THE 

OPERATORS,  BEFORE  THE  LATE  STRIKE, 

TO  ATTEMPT  TO  CHECK  IT. 


Goldfield,  Nevada,  December  18. — If  anyone 
wants  to  get  a  single  impression  of  the  real  value 
of  the  golden  bait  that  has  lured  fifteen  thou- 
sand men  to  a  bleak,  barren,  windswept,  frozen 
desert  where  three  years  and  a  half  ago  there 
was  nothing  but  sagebrush  and  coyotes,  let  him 
consider  the  fact  that  at  the  present  moment  the 
day-wage  mine  workers  employed  in  the  various 
Goldfield  mines  are  getting  away  with  precious 
ore  at  the  estimated  rate  of  about  $150,000  a 
month. 

In  plain  words  they  are  stealing  that  amount 
from  their  employers,  and  so  rich  is  the  property 
on  which  they  are  working  that  their  thefts  are 
blandly  winked  at  by  the  men  they  daily  rob. 
To  come  down  to  figures  again,  the  theft  of  gold- 
bearing  ore  at  the  rate  of  $2,800,000  a  year  is 
regarded  as  mere  peculation,  so  vastly  greater 
is  the  ore  that  remains. 


This  daily  stealing  on  the  part  of  the  miners 
is  called  high  grading,  for  the  reason  that  all  the 
ore  stolen  is  selected  in  small  lumps  from  the 
richest  ore  in  the  mines.  It  is  a  comparatively 
simple  matter  for  a  miner  who  is  working  in  a 
rich  vein  of  ore  to  sneak  two  or  three  lumps  into 
his  pocket  when  the  foreman  isn't  looking,  and 
when  the  ore  runs  its  best  it  takes  only  two  or 
three  little  lumps  to  make  a  total  of  from  $15  to 
$20  in  value. 

So  general  is  the  practice  of  high  grading 
among  the  mine  workers  that  the  mere  day's 
wage  of  $5  or  $5.50  is  scarcely  an  object.  Many 
of  the  mine  superintendents  have  difficulty  in 
getting  the  men  to  come  around  to  sign  the  pay 
roll  and  get  the  money  at  the  end  of  the  week. 
What  are  wages  with  high  grading  so  profitable  ? 

Little  secret  is  made  of  this  practice.  The 
owners   and  superintendents  all  know  about  it. 


THE     PANDEX 


207 


Some  of  them  even  joke  the  miners  about  it  and 
tlie  workers  laugh  about  it  and  discuss  it  among 
themselves  quite  openly,  regardless  of  who  is 
about  to  hear  them. 

It's  "Well,  Jack,  what  did  you  do  to-day, 
hey?"  and  "Oh,  just  fair,  just  fair;  two  or 
three  nice  ones  to-day.  How  did  they  run  fer 
you?" 

This  thieving  could  be  stopped  and  would  be 
stoDDed  if  it  were  not  for  the  strength  of  the 
miners'  union.  It  could  be  stopped  by  having  a 
dressing  room  and  compelling  the  mine  workers 
to  change  their  clothes  there  on  emerging  from 
the  mines  at  the  end  of  their  day's  work. 

But  any  attempt  to  put  such  a  rule  in  force 
would  undoubtedly  precipitate  a  strike  that 
would  tie  up  every  mine  in  Goldfleld.  This,  the 
mine  owners  think,  would  cost  them  so  much 
more  than  the  miners  steal  that  in  the  end  they 
would  be  the  losers.  So  they  shut  their  eyes 
and  the  daily  robbery  goes  merrily  on. 

Of  course  it  is  only  in  the  richest  mines  that 
high  grading  can  be  made  to  pay  and  in  these 
mines  the  foremen  are  overrun  with  applicants 
for  work,  while  some  of  the  others  can  scarcely 
get  men  enough  to  keep  things  moving.  Most  of 
the  mines  are  now  being  operated  by  lessees. 

In  the  case  of  the  Mohawk,  for  example,  the 
lease  runs  out  January  1.  Here  time  is  money, 
as  it  seldom  is  on-  this  earth  and  with  the  ore 
coming  out  at  the  rate  of  perhaps  $1,600,000  a 
month,  the  lessees  are  not  going  to  chance  stop- 
ping the  work  for  a  paltry  loss  of  say  $25,000 
a  week.  There  is  some  talk  that  when  the  leases 
expire  and  the  real  owners  of  the  mines  take 
control  there  will  be  some  organized  effort  to 
stop  the  high  grading,  but  that  it  can  be  done 
without  a  fight  with  the  union  is  very  generally 
doubted. 

Goldfleld  is  probably  the  most  optimistic 
mining  camp  that  ever  existed.  Everybody  is 
booming  Goldfleld.  Everybody  is  excited  and 
hopeful. 

There  are  so  many  new-made  rich  in  town 
that  everybody  else  expects  his  turn  will  come. 
Of  course,  it  won't  come  for  all  of  them,  but  it 
is  safe  to  say  that  the  majority  of  the  15,000 
who  have  rushed  to  Goldfleld  and  kept  their  eyes 
open,  worked  hard  and  used  horse  sense  have 
made  money. 

A  good  many  have  made  money  out  of  Gold- 
fleld who  never  saw  the  town  and  never  will  see 
it.  But  a  good  many  more  in  this  class  will  lose 
money  through  lending  a  credulous  ear  to  the 
sweet  songs  of  promoters  and  fakers  who  trade 
upon  the  genuine  success  of  the  really  valuable 
properties  to  boom  enterprises  whose  sole  assets 
are  a  name,  a  few  acres  of  sterile  rock  and  end- 
less adjectives  displayed  in  big  type. 

That  Goldfleld  contains  some  of  the  most  valu- 
able mining  properties  the  world  has  ever  seen 
can  not  be  doubted,  and  is  so  declared  by  scores 
of  mining  experts  who  have  made  impartial  in- 
vestigation, and  most  of  them  say  that  the  ground 
has  only  been  scratched  as  yet.  The  result  of 
this  sincere  and  well-informed  opinion  is  visible 
in  the  fact  that  from  October  7  to  November  7 


the  stock  market  values  of  the  shares  of  thirteen 
Goldfleld  companies  increased  over  $30,000,000. 
Naturally  somebody  made  a  heap  of  money  out 
of  this  phenomenal  jump. 

In  one  of  the  little  banks  of  Goldfleld  are 
stacked  tiers  of  bags  of  ore.  They  look  for  all 
the  world  like  bags  of  oats. 

Late  every  night,  when  most  places  are  fast 
asleep,  but  when  Goldfleld 's  tenderloin  is  just 
beginning  to  get  lively,  a  two-horse  team  comes 
in  from  the  mines  with  a  new  load  guarded  by 
three  men  who  know  how  to  shoot  and  shoot 
straight.    Thus  the  heap  grows,  tier  by  tier. 

Of  course  it  isn't  oats  at  all,  but  some  of  the 
richest  gold  ore  the  world  has  ever  known.  It  is 
the  selected  high  grade  of  the  richest  of  the  Gold- 
field  mines,  set  aside  especially  for  shipment  in 
one  carload.  The  owners  of  the  mine  say  that 
bv  Januarv  1  there  will  be  a  carload  of  it  and 
that  it  will  be  worth  $1,000,000.  So  far  as  is 
known  it  will  be  by  far  the  most  valuable  car- 
load of  gold-bearing  ore  ever  shipped  to  the 
smelters. 

In  the  first  two  weeks  of  October  seven  leases 
on  one  mine  produced  gold  ore  estimated  to  be 
worth  $670,000.  In  the  single  week  ending  Oc- 
tober 20,  Goldfield  mines  shipped  ore  worth 
$423,000. 

Some  of  the  richest  ore  has  been  assayed  to 
run  at  the  stupendous  rate  of  $300,000  a  ton. 
Of  course  there  is  very  little  of  this  or  gold  would 
soon  be  as  cheap  as  tin.  One  of  the  Goldfleld 
banking  houses  displays  in  its  window  a  lump  of 
ore  which,  if  broken  up,  would  scarcely  fill  a 
peck  measure.  Yet  the  assayers  appraise  it  at 
$4300. 

The  Sun  correspondent  was  allowed  to  inspect 
the  workings  of  the  Mohawk  mine,  whose  shares 
were  vainly  hawked  about  a  few  months  ago 
at  25  cents  and  are  now  selling  at  anywhere  from 
$16  to  $18.  The  Mohawk  is  out  on  the  bare  side- 
hill  of  Columbia  Mountain,  like  all  the  others 
in  this  district. 

You  put  on  an  old  jacket  and  a  cap,  take  a 
candle  and  get  into  the  huge  bucket  that  swings 
at  the  top  of  the  shaft.  Somebody  pulls  a  rope 
and  down  you  go,  slowly  and  circumspectly.  It's 
not  exciting.  A  ride  in  a  Syndicate  Building 
elevator  beats  it  to  death  for  sensation. 

At  the  bottom  of  the  shaft  you  find  yourself 
at  the  beginning  of  a  crooked  tunnel  just  high 
enough  to  walk  in.  You  light  your  candle  and 
follow  your  guide. 

The  ore  along  here,  he  tells  you  contemptuous- 
ly, is  low  grade — only  about  $20  a  ton.  ■  You 
contemplate  the  soft  gray  rock  on  either  side  of 
you  and  you  believe  him.  If  you  found  it  in  a 
New  England  pasture  you  wouldn't  give  ten 
cents  a  mountain  for  it. 

Presently  you  hear  the  sound  of  picks  and 
shovels  and  you  come  upon  a  little  group  of  men 
digging  in  the  side  wall.  Here,  says  your  guide, 
the  ore  gets  pretty  fair — say  $100  a  ton.  You 
look  at  it  as  closely  as  you  can  and  you  can't 
see  any  difference  in  it. 

You  go  along  a  little  further  and  you  find 
two  or  three  men  boring  into  the  rock  with  dia- 


208 


THE    PANDEX 


mond  drills  run  by  compressed  air.  Here,  you 
are  told,  is  ore  mounting  to  $1000  a  ton.  Your 
guide  calls  your  attention  to  it  and  picks  at  it 
with  a  chisel. 

You  stare  at  it  dutifully  and  here  and  there 
you  see  a  shiny  dot  which,  you  hear,  is  almost 
free  gold.  But  it  isn't  free  to  you,  and  for  all 
you  can  tell  it  might  be  mica  or  tin.  Your  heart 
doesn't  beat  a  single  stroke  faster. 

Dodging  a  man  pushing  a  handcar  full  of 
steam  yachts  and  Fifth  Avenue  houses  over  a 
narrow  trolley  road,  you  turn  another  corner  and 
slide  down  a  dimly  lighted  gorge  between  stacks 
of  heavy  timber  cribs  built  up  to  retain  the  roof. 
Presently  you  emerge  into  another  level  tunnel. 

Your  guide  lifts  his  candle  and  traces  a  nar- 
row, triangular  vein  that  somebody  has  gauged 
out  for  twenty-five  or  thirty  feet.  You  are  told 
what  the  stuff  is  worth  that  filled  that  vein.  It 
is  a  stupendous  sum. 

You  wonder  why  it  doesn't  excite  you.  But 
it  doesn't.  All  you  see  is  a  gouge  in  a  dirty 
gray  rock. 

On  you  go,  slipping  and  stumbling,  your  con- 
ductor talking  the  while  of  stopes  and  winzes 
and  tellurides  and  things  till  you  come  to  a  fore- 
man who  says  that  they're  going  to  shoot  pretty 
soon. 

You  ask  what  that  is  and  you  find  out  it's 
blasting.  Then  you  remember  about  a  man  on 
whom  the  roof  fell  last  week  when  they  fired  a 
blast  in  that  very  mine.  You  discover  that  you 
are  very  tired.  Moreover,  you  have  to  see  a  man 
at  some  place  in  Goldfield  within  the  next  half 
hour. 

As  you  reach  the  foot  of  the  shaft  once  more 
and  gaze  anxiously  up  the  280-foot  hole  to  see 
if  the  bucket  isn't  coming  down,  you  hear  half 
a  dozen  muffled  booms  that  shake  the  ground 
under  your  feet  and  the  walls  and  the  roof  above 
your  head,  and  you  try  to  guess  how  many  thou- 
sand dollars  each  blast  meant. 

Once  on  the  surface  again,  you  find  that  your 
low  shoes  are  full  of  tiny  fragments  of  rock. 
You  start  to  take  them  off  and  empty  them. 
But  you  don't  do  it.  You  reflect  that  they  are 
full  of  money  and  you  craftily  resolve  to  wait 
till  you  get  home. 

Just  outside  the  shaft  is  a  big  heap  of  broken 
stone. 

' '  How  much  gold  is  there  in  that  pile  of  ore  1 ' ' 
you  ask. 

"About  $250,000  worth,"  says  your  guide. 
"We  haven't  been  able  to  get  cars  enough  to 
haul  it  away." 

' '  Ah ! ' '  you  say  politely.  "  That 's  a  nuisance. ' ' 

But  it  doesn't  excite  you  a  bit.  If  you  saw  a 
trainload  of  it  on  the  railroad  somewhere  you'd 
probably  wonder  where  the  macadam  road  was 
going  to  be  built. 

Yet  that 'S  the  sort  of  stuff,  taken  from  that 
black,  damp,  smelly  hole  you've  just  left  and 
,  that  you're  so  mighty  glad  to  be  out  of,  that  has 
already  ftiade  at  least  four  millionaires.  Prob- 
ably th*  most  remarkable  of  them  is  George 
Wingflilld,  and  inasmuch  as  America  is  in  all 
probability  going  to   hear  a  good  deal   of  this 


young  man  and  his  wealth,  it  may  be  as  well  to 
tell  what  manner  of  person  he  is. 

George  Wingfleld  is  to-day  the  most  powerful 
and  notable  figure  at  Goldfield.  His  present 
wealth  is  variously  estimated  at  from  $12,000,- 
000  to  $15,000,000,  with  infinite  possibilities  of 
increase. 

He  has  made  nearly  all  of  it  in  the  last  eight 
months.  Less  than  a  year  ago  he  was  vainly 
trying  to  sell  a  big  block  of  Mohawk  shares  at 
15  cents.  They  are  worth  nearly  200  times  that 
to-day. 

One  day  about  eight  years  ago  a  young  man 
walked  into  the  little  bank  that  George  S.  Nixon, 
now  United  States  Senator  from  Nevada,  was 
running  in  the  town  of  Winnemueca,  Nev.  Tak- 
ing from  his  finger  a  diamond  ring,  he  threw  it  on 
the  counter,  and  remarking  to  the  teller: 

"Say,  pardner,  I'm  broke  and  I'd  like  to  get 
$75  on  that  ring." 

"You've  got  into  the  wrong  shop,"  replied 
the  teller.  "This  isn't  a  pawnshop.  We  don't 
do  that  kind  of  business." 

It  happened  that  Mr.  Nixon  himself  was  be- 
hind the  counter.  Something  in  the  young  man 's 
manner  took  his  fancy. 

Turning  to  the  teller,  he  instructed  him  to  give 
the  penniless  one  the  $75  he  asked  and  charge 
it  to  his  account.  Moreover,  he  declined  to  take 
the  ring. 

"How  do  you  know  I'll  ever  pay  you?"  said 
Wingfield,  for  it  was  he. 

Senator  Nixon  smiled. 

"Oh,  I  guess  I'll  take  the  chance,"  he  said. 

They  say  in  Goldfield  that  George  Wingfield 
never  forgets  a  friend  or  forgives  an  injury. 
Certain  it  is  that  his  liking  for  Nixon  began  at 
that  time  and  when  he  made  his  big  strike  in 
the  Mohawk  the  Senator  was  the  first  man  he 
let  in  on  it. 

To-day  the  firm  of  Nixon  &  Wingfield  con- 
trols not  only  the  Mohawk,  but  also  the  $50,000,- 
■000  merger  of  that  and  four  other  Goldfield 
mines.  They  are  in  addition  the  most  powerful 
factors  in  all  the  Nevada  mining  fields. 

Wingfield  is  only  29.  The  son  of  a  Nevada 
cattle  man,  he  has  in  his  few  years  seen  a  good 
deal  of  the  seamy  side  of  life.  He  has  herded 
sheep,  ridden  cattle  ranges,  prospected  and 
tended  bar.  Practically  all  of  his  life  has  been 
spent  in  the  wilds  of  the  West,  in  cattle  towns 
and  mining  camps. 

When  things  began  to  boom  in  Tonopah  a  few 
years  ago  Wingfield  drifted  in  and  got  a  job 
as  faro  dealer.  He  had  acquired  a  little  cash 
and  soon  bought  an  interest  in  the  place. 

The  game  prospered  and  he  put  in  a  roulette 
wheel.  Other  gambling  devices  followed,  and  it 
wasn't  long  before  Wingfield  was  $100,000  ahead 
of  the  game. 

Then  he  went  in  prospecting,  and  after  Harry 
Stimler,  the  Indian,  had  located  the  now  famous 
Sandstorm  claim,  first  of  the  Goldfield  strikes,  it 
wasn't  long  before  Wingfield  located  the  Mo- 
hawk. 

Not  for  three  years  later  did  he  know  whether 
he  had  a  mine  or  a  heap  of  worthless  rock.    But, 


THE    PANDEX 


209 


though  he  no  longer  deals  the  faro  game  at 
Tonopah,  he  still  owns  an  interest  in  the  place. 

Of  medium  height  and  build,  this  young  min- 
ing king  is  a  singular  mixture  of  attraction  and 
repulsion.  Anybody's  first  guess  would  be  that 
he  was  shrewd,  and  he  has  the  quiet  deadly  readi- 
ness, the  cold,  half  furtive,  almost  fishy,  eye  of 
the  professional  gambler.  He  looks  like  a  bad 
man  to  pick  up  carelessly.  And  so  he  is.  Gold- 
field  has  had  evidence  of  both  his  shrewdness 
and  his  courage. 

Last  September  there  was  a  labor  fight  on 
against  the  Goldfield  Sun.  People  who  entered 
its  office  were  photographed  and  their  pictures 
posted  outside  the  miners'  union  hall.  In  fact, 
the  most  active  kind  of  boycott  was  declared. 

One  night  a  crowd  of  miners  were  annoying  two 
newsboys  who  were  selling  the  boycotted  paper. 
Hearing  the  uproar,  Wingfield  stepped  out  of  his 
office.  Seizing  one  of  the  fleeing  boys,  he  took  a 
paper  from  him  and  gave  him  a  quarter.  The 
crowd  advanced  threateningly  and  at  its  head 
was  a  huge  fellow  who  made  a  rush  at  the  mining 
man. 

Like  a  flash  Wingfield  whipped  a  gun  from  his 
pocket,  smashed  the  big  man  full  in  the  face  with 
its  butt,  and,  so  quickly  that  nobody  could  see 
how  it  was  done,  and  had  him  covered  with  a  sec- 
ond gun  produced  with  miraculous  speed  from  no- 
body knew  where. 

In  three  seconds  there  was  nobody  in  the  street 
but  Wingfield.  Since  then  no  one  in  Goldfield 
questions  what  he  does. 

Yet  there  is  nothing  of  the  braggart  or  the 
bully  about  him.  Only  once  in  a  great  while 
does  he  seem  to  remember  the  wild  days  of 
the  past. 

Then  for  twenty-four  hours  or  so  Goldfield 
makes  bibulous  holiday  at  his  expense,  and  if 
there's  a  constant  rain  of  twenty-dollar  gold 
pieces  about  his  head,  why — so  much  the  better 
for  those  who  scramble  for  them;  and  if  300 
men  in  Tex  Rickard's  northern  saloon  are  all 
drinking  champagne  together  at  his  expense, 
who's  to  find  any  fault?  Certainly  nobody  in 
Goldfield. 

But  the  next  day  it's  all  over.  Unassuming, 
reserved,  almost  diffident — the  newest,  and  prob- 
ably before  long  one  of  the  biggest  of  American 
millionaires,  goes  quietly  about  his  work  as  if 
the  world  had  no  such  things  as  roulette  wheels 
or  bubble  water  or  .44  "  sawed-offs. " 


HOW  HARRIMAN  DEFEATED  HILL. 


Chicago,  Dec.  18. — The  Chronicle  to-day 
says :  Edward  H.  Harriman  has  repaid  James 
J.  Hill  in  his  own  coin  by  wresting  victory 
from  him  in  the  shadow  of  defeat  through 
one  of  the  most  effective  coups  ever  executed 
in  financial  battles.  The  control  of  the 
Chicago,  Milwaukee  &  St.  Paul  Railroad, 
which  Morgan  and  Hill  confidently  believed 


to  be  theirs,  yesterday  morning,  is  still 
lodged  with  the  Harriman-Standard  Oil  in- 
terests and  will  be  strengthened. 

As  Hill  threw  Harriman  out  of  ownership  of 
Northern  Pacific  in  the  Christmas  season  of  1901, 
so  Harriman  ousts  Hill  from  an  ownership  in  St. 
Paul  this  year.  Hill  executed  his  flank  move- 
ment by  retiring  the  preferred  stock  of  Northern 
Pacific,  in  which  his  opponent's  control  cen- 
tered; Harriman  and  his  friends  maintain  St. 
Paul  by  issuing  two-thirds  of  a  $100,000,000 
stock  increase  to  the  holders  of  the  preferred. 
Hill's  Control  Only  Ashes. 

While  Hill's  control  of  Northern  Pacific  com- 
mon was  a  golden  apple,  his  control  of  St.  Paul 
is  but  ashes.  For  a  month  there  has  been  a 
Titantie  struggle  for  the  ownership  of  St.  Paul 
in  the  open  market.  Quietly  and  almost  unsus- 
pected, the  Morgan-Hill  people  have  been  buying 
St.  Paul  in  the  hope  of  getting  control  and  turn- 
ing the  Pacific  Coast  extension  southward  into 
the  Harriman  territory.  In  the  last  week  this 
battle  for  stock  has  been  acute  and  a  disturbing 
feature  to  Wall  Street  and  the  money  market. 

Much  of  the  old  bitterness  had  been  aroused. 
The  attack  of  Jacob  H.  Sehiff  upon  banks  charg- 
ing excessive  money  rates  for  stock  loans  was 
directed  against  Morgan  institutions.  For  several 
days  the  Morgan  banks  were  calling  loans  as  the 
money  was  needed  to  buy  St.  Paul  stock,  the 
high  rates  and  the  calling  of  loans  forcing  out 
large  blocks  of  this  security,  keeping  down  the 
price,  and,  to  some  extent,  deceiving  the  trained 
speculators  as  to  the  real  purpose. 

Yesterday  the  crucial  point  was  reached. 
The  Morgan-Hill  interests  .  were  within  safe 
grounds;  they  could  count  on  enough  stock  to 
swing  the  management  of  the  road,  and  they 
reached  for  a  god  margin  over  actual  control. 
To  their  surprise  stocks  came